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University of Toronto Mississauga • Department of Geography • Winter 2015

GGR 287H5S: Food and Globalization

 

 Instructor: Pierre Desrochers

 

 Lectures: Monday 3-5PM

 

 Phone: (905) 828-5206

 Office: Davis Building, room 3273

 

 Lecture room: DV 2072

 

 E-mail: pierre.desrochers@utoronto.ca

 

DIRECT LINKS


>
Course Description
>
Course Objectives
>
Texts
> Assignments
> Contacting the Instructor
> Tests
> Term Paper
> Department of Geography Late Assignment/Missed Test Policy
> Equity Statement and Academic Rights
>
Expectations/Classroom Behaviour/Behaviour in the Academic Setting
> Academic Integrity/Honesty or Academic Offenses
> Accessibility
> Accommodations for Religious Observances
> Recommendations & Suggestions
> Lecture Schedule


>
Week 1 (January 5): Introduction
> Week 2 (January 12): Historical Perspective I
> Week 3 (January 19): Historical Perspective II
> Week 4 (January 26): Commodities I
> Week 5 (February 2): Commodities II
> Week 6 (February 9): Term Test
> Week 7 (February 16): Provincial Holiday - No Lecture
> Week 8 (February 23): Commodities III
> Week 9 (March 2): Commodities IV
> Week 10 (March 9): Agricultural Inputs, Technologies and Food Additives
> Week 11 (March 16): Policy Controversies I: Environment, Biotechnologies and Organic Production
> Week 12 (March 23): Policy Controversies II: Food Security, Subsidies and Barriers to Trade
> Week 13 (March 30): Policy Controversies III: Urban Agriculture, Locavorism and Urbanization
> Suggested Readings

 

COURSE DESCRIPTION

Interest in agricultural issues and debates have grown markedly among non-specialist audiences in recent years. This course will provide a broad overview of the historical development of our global food economy along with a survey of recent trends and controversies. Topics discussed will range from basic food staples, food markets and trade liberalization to food security, environmental sustainability and alternative agricultural systems. Understanding of technical terms and trade-offs, along with the local and global dimensions of the economics and politics surrounding our globalized supply chain will be recurring concerns in this course.
 

COURSE OBJECTIVES

The course has five (5) main objectives:


1) To cover the basic physical, technical and economic issues related to agricultural development;
2) To cover broadly the history of our globalized food supply chain;
3) To introduce students to past debates and current controversies;
4) To memorize and use, without aids, the basic terminology with which professionals in relevant disciplines communicate their work and their research findings;
5) To apply a wide range of academic skills in active listening, note-taking, studying, reading, and test-taking to upper-level university courses.

 

Texts

There is no textbook or reading package for this class. Most of the readings are freely available on the web and links are provided on the course’s webpage. Suggested readings are not mandatory, but students who will write term papers on topics covered in these texts are expected to be familiar with them.

Most of the suggested readings are freely accessible from anywhere. Some of them, however, may require you to use a UofT terminal or user code.

ASSIGNMENTS

% OF GRADE

DATE DUE

1) Proposal for Term Paper
2) Term Test
3) Term Paper
4) Final Exam

5%
20%
40%
35%

January 26
February 9
April 1, 5PM
TBA

As per the University Grading Practices Policy, please note that "after the methods of evaluation have been made known, the instructor may not change them or their relative weight without the consent of at least a simple majority of the students enrolled in the course. Any changes shall be reported to the division or the department."

How to Query or Challenge a Mark

Please note that you have two weeks from the date an item is returned in class to ask for the item to be remarked. Contact the Course Instructor for all queries about course marks, or if you wish to challenge a mark. Absolutely no item will be remarked after the two-week period has passed. Material submitted for remarking must be accompanied by a brief written explanation detailing your reasons for dissatisfaction with the original mark (such as an addition error or something you think the marker may have missed). A request for a remark without a written explanation will not be acted upon.

Please note that you are allowed two questions where you and the instructor can agree to disagree (meaning you believe that you are entitled to a higher mark, but your instructor disagrees) without penalty. Beginning with the third question where you and your instructor disagree, one point will be taken off your final mark by question for which a revised mark was requested by you and denied by the instructor.
 

Contacting the instructor

Office hours are Monday 1-3PM, Davis Building 3273. You can contact me at pierre.desrochers@utoronto.ca.

Please read the course syllabus before e-mailing a question or expect a one line answer telling you to look it up if the answer is already there.

Always use your University of Toronto e-mail address (@utoronto.ca) for all course-related communications. E-mails from other domains (e.g., hotmail, Rogers, gmail, yahoo, etc.) may be filtered as spam and will at any rate be ignored. Always include the course code (e.g., GGR287) as part of your subject line, along with your full name and student number in the body of the e-mail. E-mails will be answered during office hours as promptly as possible. Please note that I do not open attachments and will not answer during week-ends.

The first person that you should e-mail concerning department- or program-related queries or to submit documentation regarding a missed assignment, quiz, or test is the Academic Counsellor for Geography/Environment, Sabrina Ferrari (sabrina.ferrari@utoronto.ca).

E-mail should NOT be viewed as an alternative to meeting with the TA or professor during office hours. Nor should e-mail be used as a mechanism to receive private tutorials (especially prior to tests) or to explain material that was covered in missed lectures. Not receiving replies to e-mails from the TA or professor, or not receiving them in time, will not be an acceptable excuse for pleas for extensions to assignment or exam deadlines.

Students are advised to consult www.enough.utoronto.ca for information on university policy concerning the appropriate use of information and communication technology.

© PhD Comics

Tests

A set of questions will be given in advance. Students will be asked to answer a number of these during the test. Note that PowerPoint slides presented during the lectures WILL NOT be posted online. No documentation is allowed during the tests. UTM Exam Schedule

Questions

Term Paper

Students are given the choice between: 1) a 15 page essay on a topic of their choice; 2) a 15 page review essay of a book (or two) dealing with topics covered in class. Team work is allowed, but my expectations are greater (20 pages for a team of two; 25 pages for a team of three). The choice of topic or book(s) must be approved by the instructor. These assignments will be discussed in class.

Papers should follow one of the Standard Documentation Formats.

Here are the detailed instructions to write your proposal and essay. Some suggestions for topics and books.

The papers are due by April 1, 5PM, UTM-Geography drop box (near room Davis 3284).

On the Art of Writing a Term Paper
Writing www.writing.utoronto.ca and Advice on Academic Writing www.writing.utoronto.ca/advice at the University of Toronto.

Some additional advice from Professor Daniel Drezner (On writing a paper / On researching a paper) and Professor Steven Horwitz (Guide to Writing Formal Academic Papers).

Other useful links: UTM Library / Robert Gillespie Academic Skills Centre.

 

Your choice of book must be approved by the instructor before turning in your proposal. When e-mailing the instructor about your book choice, please provide a link to the publisher's webpage devoted to the book or, if no such thing exists, to the Amazon or another large bookseller webpage devoted to the book.

Please note that you do not need to submit your proposal or the appendixes of your term paper through turnitin.com.

 

Note Concerning Turnitin

Normally, students will be required to submit written assignments to Turnitin.com for a review of textual similarity and detection of possible plagiarism. In doing so, students will allow their assignments to be included as source documents in the Turnitin.com reference database, where they will be used solely for the purpose of detecting plagiarism. The terms that apply to the University's use of the Turnitin.com service are described on the Turnitin.com web site (www.Turnitin.com). If you have an objection to the use of Turnitin for the submission of your work, please make an appointment to speak personally with the Course Instructor to discuss alternative arrangements. A guide for students is available from the University of Toronto's Office of Teaching Advancement, at: www.utoronto.ca/ota/turnitin/TurnitinGuideForStudents.pdf. This information will also be made available on the course Blackboard site.

You are required to submit a hard copy of the assignment as instructed in the syllabus for the TAs to grade and annotate Electronic copies will be submitted by students through Turnitin.

> Basic steps for setting up your Turnitin account and submitting papers

Turnitin.com course ID [8297585]. The password will be given through Blackboard.
 

Please note that submitting your paper through Turnitin.com or making alternative arrangements before the deadline with your professor is not optional. Failure to do so will result in a grade of 0 for your term paper. Failure to submit your paper on turnitin.com before the deadline will result in the same late penalty as if you had not submitted your hard copy.

 

Department of Geography Late Assignment/Missed Test Policy

This is the departmental policy for late assignments and missed tests. Please note that the penalty related to your proposal is different. In this particular case, I apply my own policy as specified on the syllabus.

I
n-class or Online QUIZ/TESTS: Students CANNOT petition to re-write a quiz/test once the test has begun. If you are feeling ill, please do not start the online or in-class test and seek medical attention immediately. You must have a physician fill out a U of T Student Medical Certificate and submit a request via the online Special Consideration Request form @ https://utmapp.utm.utoronto.ca/SpecialRequest within 24 hours.

Online Submissions for Term Work: It is every student’s responsibility to ensure that their online submission is submitted successfully by the due date. Accommodations will not be made for unsuccessful submissions due to, but not limited to, i) the system timing out ii) submitting the incorrect document(s) iii) poor internet connection / no internet connection etc.

Missed Term Work (Assignment/Lab - as per Department of Geography policy):
Late assignments will be subject to a late penalty of 10% per day (including weekends) of the total marks for the assignment. Assignments submitted five calendar days beyond the due date will be assigned a grade of zero.

Academic accommodation can be made when an assignment is late. For accommodations on late/missed assignments please see section on "Extension of Time".

Missed Term Work (Quiz/Test - as per Department of Geography policy):
In courses with final exams, there will be no re-writes or make-ups for term tests/quizzes missed for University-accepted, verifiable reasons. Instead, the final exam will be re-weighted by the value of the term test/quiz.

Requesting Academic Accommodation using the Online Special Consideration Request Application: In Geography and Environment courses, professors cannot grant extensions on term work or allow makeups for missed items. If you ask for and receive an extension or a makeup date directly from a professor, without following the appropriate steps as outlined in this document, it will be invalid and may be revoked at any time by the departmental petitions committee.

Informing Your Professor and Submitting Appropriate Documentation:
The following steps must be completed in order to be considered for academic accommodation for any course work such as missed tests or late assignments:

1. Students must inform their professor in writing (e-mail is acceptable) within 24 hours of a test date/assignment due date of any circumstances that prevent them from writing a test or submitting an assignment on time.
2. Students must complete an online Special Consideration Request @ https://utmapp.utm.utoronto.ca/SpecialRequest. Students who miss a test due to circumstances beyond their control (e.g. illness or an accident) can request that the Department grant them special consideration. You must inform your instructor within 24 hours and you have up to one (1) week from the date of the missed test to submit your online request (late requests will NOT be considered without a "letter of explanation" as to why the request is late). You must present your case to the Department (not the Instructor). Note: The system only supports Microsoft Internet Explorer and Firefox for the time being.
3. Original supporting documentation (e.g. Verification of Student Illness or Injury form, accident report, etc) MUST BE SUBMITTED to the DROP BOX (labeled "Environment and Geography Petition Documentation") located outside Room 3282, Davis Building. Supporting documentation is required within 48 hours of submitting your online request.
Please Note: If you missed your test for a reason connected to your registered disability, please be advised that the department will accept documentation supplied by the UTM AccessAbility Resource Centre.
Note: (i) ROSI declarations are not accepted as supporting documentation.
(ii) If your reason for absence is due to a last minute flight due to a family emergency (illness/death etc.) you must provide your flight itinerary INCLUDING the date the flight was purchased as well as boarding passes in addition to proof of death/illness/accident.
4. Verification of Student Illness or Injury forms MUST include the statement "This Student was unable to write the test on date(s) for medical reasons". Documentation MUST show that the physician was consulted within ONE day of the test date. A statement merely confirming a report of illness made by the student is NOT acceptable (such as, "This patient tells me that he was feeling ill on that day."). Verification of Student Illness or Injury forms can be found on the Office of the Registrar's webpage (http://www.illnessverification.utoronto.ca/getattachment/index/Verification-of-Illness-or-Injury-form-Jan-22-2013.pdf.aspx).

Please complete the following:
- Special request link: https://utmapp.utm.utoronto.ca/SpecialRequest
- Verification of Illness form: http://www.illnessverification.utoronto.ca/

Please note that the written explanation and documentation that you submit represents an appeal from you, requesting the opportunity to account for that portion of your grade in some other manner. If an appeal is not received, or if the appeal is deemed unacceptable, you will receive a grade of zero for the item you missed. If the appeal is granted - that is, your reason for missing the item is considered acceptable by the committee - then a mechanism for accounting for the grade value of the missed item will be discussed.

A Departmental committee evaluates each request. Decisions will be communicated by email within two weeks of receipt of all completed documents. Note: It is your responsibility to ensure your email account is working and able to receive emails. Claims that a Departmental decision was not received will NOT be considered as a reason for further consideration. Contact Sabrina Ferrari (sabrina.ferrari@utoronto.ca) Academic Counselor, should you NOT receive notification of your decision within 2 weeks of submission.

Note that holidays and pre-purchased plane tickets, family plans, your friend's wedding, lack of preparation, or too many other tests are not acceptable excuses for missing a quiz, a test, or an item of term work.

Extension of Time
Students are expected to back up their work at all times. As such, extension requests due to computer issues (stolen, crashed, damaged etc.) will not be considered. The following steps must be completed in order to be considered for academic accommodation for any assignment extensions. Assignments handed in AFTER the work has been returned to the class cannot be marked for credit.

1. Students must inform their professor in writing (e-mail is acceptable) IN ADVANCE of an assignment due date of any circumstances that prevent them from submitting their assignment on time.
2. Students must complete an online Special Consideration Request @ https://utmapp.utm.utoronto.ca/SpecialRequest IN ADVANCE of the assignment due date. Note: The system only supports Microsoft Internet Explorer and Firefox for the time being.
3. Original supporting documentation (e.g. Verification of Student Illness or Injury form, accident report, etc) MUST BE SUBMITTED to the DROP BOX (labeled "Environment and Geography Petition Documentation") located outside Room 3282, Davis Building. Supporting documentation is required within one (1) week of submitting your online request.
4. Verification of Student Illness or Injury forms: Documentation MUST show that the physician was consulted within ONE day of the assignment due date. A statement merely confirming a report of illness made by the student is NOT acceptable (such as, "This patient tells me that he was feeling ill on that day."). Verification of Student Illness or Injury forms can be found on the Office of the Registrar's webpage (http://www.illnessverification.utoronto.ca/getattachment/index/Verification-of-Illness-or-Injury-form-Jan-22-2013.pdf.aspx).

Original supporting documentation (e.g. Verification of Student Illness or Injury form, accident report, etc) MUST BE SUBMITTED to the DROP BOX (labeled "Environment and Geography Petition Documentation") located outside Room 3282, Davis Building. Note: ROSI declarations are not accepted as supporting documentation. You are expected to submit your request to the Department before the due date of the assignment, unless demonstrably serious reasons prevent you from doing so. In the event of an illness, if you are seeking a one-day extension, Verification of Student Illness or Injury forms must confirm that you were ill on the due date of the assignment; if you are requesting a longer extension, your documentation must specify exactly the length of the period during which you were unable to carry out your academic work. For extensions of time beyond the examination period you must submit a petition through the Office of the Registrar. http://www.erin.utoronto.ca/index.php?id=6988

A Departmental committee evaluates each request for an extension of time. Decisions will be communicated by email within two weeks of receipt of all completed documents. Please note that students are required to submit their assignment/lab as soon as they are able and they should NOT wait for the decision of the committee. Note: It is your responsibility to ensure your email account is working and able to receive emails. Claims that a Departmental decision was not received will NOT be considered as a reason for further consideration. Contact Sabrina Ferrari (sabrina.ferrari@utoronto.ca) Academic Counsellor, should you NOT receive notification of your decision within 2 weeks of submission.

It is your responsibility to follow the appropriate procedures and submit requests for special consideration on time. Failure to do so may result in the committee denying your request.
Should you require further information regarding Special Considerations, please contact the Academic Counselor, Sabrina Ferrari
Undergraduate Academic Counselor
Room 3282, Davis Building, Telephone: 905-828-5465
email: sabrina.ferrari@utoronto.ca

Equity Statement and Academic Rights

The University of Toronto is committed to equity and respect for diversity. All members of the learning environment in this course should strive to create an atmosphere of mutual respect. As a course instructor, I will neither condone nor tolerate behaviour that undermines the dignity or self-esteem of any individual in this course and wish to be alerted to any attempt to create an intimidating or hostile environment. It is our collective responsibility to create a space that is inclusive and welcomes discussion. Discrimination, harassment and hate speech will not be tolerated. If you have any questions, comments, or concerns you may contact the UTM Equity and Diversity officer at edo.utm@utoronto.ca or the University of Toronto Mississauga Students' Union Vice President Equity at vpequity@utmsu.ca.

Academic Rights

You, as a student at UTM, have the right to:
- Receive a syllabus by the first day of class.
- Rely upon a syllabus once a course is started. An instructor may only change marks' assignments by following the University Assessment and Grading Practices Policy provision 1.3.
- Refuse to use turnitin.com (you must be offered an alternative form of submission).
- Have access to your instructor for consultation during a course or follow up with the department chair if the instructor is unavailable.
- Ask the person who marked your term work for a re-evaluation if you feel it was not fairly graded. You have up to one month from the date of return of the item to inquire about the mark. If you are not satisfied with a re-evaluation, you may appeal to the instructor in charge of the course if the instructor did not mark the work. If your work is remarked, you must accept the resulting mark. You may only appeal a mark beyond the instructor if the term work was worth at least 20% of the course mark.
- Receive at least one significant mark (15% for H courses, 25% for Y courses) before the last day you can drop a course for H courses, and the last day of classes in the first week of January for Y courses taught in the Fall/Winter terms.
- Submit handwritten essays so long as they are neatly written.
- Have no assignment worth 100% of your final grade.
- Not have a term test worth 25% or more in the last two weeks of class.
- Retain intellectual property rights to your research.
- Receive all your assignments once graded.
- View your final exams. To see a final exam, you must submit an online Exam Reproduction Request within 6 months of the exam. There is a small non-refundable fee.
- Privacy of your final grades.
- Arrange for representation from Downtown Legal Services (DLS), a representative from the UTM Students' Union (UTMSU), and/or other forms of support if you are charged with an academic offence.

Expectations/Classroom Behaviour/Behaviour in the Academic Setting

Our expectation of you is that you will show respect to the Course Instructor, TAs, other faculty, staff, and fellow students. This includes arriving on time and staying for the entire class (so you don't disturb others by your late entry or early departure); listening quietly (so you don't disturb others by your chatting or online activities); approaching your course work with an open, honest spirit and enthusiasm; and otherwise adhering to the Code.

In turn, you can expect the Course Instructor, staff, and TAs to show respect to you and your fellow students; to deliver the best course that they possibly can; to communicate their enthusiasm for the material; to maintain fairness in all aspects of course delivery and assessment; and otherwise to adhere to the University's Code of Behaviour on Academic Matters.

Academic Integrity/Honesty or Academic Offenses

It is your responsibility as a student at the University of Toronto to familiarize yourself with, and adhere to, both the Code of Student Conduct and the Code of Behaviour on Academic Matters.

This means, first and foremost, that you should read them carefully.

  • The Code of Student Conduct is available from the U of T Mississauga website (Registrar > Academic Calendar > Codes and Policies) or in your print version of the Academic Calendar.

  • The Code of Behaviour on Academic Matters is available from the U of T Mississauga website (Registrar > Academic Calendar > Codes and Policies) or in your print version of the Academic Calendar.

Another helpful document that you should read is How Not to Plagiarize, by M. Procter.

Further Thoughts on Academic Honesty:
The Code of Behaviour on Academic Matters states that:

"The University and its members have a responsibility to ensure that a climate that might encourage, or conditions that might enable, cheating, misrepresentation or unfairness not be tolerated. To this end all must acknowledge that seeking credit or other advantages by fraud or misrepresentation, or seeking to disadvantage others by disruptive behaviour is unacceptable, as is any dishonesty or unfairness in dealing with the work or record of a student." ―University of Toronto Mississauga Academic Calendar

This summarizes what we are all trying to achieve through the implementation of this Code―both students and faculty. We are trying―together―to create an atmosphere of fairness and honesty, in which people can learn and receive appropriate credit for work that they have done. Note that the Code refers specifically to expectations for faculty members, not just for students. It is my responsibility, as a member of the faculty of the University of Toronto, to be familiar with these expectations and adhere to them. There are many additional academic requirements that we are expected to meet with regard to the integrity of course materials, returning of marked work to students, maintenance of student privacy, fairness, grading practices, and others. My TAs and I will make every possible effort to meet these expectations.
 

Accessibility

U of T Mississauga and the AccessAbility Resource Centre are committed to the full participation of students with disabilities in all aspects of campus life. The AccessAbility Resource Centre provides academic accommodations and services to students who have a physical, sensory, or learning disability, mental health condition, acquired brain injury, or chronic health condition, be it visible or hidden. Students who have temporary disabilities (e.g., broken dominant arm) are also eligible to receive services. All interested students must have an intake interview with an advisor to discuss their individual needs.

Students who require accommodation are advised to visit the AccessAbility Resource Centre as early as possible to have their needs assessed, as it may take some time to process the application.

For more information please contact the centre at:
Room 2047, South Bldg.
Tel/TTY: 905-569-4699
E-mail: access.utm@utoronto.ca
Web: www.utm.utoronto.ca/accessability/

For students who would like to help

Please note that the AccessAbility Resource Centre is looking for a volunteer note-taker to take notes on behalf of students with a disability registered in this class. Volunteer note-takers are responsible for submitting their notes to AccessAbility every week. The notes can be submitted online or scanned at the Centre. (The form can be downloaded at www.utm.utoronto.ca/accessability/potential-notetakers.)

Volunteer note-takers will receive a certificate of recognition and reference letter at the end of the year. If you are interested in this opportunity, please take a volunteer form and follow the instructions provided. If you have any questions, please call 905-828-5422, email accessvolunteers.utm@utoronto.ca, or drop by the Centre (room 2047, Davis Building).

Accommodations for Religious Observances

As noted in the the Policy on Scheduling of Classes and Examinations and Other Accommodations for Religious Observances, the following provisions are included:

"It is the policy of the University of Toronto to arrange reasonable accommodation of the needs of students who observe religious holy days other than those already accommodated by ordinary scheduling and statutory holidays.
Students have a responsibility to alert members of the teaching staff in a timely fashion to upcoming religious observances and anticipated absences. Instructors will make every reasonable effort to avoid scheduling tests, examinations or other compulsory activities at these times. If compulsory activities are unavoidable, every reasonable opportunity should be given to these students to make up work that they miss, particularly in courses involving laboratory work. When the scheduling of tests or examinations cannot be avoided, students should be informed of the procedure to be followed to arrange to write at an alternate time.

It is most important that no student be seriously disadvantaged because of her or his religious observances. However, in the scheduling of academic and other activities, it is also important to ensure that the accommodation of one group does not seriously disadvantage other groups within the University community."

With respect to minimum advance notice, the Policy provides that "Students have a responsibility to alert members of the teaching staff in a timely fashion to upcoming religious observances and anticipated absences." Since students would normally be aware of upcoming religious observances as well as examination schedules in advance, a minimum of three weeks advance notice will be considered sufficient.

More information and some dates of potential relevance for the U of T community are available at www.viceprovoststudents.utoronto.ca/publicationsandpolicies/guidelines/religiousobservances.htm.

As with any academic accommodation request, students must submit an on-line Special Consideration Request @ https://utmapp.utm.utoronto.ca/SpecialRequest.

Recommendations & Suggestions

Suggested Scholarly Sources
Suggested Websites

Lecture Schedule

Week 1 (January 5): Introduction
Week 2 (January 12): Historical Perspective I
Week 3 (January 19): Historical Perspective II
Week 4 (January 26): Commodities I (Deadline for review essay proposal)
Week 5 (February 2): Commodities II
Week 6 (February 9): Term Test (Questions)
Week 7 (February 16): Provincial Holiday - No Lecture
Week 8 (February 23): Commodities III
Week 9 (March 2): Commodities IV
Week 10 (March 9): Agricultural Inputs, Technologies and Food Additives
Week 11 (March 16): Policy Controversies I: Environment, Biotechnologies and Organic Production
Week 12 (March 23): Policy Controversies II: Food Security, Subsidies and Barriers to Trade
Week 13 (March 30): Policy Controversies III: Urban Agriculture, Locavorism and Urbanization
Final Exam: TBA

Week 1 (January 5): Introduction

Mandatory Videos


The Meatrix

IFPRI Millions Fed - Proven Solutions

BBC 4. 2010. "Hans Rosling's 200 Countries, 200 Years, 4 Minutes - The Joy of Stats." (November 26).

Worldwrite. 2006. "I'm a Subsistence Farmer get me out of Here!
 

Mandatory readings


Overviews
- "2050: A third more mouths to feed." FAO, September 23, 2009.

- "How to Feed a Hungry World." Nature 466 : 531-532 (July 29, 2010).

Cowen, Tyler. 2012. "World Hunger: The Problem Left Behind." The New York Times (September 15).

FAO. 2014. State of Food Insecurity in the World (IN BRIEF).

Starling, Shane. 2014. "World's Most Obese Nation? Kuwait (and the next four are Middle Eastern)." Food Navigator.com (November 3). 

Critics
Global Development and Environment Institute (Tufts University). 2012. Resolving the Food Crisis. Research for Global Policy Reform.

OXFAM. 2011. Growing a Better Future (Summary).

People's Food Policy Project. 2011. Resetting the Table: A People's Food Policy for Canada (Executive Summary).

Pollan, Michael. 2008. "Farmer in Chief." New York Times Magazine (October 9).

Bittman, Mark, Michael Pollan, Ricardo Salvador and Olivier De Schutter. 2014. "How a National Food Policy could save Millions of American Lives." Washington Post (November 7). 

Defenders of modern agriculture and agri-business
Jen. 2014. "Top Myths in Agriculture and Food Production with Dr. Cami Ryan." Canola (Manitoba Canola Growers) (December 3). 

Harris, Rob. 2007. "Let's Ditch this 'Nostalgia for Mud'." Spiked, 4 December.

Hurst, Blake. 2009. "The Omnivore's Delusion: Against the Agri-Intellectuals." The American, July 30.

Paarlberg, Robert. 2010 "Attention Whole Food Shoppers." Foreign Policy (May-June).

Smith, Kyle. 2013. "The Greatest Food in Human History." New York Post (July 29).

Laudan, Rachel. 2016. "In Praise of Artificial Food." Aeon (January 28).

Suggested readings and links
 

Weeks 2-3 (January 12 -19): Historical Perspective I-II

Mandatory Videos (shown in class)

(Jan 12): Guest lecture by UTM Geography, GIS and Data librarian Andrew Nicholson


"Ancient Farmers of the Amazon" Evolution Library (PBS), 2001.

Video - Chimps Use Tools to Hunt Mammals - National Geographic

Duet of a Sumerian Drinking Song (Hymn to the Beer Goddess) (Background: Main, Douglas. 2014. "What Did Ancient Babylonian Songs Sound Like? Something Like This." Newsweek (December 14).
 

Mandatory readings


Insect Agriculture
Munger, Dave. 2010. "Humans aren't the Only Creatures that Grow their Own Food. Leaf-cutter Ants, Trees, and even Protists do it too." Seed, November 10.

"Herding Aphids: How 'Farmer' Ants Keep Control Of Their Food." Science Daily, October 11, 2007.

"Termites Create Sustainable Monoculture Fungus Farming." Science Daily, Nov. 22, 2009.

Fire and Tools
"The American Association for the Advancement of Science - What's cooking?" The Economist, February 17, 2009.

Jones, Steve. 2009. "Catching Fire: How Cooking Made Us Human by Richard Wrangham." The Guardian, October 17.

Forbes, Peter. 2010. "Review of The Artificial Ape: How Technology Changed the Course of Human Evolution by Timothy Taylor." The Guardian, September 4.

Early Agriculture
(Note: This issue is addressed in much more detail in my course GGR329: Environment and the Roots of Globalization)

Pringle, Heather. 1998. "The Slow Birth of Agriculture." Science 282 (5393): 1446.

Loehrlein, Marietta. 2010. "Horticulture." In Cutler J. Cleveland (ed.) Encyclopedia of the Earth.

Prakash, C. S. 2001. "The Genetically Modified Crop Debate in the Context of Agricultural Evolution." Plant Physiology 126 (1): 8-15.

Transition towards the Modern Era
Crowley, Terry. 2004. '[Victorian] Agriculture' and 'Rural Labourers in the Victorian Era' in James Eli Adams, Tom Pendergast and Sara Pendergast (eds). The Encyclopedia of the Victorian Era. 4 vols. Grolier Academic Press.

Eh.Net Encyclopedia of Economic and Business History
- White, William J. 2008 "Economic History of Tractors in the United States."
- Law, Marc T. 2004 "History of Food and Drug Regulation in the United States."

Modern Agriculture and the Green Revolution
Goklany, Indur M. 2001. "The Pros and Cons of Modern Farming." PERC Reports. March: 12-14.

Dimitri, Carolyn, Anne Effland, & Neilson Conklin. "The 20th Century Transformation of U.S. Agriculture and Farm Policy." U.S. Department of Agriculture, Electronic Information Bulletin Number 3, June 2005.

Phillip L. Kunkel, Jeffrey A. Peterson, Jessica A. Mitchell. 2009. "Agricultural Production Contracts." University of Minnesota Agricultural Extension Service.

Perkins, John. 2010. "Green Revolution" in Cutler J. Cleveland (ed.) Encyclopedia of the Earth. National Council for Science and the Environment.

Miller, Henry I. 2012. "The Father of the Green Revolution." Defining Ideas (February 17).

David J. Spielman and Rajul Pandya-Lorch. 2009. Highlights from Millions Fed: Proven Successes in Agricultural Development. IFPRI. (Full text and other documentation available at Millions Fed: Proven Successes in Agricultural Development IFPRI)
 

Suggested readings and links
 

Weeks 4-5 (January 26, February 2): Commodities I-II

Mandatory Videos


Wheat
- BBC Scotland. 2012. How to Grow a Planet - Episode 3: The Challenger (Göbekli Tepe and the domestication of wheat).
- Government of Canada. 2007. Earth Tone: "Marquis Wheat"
- USDA. Norman Borlaug and the Green Revolution 

Corn (maize)
- Iowa State University Research Foundation. 1991. The Hybrid Corn Miracle

Rice
- Riso Amaro (1949) 

Soybean
-. 2007. Forgotten Genius: Percy Lavon Julian, NOVA (Video here from 1:24:19- 1:30:53)

Potatoes
Hill Tribe TV. 2012. QV Foods: Growing Potatoes, from Field to Supermarket
 

Mandatory readings


Commodity Markets
Eh.Net Encyclopedia of Economic and Business History
- Santos, Joseph. 2008. "A History of Futures Trading in the United States."

Plants
- Interactive Website (browse)
"A Plant's Eye History of the World" (Map Timeline) The Botany of Desire (PBS adaptation of Michael Pollan's book).

> GRAINS
- Wheat
(Browse) Canadian Food Inspection Agency, Wheat - List of varieties which are registered in Canada

Gary M. Paulsen and James P. Shroyer. 2008. "The Early History of Wheat Improvement in the Great Plains." Agronomy Journal Vol. 100 No. Supplement_3, p. S-70-S-78.

"Fueling the Green Revolution." U.S. Department of Agriculture & Agricultural Research Service, October 10, 2003.

Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs (Cereal):
- Other Crop Problems: Insects and Diseases
- Incidence and Management Strategies

- Corn
International Institute of Tropical Agriculture. "Maize"

(Browse) National Corn Growers Association (USA). 2014. 2014 World of Corn, Statistics Book (Metric Edition).

CGIAR Research Program (Maize). 2014. "Improved Maize to Boost Yields in Nitrogen-starved African Soils." (December 10). 

- Rice
Chang, Te-Tzu. 2000. "Rice." In Kipple, Kenneth F. and Kriemhild Coneč Ornelas (eds). The Cambridge World History of Food. Cambridge University Press.

Aschaiek, Sharon. 2016. "UTM Professor Discovers New Origins for Farmed Rice." UTM News (June 22). 

> PULSES
Alliance Grain Traders, "History of Pulses."

> ROOT & TUBER CROPS
- Potato
Messer, Ellen. 2000. "Potatoes (White)." In Kipple, Kenneth F. and Kriemhild Coneč Ornelas (eds). The Cambridge World History of Food. Cambridge University Press.

International Year of the Potato. 2008. "Diffusion

Nathan Nunn & Nancy Qian. 2009. "Potatoes, the fruit of the earth." Vox (August 5).

Foodland Ontario (Food Facts)
- Potatoes 

Ontario Potato Board
- Ontario Potatoes 
- Growing Potatoes 
- Potato Varieties 
- FAQs 

Mann, Charles. 2011. "How the Potato Changed the World." Smithsonian Magazine (November). 

> OILSEEDS
The Canadian Encyclopedia
- Oilseed crops

- Soybeans
"Information About Soya, Soybeans." Soyatech.

Dorff, Erik. 2009. "The soybean, agriculture's jack-of-all-trades, is gaining ground across Canada." Statistics Canada, April 9.

Hecht, Susanna B., & Charles C. Mann. 2008. "How Brazil Outfarmed the American Farmer." CNN Money.com, January 19.

- Canola
The Canadian Encyclopedia
- Canola

Suggested readings and links
 

Week 6 (February 9): Term Test

Questions

Week 7 (February 16): Provincial Holiday - No Lecture


Week 8-9 (February 23, March 2): Commodities III-IV

 

 

Professor Joseph Leydon's guest lecture notes
 

Mandatory Videos

 


Orchards
British Pathé - Home Drive For Food - Britain's Harvest 1947 (1947).
WPSU. 2009. Apple Grafting.  

Grapes and Wine
Discovery News. "What Ancient Wine Tasted Like." (June 11, 2013).

Entomophagy

- BBC Four. 2013. "Can Eating Insects Save the World." (March 13).
- BBC World News Europe. 2013. "Insects Source of Protein instead of Meat." (May 6).

Honeybees
ACSH News. 2014. "Jon Entine Debunks Theory Linking Neonic Pesticides to Honeybee Collapse." (November 26). 

Livestock
British Pathé - Horse Meat Scandal (1948).

Recap
LindyBeige. 2011. "What is Wrong with this Picture?"
 

Mandatory readings


> FRUITS & VEGETABLES
Katinka Weinberger and Thomas A. Lumpkin. 2005. Horticulture for Poverty Alleviation. The Unfunded Revolution. AVRDC (The World Vegetable Center) Working Paper #15 - Executive Summary.

Tonie Fitzgerald. 2005. Pollination of Fruit Trees. Washington State University - Spokane County Extension.

- Cucurbits
David Maynard and Donald M. Maynard. 2000. "Cucumbers, Melons and Watermelons" In Kipple, Kenneth F. and Kriemhild Coneč Ornelas (eds). The Cambridge World History of Food. Cambridge University Press. (please access this resource through the UofT library website)

Foodland Ontario (Food Facts)
- Greenhouse cucumbers 

- Apples
Washington Apple Country Tours

Foodland Ontario (Food Facts)
- Apples 

Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs - Recommended Apple Varities for Ontario

- Bananas
Randy C. Ploetz. 2005. "Panama Disease: An Old Nemesis Rears Its Ugly Head. Part 1. The Beginnings of the Banana Export Trades." Plant Health Progress (August).

Admin. 2014. "Attack of the Killer Bananas? Hardly." ACSH News (July 2).

> OTHERS
- Sugar
Galloway. Jock H. 2000. "Sugar." In Kipple, Kenneth F. and Kriemhild Coneč Ornelas (eds). The Cambridge World History of Food. Cambridge University Press. (please access this resource through the UofT library website)

Silcoff, Sean. 2012. "Bitter battle rages over Canada's sugar industry." The Globe and Mail, June 24.

- Palm Oil
K. G. Berger and S. M. Martin. 2000. "Palm Oil." In Kipple, Kenneth F. and Kriemhild Coneč Ornelas (eds). The Cambridge World History of Food. Cambridge University Press. (please access this resource through the UofT library website)

Animals
- Cannibalism
Jennifer Viegas. 2010. "First Cannibals ate each other for extra nutrition." Discovery News (August 26).

> Domesticated Land Animals
- Entomophagy
BBC News. 2013. "Insect diet: Fancy Cricket Risotto or Mealworm Cake?" (August 23).

Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations (FAO). 2013. Information Guide: The Contribution of Insects to Food Security, Livelihoods and the Environment. (May 12) (Executive Summary).

- History

Breeds of Livestock - Oklahoma State University

Avery, Dennis. 2010. "When Sheep didn't have Wool." CFACT News, November 26.

FAO, 2006. "Farm animal biodiversity." Spotlight, September.

Gade, Daniel G. 2000. "Hogs." In Kipple, Kenneth F. and Kriemhild Coneč Ornelas (eds). The Cambridge World History of Food. Cambridge University Press. (please access this resource through the UofT library website)

Phelan, Benjamin. 2012. "The Most Spectacular Mutation in Recent Human History - How did milk help found Western civilization?" Slate (Oct.23).

- Recent Trends
Thornton, Philip K. 2010. "Livestock Production: Recent Trends, Future Prospects." Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B (Biological Sciences) 365 (1554) (September 27): 2853-2867.

Dowding, Heather. 2008. "Concentrated Animal Feeding Operation." In Cutler J. Cleveland (ed). Encyclopedia of the Earth.

Howard, Jacqueline. 2014. "Chickens Look Way Different Today, And Here's The Reason Why." Huffington Post (October 21).

Zielinski, Sarah. 2014. "Bees and Wasps in Britain Have Been Disappearing For More Than a Century." Smithsonian Magazine (December 11).

- Policy Debates
UN FAO. 2006. Livestock Long Shadow: Environmental Issues and Options, Executive Summary (pp. xx-xxiv).

Pew Commission on Industrial Farm Animal Production. 2008. Final Report: Putting Meat on The Table: Industrial Farm Animal Production in America (Executive Summary).

UN FAO. 2010. The State of Food and Agriculture 2009: Livestock in the Balance (Summary).

Miller, Henry I. 2006. "In the Interests of Stakeholders… and Steakholders." Tech Central Station, February 17.

Center for Consumer Freedom. 2010. "'Chef Pollan's Daily Special: Lousy Advice" January 19.

> Fisheries, Seafood and Aquaculture
- Fisheries
Pauly, Daniel and Dirk Zeller. 2010. "Marine Fisheries." In Cutler J. Cleveland (ed). Encyclopedia of the Earth.

GDAE, Jonathan M. Harris and Anne-Marie Codur. 2008. "Economics of Fisheries." In Cutler J. Cleveland (ed). Encyclopedia of the Earth.

- Aquaculture
Encyclopedia Britannica. 1911. "Pisciculture."

"Half Of Fish Consumed Globally Is Now Raised On Farms, Study Finds." ScienceDaily, Sep. 8, 2009.

GreenFacts.org. 2010. "Fisheries and aquaculture." In Cutler J. Cleveland (ed). Encyclopedia of the Earth.

Bostock, John et al. 2010. "Aquaculture: Global Status and Trends." Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B (Biological Sciences) 365 (1554) (September): 2897-2912.

Avery, Dennis T. 2010. "Shrimp Farming has Grown Up." Hudson Institute CFACT (July 21).

Foodland Ontario (Food Facts)
- Aquaculture 

Suggested readings and links
 

Lecture 10 (March 9): Agricultural Inputs, Technologies and Food Additives

Mandatory Video


Video: USDA (World War II): Victory Garden (watch from 10:20 to 12:45; 13:56 to 16:50).

ACSH. 2014. Enjoy your Holiday Dinner - Chemicals and All! (November 25). 
 

Mandatory readings


Overview
Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada. 204. An Overview of the Canadian Agriculture and Agri-Food System 2014 (Highlights).

Water
Cowen, Richard. Essays on Geology, History and People. (Under contract with Johns Hopkins University Press), Ch 17 ("Ancient Irrigation").

Molden, David, Charlotte de Fraiture and Frank J. Rjsberman. 2007. "Water Scarcity: The Food Factor." Issues in Science and Technology 23 (4) (Summer).

Refrigeration and Food Waste
Weber, Claire Y. "Fire and Ice: The Geography of Food Preservation. How Spices and Smoking Food Developed in Hot and Cold Regions." About.com (Geography). 

Energy Star (US DOE and US EPA). History of Refrigeration Timeline

Krasner-Khait, Barbara. 2000. "The Impact of Refrigeration." History Magazine (February-March) (excerpts).

Tenner, Edward. 2014. "The Refrigerator's Cool Century." The American (July 3).

Heap, Robert. 2003. Refrigerated Transport: Progress Achieved and Challenges to be Met. 16th Informatory Note on Refrigerating Technologies. International Institute of Refrigeration, August.

Institute of Mechanical Engineers. 2013. Global Food Waste Not, Want Not. Feeding the 9 Billion: The Tragedy of Waste.

Jenny Gustavsson, Christel Cederberg, Ulf Sonesson, Robert van Otterdijk and Alexandre Meybeck. 2011. "Global Food Losses and Food Waste: Extent, Causes and Prevention." FAO (Executive Summary).

• Animal Reproductive Technologies
USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture. Animal Reproduction: Research in Assisted Reproductive Technologies.

Veterinary Medicine
(Browse) World Organisation for Animal Health "Animal Disease Information Summaries."

- Rinderpest
Joint FAO-IAEA Program. 2005.
- History of Battle against Rinderpest
- Global Eradication of Rinderpest

Normile, Dennis. 2010. "Deadly Cattle Disease Eradicated." ScienceNOW, October 14.

World Organisation for Animal Health. "Animal Disease Information Summaries: Rinderpest."

Seeds
Tripp, Robert. 2003. "How to Cultivate a Commercial Seed Sector." Paper prepared for the symposium "Sustainable Agriculture in the Sahel." pp. 1-4, 9-10.

Hurst, Blake. 2010. "Green Menace: To Saddle Hungry Haitians with American Romanticism about Agriculture is the Worst Kind of Imperialism." The American (July).

Monsanto Corporation. "Food Inc, FAQs"

Pest Management
Draggan, Sidney. 2010. "Pesticide." In Cutler J. Cleveland (ed.) Encyclopedia of the Earth.

Nelson, Douglas, and Alexander Rinkus. 2011. "The Hi-Tech Agriculture Imperative." The American Magazine (November 8).

Fertilizers
- General
Cornell, Joseph. D. 2010. "Fertilizer" In Cutler J. Cleveland (ed.). Encyclopedia of the Earth.

International Fertilizer Developement Center. "FAQs about Fertilizers."

- Nitrogen
Cowen, Richard. Essays on Geology, History and People. (Under contract with Johns Hopkins University Press), Ch. 16 ("Guano," "Nitrates")

Morrison, Philip & Phylis Morrison. 2001. "From Fertile Minds." American Scientist Online (July-August). 

Romero, Simon. 2008. "Peru Guards Its Guano as Demand Soars Again." The New York Times, May 30.

- Potash
Potash - The Canadian Encyclopedia

- Phosphate
Van Kauwenbergh, Steven J. 2010. World Phosphate Rock Reserves and Resources. International Fertilizer Development Center (Executive Summary, pp. 11-12).

Prescriptive planting
[Schumpeter]. 2014. "Digital disruption on the farm. Managers in the most traditional of industries distrust a promising new technology." The Economist (May 24).

Plasticulture
The American Society for Plasticulture - An Introduction to Plasticulture by Dr. Michael D. Orzolek.

Food fortification
BASF. 2009. The Fortification of Food Staples.

Suggested readings and links
 

Week 11 (March 16): Policy Controversies I: Environment, Biotechnologies and Organic Production

Mandatory Videos

The Forest Transition
Noack, Rick. 2014. "Watch: How Europe is Greener now than 100 Years Ago." Washington Post (December 4). 

Livestock and new technologies
Meat News Network. 2015. "Myth: The Use of Modern Technologies to Raise Animals has done More Harm than Good (with Jayson Lusk)." 

Tony Weis. 2012. "What is the Ecological Hoofprint?

Livestock and the environment
Angus TV. 2012. "I Am Angus: Dr. Jude Capper, Washington State University." 

Stossel. "Why Grass-Fed Beef is Worse for the Environment." (November 19, 2010).

Tony Weis. 2012. "What are the Possible Solutions to Environmental Problems posed by Industrial Livestock Production?

Vegeterianism Vs Meat Production
CAST. 2013. Animal Feed vs. Human Food: Challenges and Opportunities in Sustaining Animal Agriculture Toward 2050. CAST Issue Paper#53 (Video).

Biotechnologies
Stossel. "Would you Feast on Genetically Engineered Food?" (November 19, 2010).
 

Mandatory readings


Environment (General)
- Long-term Historical Perspective
Erle C. Ellis. 2011. "Forget Mother Nature: This is a World of our Making." New Scientist 2816 (June 14).

- Current Perspectives and Debates
World Bank. 2007. World Development Report 2008: Agriculture and Development, Policy Brief
- Agriculture and the Environment

OECD. 2004. Agriculture and the Environment: Lessons Learned from a Decade of OECD Work (Executive Summary).

Rockefeller University Newswire. "Changes in Population Growth, Consumption and Farming begin to Return Former Farmlands to Nature."
December 21, 2012.

Stuckey, James, Jean-Charles Le Vallée and Caitlin Charman. 2013. Reducing the Risk: Addressing the Environmental Impacts of the Food System. Conference Board of Canada (Executive Summary).

- Indicators (Overview)
(Browse) OECD. 2008. Agri-Environment Indicators (Key points)

Biodiversity and Monocultures
- Biodiversity (General)
Bailey, Ron. 2010. "Invasion of the Invasive Species! Local Biodiversity is Increasing Because of Man, not Despite Him." Reason (November).

Avery, Dennis. 2010. "Biodiversity: Losing which Species?" CFACT, November 9.

- Pros and Cons of Monocultures
DeGregori, Thomas. 2003. "The Anti-Monoculture Mania." Butteflies and Wheels.

USDA - National Plant Germplasm System

Sing, Aradhana. 2009. "Diversification in agriculture." In Cutler J. Cleveland (ed). Encyclopedia of the Earth.

Soil Erosion and Degradation
Cutler J. Cleveland (ed). Encyclopedia of the Earth
- Pidwimy, Michael. 2007. "Soil Erosion and Deposition."

Cunfer, Geoff. 2004. "The Dust Bowl." Eh.Net Encyclopedia of Economic and Business History.

Meat Production and the Environment
- Critics of Meat Production
"New Report Reveals the Environmental and Social Impact of the 'Livestock Revolution'." Stanford Report, March 16, 2010.

Monbiot, George. 2010. "Strong Meat." The Guardian, September 7.

FAO. 2014. Tackling Climate Change through Livestock.

Molina Vale, Petterson. 2014. "Book Review: The Ecological Hoofprint: The Global Burden of Industrial Livestock by Tony Weiss." LSE Review of Books (March 4).

- Defenders of Meat and Modern Production Methods
"The Truth about Gestation Stalls." Hoosier Farm Babe Tell Tails (August 8, 2012).

Archer AM, Mike. 2001. "Ordering the Vegetarian Meal? There's more Animal Blood on your Hands." The Conversation (December 15).

Chinn, Chris. 2014. "PEDV - Here's your sign!" ChrisChinn.

Cooper, David. 2012. "Capper: Efficiency the Key to Beef Sustainability." Progressive Cattleman (January 23). 

Martin, Rod. 2012. "Agriculture Has a Long History of Being Green." ThankFarmersBlog.Vitaplus.com (May 4).

Hurst, Blake. 2010. "In Defense of Chewers of Cud." Today's Farmer Online.

Stossel, John. 2010. "Busting Another Food Myth." Fox News (November 18).

Hayes, Shannon. 2012. "Meat - not Grains - to Live Sustainably." Robb Wolf (November 15).

Avery, Dennis. 2009. "Giving Up Meat to Save the Planet?" CFACT News (August 20).

Biotechnologies
- Historical context
Genetic Literacy Project. 2014. "What would Food Look Like without Modifications?" (June 19). 

Kastrinos, Amanda. 2015. "Pasta? Ruby grapefruits? Why organic devotees love foods mutated by radiation and chemicals." Genetic Literacy Project (February 5). 

Kaskey, Jack. 2013. "Breeding Mutant Crops Widespread: Seeds, genetically changed by radiation, face no regulatory hurdles, despite safety concerns." Bloomberg News/Vancouver Sun (November 16).

- Overview
WHO (World Health Organization) on
- Food, Genetically Modified
- 20 Questions on Genetically Modified (GM) Food

National Research Council (Division on Earth and Life Studies, Board on Agriculture and Natural Resources). 2010. "Genetically Engineered Crops may Benefit Many Farmers, but the Technology Needs Proper Management to Remain Effective." News from the National Academies (April 13).

Shimizu, Hiroko. 2013. Liberated from Nature or Shackled by It ? The Costs and Impacts of Excessive Precaution. Molinari Economic Institute (November 4).

- Critics (general)
Friends of the Earth. 2011. Who Benefits from GM Crops? (Executive Summary).

Portfolio 21. 2014. The Case Against GMOs. An Environmental Investor's View of the Threat to our Global Food Systems. (September).

- Supporters (general)
Bailey, Ronald. 2008. "Are Farmers Stupid, or Deluded, or Both? - Friends of the Earth Misinforms on Crop Biotech Again." Reason Online, February 19.

Beyer Beware. "What you Need to Know about Monsanto and GMO Feed." (May 21, 2013).

Entine, Jon. 2014. "The Debate about GMO Safety is Over, Thanks to a New Trillion Meal Study." Forbes (Sept 17). 

Ridley, Matt. 2015. "Genetic Modification Raises Yields and Cuts Pesticide Use." The Rational Optimist (January 20). 

Ridley, Matt. 2011. "Africa Needs Biotech Crops." Rational Optimist (December 12).

Walton, Dave. 2015. "GMO Myth: Farmers "drown" crops in "dangerous" glyphosate. Fact: They use eye droppers." Genetic Literacy Project (January 22). 

Topical
- GMOs and pesticides
Cowen, Tyler. 2012. "GMOs and pesticide use (an email from Greg Conko)" Marginal Revolution (October 26).

- GMOs and developing economies
Ibrahim, Abdulrazak. 2014. "Africa On GMOs: Scientific Response To Anti-technology NGOs." Leadership (August 17).

Suresh, Arvind. 2014. "Kenya's Maize Famine underscores Need for Africa to Confront GMO Fears." (December 8).

- Specific crops
De Steur, H. et al. 2015. "Status and Market Potential of Transgenic Biofortified Crops." Nature Biotechnology 33 (1): 25-29. 

Ropeik, David. 2014. "Golden Rice Opponents Should Be Held Accountable for Health Problems Linked to Vitamin A Deficiency." Scientific American (Blog) (March 15). 

Harmon, Amy. 2013. "A Race to Save the Orange by Altering Its DNA." New York Times (July 27).

- The Seralini Affair
Elsevier. 2013. "Elsevier Announces Article Retraction from Journal Food and Chemical Toxicology." (November 28).

- Biodiversity Ownership
Gepts, Paul. 2004. "Who Owns Biodiversity, and How Should the Owners Be Compensated?" Plant Physiology 134 (4): 1295-1307. 

Organic
- Overview

Remington, Jess. 2014. "The Truth About Who Owns Organic Food Companies, In One Chart." Policy.Mic (February 20).

"Is Organic Food Worth the Expense?" Room to Debate - The New York Times (September 10, 2012).

Government of Canada. General Principles and Management Standards (CAN/CGSB-32.310-2006) "Introduction (Informative)." 

- GMOs and organic foods
Charles, Dan. 2014. "Why The 'Non-GMO' Label Is Organic's Frenemy." NPR (The Salt) (February 28).

Moore, Patrick and Mischa Popoff. 2014. "Organic Activists Need GMOs Now more than Ever." Daily Caller (April 1).

Fedoroff, Nina, Ken Cassman and Marshall Matz. 2014. "Americans Need to Rethink their Concern on GMO vs. Organic Crops on Organic Food." DesMoines Register (November 22). 

Ongu, Isaac. 2015. "Death of British journalist after eating organic peanuts highlights absurdity of GMO safety scare."  Genetic Literacy Project (March 18).

Supporters
The Soil Association (UK)
- What is organic
* Organic Farming
* Organic Animals

Canada Organic Trade Association
- Health Benefits
- Environmental Benefits
- Organics and GMOs 

Critics
- Overview

Hurst, Blake. 2012. "Organic Illusions." The American Magazine (October 1st).

Miller, Henry I. 2013. "The Myth of Organic Agriculture." Project Syndicate (November 11).

Berezow, Alex B. 2014. "The Lies that Whole Foods Tells." Real Clear Science (June 16).

Miller, Henry H. 2015. "Chipotle: The Long Defeat Of Doing Nothing Well." Forbes (December 14). 

- Environment
Miller, Henry. 2014. "Why Organic Isn't 'Sustainable'." Forbes (November 19).

- Culture
Schaefer Riley, Naomi. 2014. "The Tyranny of the Organic Mommy Mafia." The New York Post (April 19).

Avery, Dennis. 2002. "Would Organic Farming Unleash A Billion Cattle On U.S. Wildlands?" Center for Global Food Issue, February 14.

- Nutrition
Brandt, Michelle. 2012. "Little evidence of health benefits from organic foods, Stanford study finds." Office of Communications & Public Affairs - Stanford University School of Medicine (September 3).

- Pesticides
Iltan, Cigdem. 2010. "Organic Pesticides can be Worse than Synthetic: Study." The Globe and Mail (June 22).

- Animals
Finz, Stacy. 2009. "Bill would restrict antibiotics in food animals." San Francisco Chronicle (July 30).

Kim Klotins. 2005. "Antibiotic Use For Growth Improvement - Controversy And Resolution." OMAFRA.

Suggested readings and links
 

Week 12 (March 23): Policy Controversies II: Food Safety and Security, Subsidies and Barriers to Trade

Mandatory Videos


Beck, Leslie. 2012. "Video: Are you breaking these food-safety rules?" The Globe and Mail (July 2).

National Geographic. 2014. How Food Can Make Us Sick.

eFoodhandlers Inc. 2014. Basic Food Safety: Chapter 4 "Avoiding Cross Contamination (English)." 
 

Mandatory readings


- General
Word Health Organization (WHO). 2009. Ten Facts on Food Safety

CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, US Government).
- Food and Water Safety
- Parasites > Food
- CDC Estimates of Foodborne Illness in the United States (2011)
- Morris, J Glenn Jr. 2011. "How Safe is our Food?" Emerging Infectious Diseases 17 (1).

Chassy, Bruce and David Tribe. 2010. "Food Safety: Focus on Real Risks, Not Fake Ones." Academic Review (March 18).

Gholipour, Bahar. 2013. "Raw Milk: 1 in 6 Who Drink It Gets Sick." Live Science (December 11). 

- Canada
Government of Canada. 2009. "How Does Canada's Food Safety Food System Work?" Listeriosis Investigative Review, pp. 13-28.

Canadian Food Inspection Agency
- Food Poisoning (2013)

Public Health Agency of Canada
- Estimates of Food-borne Illness in Canada (2013)

Famine (Historical Perspective)
Carmody, Pádraig (2009) 'Famine: A Short History' in Policy & Practice: A Development Education Review, Vol. 9, Autumn 2009, pp. 82-85.

Hunger and Food Security (Recent History and Current Debates)
- Concepts and Numbers
UN FAO
- Agricultural Outlook 2012-2021

- 2010. "Food: The Growing Problem." Nature 466: 546-547 (July 28).

- Policy Analysis and Proposals
Fischetti, Mark. 2011. "How to Double Global Food Production by 2050 and Reduce Environmental Damage." Scientific American (November).

Serageldin, Ismail. 2009. "Abolishing Hunger." Issues in Science and Technology 23 (4), Summer.

Subsidies and Barriers to Trade
Anderson, Kym. 2009. Five Decades of Distortion to Agricultural Incentives. Agricultural Distortion Working Paper 76 (World Bank), pp. 2-11.

Charlebois, Sylvain and Marcel Boyer. 2008. The Doha Development Round and Agricultural Trade, Economic Note, Montreal Economic Institute, June.

Duflo, Esther. 2008. "Food Policy: The Need for Insurance." Vox (April 25).

Suggested readings and links
 

Week 13 (March 30): Policy Controversies III: Urban Agriculture, Locavorism and Urbanization

Mandatory Video


[Because of the snow day this material will not be covered this year. As substitute please watch the following videos.]

UK Ministry of Information and Ministry of Agriculture. 1942. Dig for Victory.

Green State TV
- "The idea that you can grow more food by reverting to local production is ludicrous." (August 18, 2014)
- "Food from a small, local farm isn't safer than conventionally grown food." (August 11, 2013)
- "Why Local Grown Food Makes Us Less Food Secure." (August 4, 2014)
- "What are the Environmental Drawbacks to Buying Local Produce?" (July 21, 2014)
- "Does Buying Local Produce Reduce My Carbon Footprint?" (July 14, 2014)
- "Doesn't buying local grow the local economy?" (July 7, 2014)
- "How can 'grow local' movements hurt a nation's economy?" (June 30, 2014)
- "Does buying local produce help grow the local economy?" (June 25, 2014)
- "Does 'growing local' lead to a smaller food supply?" (June 18, 2014)

"Food Myths: The Locavore's Dilemma." Stossel (Fox Business Network: May 29, 2014; Fox News Network: June 1, 2014). (30 :27-34-27)
 

Mandatory readings


> PowerPoint Presentation
> Week 11, complementary notes


Locavorism
- Historical perspective
BBC News. 2012. "Groceries 'cheaper' now than in 1862, Grocer magazine finds." (January 6).

- Overview of the issues
Garnett, Tara. 2008. Cooking Up a Storm: Food, Greenhouse Emissions and our Changing Climate, Food Climate Research Network (University of Surrey), pp. 3-4.

Bellemare, Marc F. 2008. "Why Africa's Food Markets Are Thin." The News & Observer (Raleigh). April 25.

- Current debates
- Supportive
"Infographic: Locavorism vs. globavorism." MNN - Mother Nature Network, August 10, 2011.

Halweil, Brian. 2002. "Home Grown: The Case for Local Food in a Global Market." WorldWatch paper #163, Worldwatch Institute, pp. 5-8.

- Critical
Bailey, Ronald. 2008 "The Food Miles Mistake - Saving the Planet by Eating New Zealand Apples," Reason, November 4.

Gray, Nathan. 2013. "Frozen Fruit and Vegetable might be more Nutritious than Fresh: Research." Food Navigator (October 11).

Sexton, Steven, 2009. "Does Local Production Improve Environment and Health Outcomes?" ARE Updates 13 (2): 5-8.

"Balanced diet includes local and imported food, say IIED, Oxfam" IIED (Press Release), December 3rd, 2009.

Paterson, Victoria. 2013 "Professor Decries Local-food Movement and Praises the '10,000-mile Diet'." AgCanada.com, March 16.

Suggested readings and links
 

Term Paper Deadline: April 1, 5PM


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