Department of Geography and Programme in Planning
Environmental Consequences of Land Use Change
Tuesday 1 to 3, PGB rm. 107
Instructor: Tenley Conway
Office: 5057 Sid Smith (on Tuesdays); UTM, Dept. of Geography,
E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org (best communication method)
Office Hours: Tuesdays 3 to 4 or by appointment
This reading seminar focuses on land use/ land cover within a global environmental change framework. Changing land use/land cover, alongside climate change, has emerged as a key component of environmental change research, with researchers from both the social and physical sciences contributing to the growing body of literature. The course begins by exploring the processes and consequences of land use changes. This is followed by an examination of the approaches to studying historical, current, and future land use/ land cover. The course ends with a detailed examination of North American suburban development. Throughout the course issues associated with bridging the gaps between the social and natural sciences, connections between global and local processes, and the role of individual decision-makers will be considered.
Weekly required readings should be completed prior to the class.
Students are also required to write a paper proposal (2 to 3 pages) and a final paper (20 to 25 pages), exploring a theoretical and/or empirical aspect of land use/ land cover change. The final requirement is to give a presentation on your paper at the end of the course. One option for the paper is to complete a case study of land use change and the associated environmental impacts for a particular location (town, region, watershed).
The final grade will be based on the following factors:
Class participation (attendance, class discussion) 15%
Paper proposal (due October 14th) 15%
Final paper (due December 5th) 60%
Paper presentation 10%
Schedule of Topics and
Turner, B.L. 1997. The sustainability principle in global agendas: justifications for understanding land use/ cover change. Geographical Journal 163(2): 133-140.
Slaymaker, O. 2001. Why so much concern about climate change and so little attention to land use change? Canadian Geographer 45: 71-79.
Head, L. 2000.
Cultural Landscapes and
Nunes, C. and J.I. Augé (eds.). 1999. Land-Use and Land-Cover Change: Implementation Strategy. International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme Report No. 48 and the International Human Dimensions Programme on Global Environmental Change Report No. 10.
Committee on Global Change
Research. 1999. Global
Environmental Change: Research Pathways for the Next Decade.
Ojima D.S., K.A. Galvin, and B.L. Turner II. 1994. The global impact of land-use change. Bioscience 44 (5): 300-304.
Malanson, G.P. 1999. Considering complexity. Annals of the American Association of American Geographers 89(4): 746-753.
O’Sullivan, D. 2004. Complexity science and human geography. Transactions of the
Briassoulis, H. 2008. Land-use policy and planning, theorizing, and modeling: lost in translation, found in complexity? Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design 35(1): 16 – 33.
Manson, S.M. 2001. Simplifying complexity: a review of complexity theory. Geoforum 32: 405-414.
Merchant, C. 1994. Postmodern science. In C.
Merchant (ed.) Ecology: Key Concepts in
Critical Theory. Humanities Press,
Week 4 Sept. 30th Land Use/Land Cover and Socio-ecological Systems
Machlis, G.E., J.E. Force, and W.R. Burch Jr. 1997. The human ecosystem part I: the human ecosystem as an organizing concept in ecosystem management. Society and Natural Resources 10: 347-367.
Cadenasso, M.L., S.T.A. Pickett, and J.M. Grove. 2006 Dimensions of ecosystem complexity: heterogeneity, connectivity, and history. Ecological Complexity 3(1): 1-12.
Matthews, R. and P. Selman. 2006. Landscape as a focus for integrating human and environmental processes. Journal of Agricultural Economics 57 (2): 199-212.
Botkin, D.B. 1990. Discordant Harmonies: A New Ecology for the
McDonnell, M.J. and S.T.A. Pickett (eds.)
1993. Humans as
Components of Ecosystems: The Ecology of Subtle Human Effects and Populated
Zimmerer, K.S. 1994. Human geography and the “new ecology”: the prospect and promise of integration. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 84(1): 108-125.
Ehrlich, P.R. and J.P. Holdren. 1971. Impact of population growth. Science 171: 1212-1217.
Heilig, G.L. 1994. Neglected dimensions of global land-use change: reflections and data. Population and Development Review 20(4): 831-859.
Proctor, J. D. 1998. The meaning of global environmental change: retheorizing culture in human dimensions research. Global Environmental Change 8(3): 227-248.
Fischer-Kowalski, M. and C.Amann. 2001. Beyond I=PAT and Kuznets curves: globalisation as a vital factor in analysing the environmental impact of socio-economic metabolism. Population and Environment 23(1): 7-47
Meyer, W.B. and B.L. Turner II
(eds.). 1994. Changes
in Land Use and Land Cover: A Global Perspective.
Molotch, H., W. Freudenburg, and K. E. Paulsen. 2000. History repeats itself, but how? city character, urban tradition, and the accomplishment of place. American Sociological Review 65(6): 791-823.
Mattingly, P. H. 2001. Suburban Landscapes:
Culture and Politics in a
Paper proposal due
Houlahan1, J.E. and C.S. Findlay. 2004. Estimating the ‘critical’ distance at which adjacent land-use degrades wetland water and sediment quality. Landscape Ecology 19: 677–690.
Chang, H. 2004. Water
quality impacts of climate and land use changes in southeastern
Olson, J.M., G. Alagarswamy, J.A. Andresen,
D.J. Campbell, A.Y. Davis, J. Ge, M. Huebner, B.M.
Lofgren, D.P. Lusch, N.J. Moore, B.C. Pijanowski, J. Qi, P.K. Thornton,
N.M. Torbick, J. Wang. 2008.
Integrating diverse methods to understand climate–land interactions in
Bonan, G.B. 2000. The microclimates of a suburban Colorado (USA) landscape and implications for planning and design. Landscape and Urban Planning 49: 97-114.
Dale, V.H. (ed.). 1994. Effects of Land-Use Change on Atmospheric CO2
Concentrations: South and
DeFries, R., G. Asner, and
R. Houghton (eds). 2004. Ecosystem and Land Use Change, Geophyscial Monograph Series 153.
A.J., A. Verhagen,
Week 7 Oct. 21st Environmental Consequences: Biotic
Schulze, C.H., M. Waltert, P.J.A. Kessler, P. Pitopang, Shahabuddin, D. Veddeler, M. Muhlenberg, S.R. Gradstein, C. Leuschner, I. SteffanDewenter, and T. Tscharntke. 2004. Biodiversity indicator groups of tropical land-use systems: comparing plants, birds, and insects. Ecological Application 14(5): 1321-1333.
Scharlemann, J. P.W., R.E. Green, A. Balmford. 2004. Land-use trends in endemic bird areas: global expansion of agriculture in areas of high conservation value. Global Change Biology 10(12): 2046-2051.
Maestas, J.D., R.L.Knight, and W.C. Gilbert. 2001. Biodiversity and land-use change in the American Mountain West. Geographical Review 91(3): 509-524.
Walker, B. and W. Steffen. 1997. An overview of the implications of global change for natural and managed terrestrial ecosystems. Conservation Ecology 1(2):2.
Hansen, A.J., R.P. Neilson, V.H. Dale, C.H. Flather, L.R. Iverson, D.J. Currie, S. Shafer, R. Cook, and P.J. Bartlein. 2001. Global change in forests: responses of species, communities, and biomes. Bioscience 51(9): 765-779.
Gaston, K.J., T.M. Blackburn,
and K.K. Goldewijk. 2003. Habitat conversion and global avian
biodiversity loss. Proceedings
of the Royal Society of
Whitney, G.G. 1994. From Coastal
Wilderness to Fruited Plain: A History of Environmental Change in Temperate
Blondel, J. 2006. The ‘design’ of Mediterranean landscapes: a millennial story of humans and ecological systems during the Historic Period. Human Ecology 34(5): 713-729.
Nusser, M. 2001. Understanding cultural landscape
transformation: a re-photographic survey in Chitral,
Cronon, W. 1983. Changes in the Land: Indians, Colonists, and
the Ecology of
Duram L.A., J.
Bathgate, and C. Ray. 2004. A local example of
land-use change: southern
Klepeis, P. and B. L. Turner II. 2001. Integrated land history and global change science: the example of the Southern Yucatán Peninsular Region project. Land Use Policy 18(1): 27-39.
Schneider, L.C. and R. G.
Pontius Jr. 2001. Modeling land-use change in the
Clarke, K.C. and L.J. Gaydos. 1998. Loose-coupling a cellular automaton model and GIS: long-term urban growth prediction for San Franciso and Washington/ Baltimore. International Journal of Geographical Information Science 12(7): 699-714.
Entwisle B., G, Malanson, R.R. Rindfuss, and S.J. Walsh. 2008. An agent-based model of household dynamics and land use change. Journal of Land Use Science 3(1): 73-93.
Bockstael, N.E. 1996. Modeling economic and ecology: the importance of a spatial perspective. American Journal of Agricultural Economics 78: 1168-1180.
Brown, D.G. et al. 2008. Exurbia from the bottom-up: Confronting empirical challenges to characterizing a complex system. Geoforum 39 (2): 805-818.
Wang, Y. and X. Zhang. 2001. A dynamic modeling approach to simulating socioeconomic effects on landscape changes. Ecological Modelling 140: 141-162.
Ehrenfeld, D. 2002. Swimming Lessons. Pp. 152- 157.
Heynen, N., H.A. Perkins, and P. Roy. 2006. The
political ecology of uneven green space: the impact of political economy on
race and ethnicity in producing environmental inequality in
Pickett, S.T.A. et al. 2008. Beyond urban legends: An emerging
framework of urban ecology, as illustrated by the
Robbins, P., A. Polderman, and T,Birkenholtz. 2001. Lawns and toxins: an ecology of the city. Cities 18(6): 369-380.
Grove, J.M., Cadenasso, M.L., Burch, W.R.,
Pickett, S.T.A., Schwarz, K., O’Neil-Dunne, J.,
Marzluff, J.M. (ed). 2008. Urban
Ecology: An international perspective on the interaction between humans and
Alberti, M. 2008. Advances
in Urban Ecology: Integrating humans and ecological processes in urban
Week 11 Nov 18th Final Thoughts
Kaufman, W. 2000. Confessions of a developer. In
L.M. Benton and J.R. Short. Environmental Discourse and Practice. Blackwell,
Berke, P. 2002. Does sustainable development offer a new direction for planning? Challenges for the twenty first century. Journal of Planning Literature 17(1): 21-36.
Week 13 Dec. 2nd Paper Presentations/ Conclusions
Paper due Dec 5th at .
Week 13 Dec. 2nd Paper Presentations/ Conclusions
Paper due Dec 5th at .