University of Toronto Mississauga •
Department of Geography • Winter 2015
GGR 287H5S: Food and Globalization
Instructor: Pierre Desrochers
Lectures: Monday 3-5PM
Phone: (905) 828-5206
Office: Davis Building, room 3273
Lecture room: DV 2072
GGR 287H5S - Primary Syllabus and Mandatory
Suggested Readings' DIRECT LINKS
• Substantial references
Beddington, John. 2010. "Global
Food and Farming Futures." Philosophical Transactions of the
Royal Society B (Biological Sciences) 365 (1554) (September): 2767.
Godfray, H. Charles J. 2010. "Introduction:
The Future of the Global Food System." Philosophical Transactions
of the Royal Society B (Biological Sciences) 365 (1554) (September):
Kearney, John. 2010. "Food
Consumption Trends and Drivers." Philosophical Transactions of
the Royal Society B (Biological Sciences) 365 (1554) (September):
Johnson, D. Gale. 2000, "Population,
Food, and Knowledge," American Economic Review 90, 2000, p.
DeGregori, Thomas R. 2009. "The
Green Washing of the Green Ideological Agenda: In Defense of Modern
Agriculture, Technology and Life."
Wimberley, Ronald C. et al. 2003.
Food from Our Changing World: The Globalization of Food and How
Americans Feel About It, North Carolina State University.
• Shorter texts
Robert, Paul. 2009. "Spoiled:
Organic and Local is so 2008." Mother Jones (February)
Kotkin, Joel. 2010. "America's
Agricultural Angst." Forbes (January 19)
Timmer, Peter C. "A World
without Agriculture? The Historical Paradox of Agricultural Development."
AEI Outlook May 2009.
Cowen, Tyler. 2006. "Can You
Really Save the Planet at the Dinner Table? - An economist's critique of
The Omnivore's Dilemma." Slate.com, November 1st.
Cunningham, Brent. 2011. "Pastoral
Romance." Lapham's Quarterly (Summer).
Discovering the Food System: An experiential learning program for young
and inquiring minds. Cornell University.
World Bank. 2007.
World Development Report 2008: Agriculture and Development,
- Poverty Reduction
- Climate Change
- The 'Three Worlds' of Agriculture Briefs
What do you think of Pollan's Ideas?" Talk of the Nation
(National Public Radio), Oct. 8, 2009.
Millions Fed, Proven Solutions
Hurst Debate the Future of Agriculture" Market to Market
(Iowa Public Television), July 16, 2010.
Hans Rosling on 200 countries, 200 years, 4 minutes
Works on Farming, Fishing, Food
Weeks 2-3: Historical
Philipps, Lynne. 2006. "Food
and Globalization." Annual Review of Anthropology 35: 37-57.
von Braun, Joachim and Eugenio Díaz-Bonilla. 2008. Globalization of
Food and Agriculture and the Poor. Oxford University Press and
International Food Policy Research Institute,
Chapter 1: Globalization of Agriculture and Food, Causes, Consequences,
and Policy Implications.
• Insect Agriculture
Bernhard Stadler and Anthony F.G. Dixon. 2006. "Ecology
and Evolution of Aphid-Ant Interactions." Annual Review of
Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics 36: 345-372.
Peter Foges. 2011. "What
Does It Taste Like?" Lapham's Quarterly (Summer).
• Cooking and Early Agriculture
Mason, Daniel. 2011. "Balanced
Diets." Lapham's Quarterly (Summer).
Nathan Nunn and Nancy Qian. 2010. "The
Columbian Exchange: A History of Diseases, Food and Ideas."
Journal of Economic Perspectives 24 (2): 163-188.
Pringle, Heather. 1998. "Reading
the Signs of Ancient Animal Domestication." Science 282
Smith, Bruce D. 2006. "Eastern
North America as an Independent Center of Plant Domestication."
Proceedings of the National Academy of the Sciences of the United States
103 (33): 12223-12228.
Biodiversity and the Technology of Cooking: Uncultivated foods and the
technology of cooking /
Uncultivated Greens - the Nutritional Values /
Uncultivated foods and daily diets in Farhad Mazhar, Daniel
Buckles, P.V. Satheesh, and Farida Akhter.
Sovereignty and Uncultivated Biodiversity in South Asia: Essays on the
Poverty of Food Policy and the Wealth of the Social Landscape.
Academic Foundation/IDRC International Development Research Centre,
Thadeusz, Frank. 2009. "Alcohol's
Neolithic Origins: Brewing Up a Civilization." Spiegel Online,
• Transition towards the Modern Era
Adams, Edward Francis and Louis Adelbert Clinton. 1899.
The Modern Farmer in his Business Relations: A Study of Some of the
Principles underlying the Art of Profitable Farming and Marketing, and
of the Interests of Farmers as Affected by Modern Social and Economic
Conditions and Forces. San Francisco: N.J. Stone Company, pp.
Eh.Net Encyclopedia of Economic and Business History
- Stead, David. 2004. "Agricultural
Tenures and Tithes."
- Stewart, James I. 2008. "The
Economics of American Farm Unrest, 1865-1900."
• Green Revolution (History)
Green Revolution." U.S. Department of Agriculture & Agricultural
Research Service, October 10, 2003.
"Women and The
Green Revolution." Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the
"Critique on the
Green Revolution" Livelihood 2005.
Borlaug, Norman, & Dowswell, Chris. 2004. "Responses
to Discussion Questions." Cyberspace Discussion, January 5 - 9.
Borlaug, Norman E. 2002. "Feeding
a World of 10 Billion People: Our 21st Century Challenge." Inaugural
lecture, Borlaug Lecture Series, Iowa State University, October 15.
Borlaug, Norman E. 1970. "The
Green Revolution, Peace, and Humanity." Nobel Lecture, December 11.
Conko, Greg. 2009. "The
Man Who Fed the World." OpenMarket.org, September 13.
DeGregori, Thomas R. "Green
Myths against the Green Revolution."
Hesser, Leon. 2006.
The Man Who Fed the World. Durban House Publishing.
Leonard, Andrew. 2009. "The
Paradox of Norman Borlaug." Salon, Sept. 14.
Miller, Henry I. 2006. "History
and Culture: The Man Who Launched the Green Revolution." Hoover
Digest, no 4.
Murray H. Milford and ECA Runge. 2008. "Beachell
and Borlaug: Two Giants of the American Society of Agronomy's First
Century." Agronomy Journal 100 Supplement 3: S-1-S-3.
- Norman Borlaug
Medal of Freedom Recipient Norman Borlaug." Medal of Freedom.com.
Rosset, Peter. 2000. "Lessons
from the Green Revolution." Food First - Institute for Food and
Development Policy, March/April.
Sanchez, Pedro. 2004. "The
Next Green Revolution." New York Times, October 6.
Shiva, Vandana. 1991. "The
Green Revolution in the Punjab." The Ecologist, Vol. 21, No.
Zeyen, Richard. "Yaqui
Valley Farmers Provide Eternal Resting Place for Their Friend and Our
Colleague, Norman Borlaug."
Zeyen, Richard, Carol Ishimaru, Marty Dickman & Christine Richardson. "Norman
Borlaug: Plant Pathologist/Humanitarian."
• Recent Controversies
Potrykus, Ingo. 2005. "Missing
a Golden Rice opportunity." The Economic Times, December 26.
Taverne, Dick. 2007. "The
Real GM Food Scandal." Prospect Magazine, November.
• Modern Agriculture and the Green Revolution
Greatest Engineering Achievements of the 20th Century. National
Academy of Engineering. 2000.
USDA Economics Research Service. 2010.
Agricultural Productivity in the United States.
USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture. 2010.
Family Farms Overview.
GB Tripletta and Warren A Dick. 2008. "No-Tillage
Crop Production: A Revolution in Agriculture!" Agronomy Journal
100 Supplement 3: S153-S165. (Abstract, Introduction, History).
- Food and Agricultures of the World
The Food Timeline
• Transition to Modern Era
History Farm (York, Nebraska)
• Green Revolution
A short video in
which Norman Borlaug explains his work and the future of agricultural
The Norman Borlaug Heritage
McNeill, William H. 1999. "How
the Potato changed World History." Social Research 66 (1):
J. M. Prescott, P. A. Burnett, E. E. Saari, J. Ranson, J. Bowman, W. de
Milliano, R. P. Singh, G. Bekele.
Diseases and Pests: A Guide for Field Identification. International
Maize and Wheat Improvement Center.
Olmstead, Alan L., & Paul W. Rhode, "Biological
Globalization: The Other Grain Invasion," in Timothy J. Hatton,
Kevin O'Rourke, & Alan M. Taylor, (eds.), The New Comparative
Economic History: Essays in Honor of Jeffrey G. Williamson
(Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2007), pp. 115-140.
University of Nebraska–Lincoln. 2010.
Lupton, F. "Advances
in work on breeding wheat with improved grain quality in the twentieth
century." The Journal of Agricultural Science (2005), 143:
Claudia Reinhardt and Bill Ganzel. 2003. "The
Science of Hybrids." Living History Farm (York, Nebraska).
Hopkins, A., and R. J. Wilkins. "Temperate
grassland: key developments in the last century and future perspectives."
The Journal of Agricultural Science (2006), 144: 503-523.
Gibson, Lance, and Garren Benson. 2005. "Origin,
History, and Uses of Soybean (Glycine max)." Iowa State
University, Department of Agronomy.
Soybeans are Used." North Carolina Soybean Producers Association,
in U.S. Agriculture - Oats and Soybeans." National Agricultural
Statistics Service, United States Department of Agriculture.
Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations (FAO).
Edible Insects - Future Prospects for Food and Feed Security.
FAO Forestry Paper.
- Domesticated Land Animals
Randal R. Rucker and Walter N. Thurman. 2012.
Disorder: The Market Response to Bee Disease. PERC Policy Series:
Smil, Vaclav. 2002. "Eating
Meat: Evolution, Patterns and Consequences," Population and
Development Review 28 (4): 599-639.
UN FAO 2010.
The State of
Food and Agriculture 2009: Livestock in the Balance.
Pew Commission on Industrial Farm Animal Production. 2008.
Putting Meat on The Table: Industrial Farm Animal Production in America.
Critchell, James and Raymond Joseph Troubridge. 1912.
A History of the Frozen Meat Trade: An account of the development and
present day methods of preparation, transport, and marketing of frozen
and chilled meats. London: Constable & Company Ltd., pp. 1-17.
Schulz, Matthias. 2010. "Neolithic
Immigration: How Middle East Milk Drinkers Conquered Europe." Der
Spiegel (October 15).
- Fisheries, Seafood and Aquaculture
UN FAO. 2004.
The State of
the World Fisheries
Welcomme, Robin L. et al. 2010. "Inland
Capture Fisheries" Philosophical Transactions of the Royal
Society B (Biological Sciences) 365 (1554) (September): 2881-2896.
* Problems and solutions
While Stocks Last?
Burnett, H. Sterling. Ph.D. 2007. "Ocean
Fisheries: Common Heritage or Tragic Commons?" Brief Analysis
No. 581, National Center for Policy Analysis, February 27.
Ellis, Richard. 2008. "The
Bluefin Tuna in Peril." Scientific American, June 24.
Garcia, Serge M. and Andrew Rosenberg. 2010. "Food
Security and Marine Capture Fisheries: Characteristics, Trends, Drivers
and Future Perspectives" Philosophical Transactions of the Royal
Society B (Biological Sciences) 365 (1554) (September): 2869-2880.
Gissurarson, Hannes. 2000.
Overfishing: the Icelandic Solution. London: Institute of Economic
Hannesson, Rögnvaldur. "The
Privatization of the Oceans." The Independent Review, Vol. 11
No 3, Winter 2007.
Leal, Donald R. 2002. "Fencing
the Fishery - A Primer on Ending The Race for Fish." Property and
Environment Research Center (PERC).
Safina, Carl. 2009 "A
Future for US Fisheries" Issues in Science and Technology 25
Marra, John. 2005. "When
will we tame the oceans?" Nature 436: 175-176, 14 July.
* Historical Perspective
Geoffrey Kron. 2005. "Possible
Evidence for the Aquaculture of Tilapia in GrecoRoman Antiquity."
Revue d'histoire comparée de l'environnement.
Herminio R. Rabanal. 1988. "History
of Aquaculture." FAO.
Whit Richardson. 2011. "The
Mastery of Fish." Lapham's Quarterly (Summer).
* Overview and controversies
AIMS & CAI. 2006.
Aquaculture: The Blue Revolution. Autumn 2006.
Halweil, Brian. 2008. "Farming
Fish for the Future." WorldWatch Report 176.
FAO - IIRR - World Fish Center. 2001.
agriculture-aquaculture - A primer. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper
Alder, Jacqueline, Brooke Campbell, Vasiliki Karpouzi, Kristin Kaschner,
and Daniel Pauly. 2008. "Forage
Fish: From Ecosystems to Markets." Annual Review of Environment
and Resources 33: 153-166.
Naylor, Rosamond & Marshall Burke. 2005. "Aquaculture
and Ocean Resources: Raising Tigers of the Sea." Annual Review of
Environment and Resources 30: 185-218.
Rosamond L. Naylor et al. 2009. "Feeding
Aquaculture in an Era of Finite Resources." Proceedings of the
National Academy of Sciences 106 (36): 15103?15110.
- Canada fisheries and aquaculture
Bavington, Dean. 2010.
Managed Annihilation. An Unnatural History of the Newfoundland Cod
Introduction and chapter 1
Young, Nathan and Ralph Matthews. 2010.
Aquaculture Controversy in Canada. UBC Press.
Introduction and chapter 1: aquaculture in global context
Neill, Robin. 2006. "It
Is Farming, Not Fishing: Why Bureaucrats and Environmentalists Miss the
Point of Canadian Aquaculture." How to Farm the Seas (Paper #
4), Atlantic Institute for Market Studies (AIMS), April.
USDA. National Agricultural Library Plants and Crops
International Year of
International Potato Center (CGIAR
The Potato Museum
Dolan DNA Learning Center (Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory)
Explosives Origins of Corn
Maize (Corn) Genome Completed
National Corn Growers Association
Smithsonian.com "Chocolate Week"
UN FAO on
Edible Forest Insects
- Land Animals
USDA. National Agricultural Library Animals and Livestock
Pew Commission on Industrial Animal Farm
- Fisheries, Seafood and Aquaculture
USDA. National Agricultural Library. Aquaculture
GreenFacts.org on Fisheries
The OECD on fisheries
UN FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture
The U.S. Commission on Ocean
Sushi and the End of the Southern Bluefish Tuna (2009)
Soft Powers and Hard Realities
Week 10: Agricultural
Inputs, Technologies and Food Additives
Brunt, Liam. 2007. "Where
There's Muck, There's Brass: The Market for Manure in the Industrial
Revolution." The Economic History Review, Vol. 60 No. 2, pp.
Charlebois, Sylvain. 2010. "Potash: The Pink Gold Rush is Upon Us."
National Post, September 24.
Frink, Charles R., Paul E. Waggoner, & Jesse H. Ausubel. "Nitrogen
fertilizer: Retrospect and prospect." Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA
Vol. 96, Issue 4, pp. 1175-1180, February 16, 1999.
Martinez, Ibsen. 2008. "Reflections from Latin America - Guano."
of Economics and Liberty, August 4.
Smil, Vaclav. 2012. "Jeremy
Grantham, Starving for Facts." The American Magazine
Smil, Vaclav. 2005. "Nitrogen
in modern European agriculture." In: Scholliers, P., L. Van Molle
and C. Sarasua, eds. Land, Shops and Kitchens: Technology and the
Food Chain in Twentieth-Century Europe. Turnhout: Brepols Publishers,
• Pest Management
Avery, Alex A. 2006.
Pesticide Use: What we Know and don't Know about Use, Toxicity, and
Environmental Impacts. Crop Protection Products for Organic
Agriculture. Washington, DC: American Chemical Society. pp. 58-77.
Bahlai, Christine A, Yingen Xue1, Cara M. McCreary, Arthur W. Schaafsma
and Rebecca H. Hallett. 2010. "Choosing
Organic Pesticides over Synthetic Pesticides May Not Effectively
Mitigate Environmental Risk in Soybeans." Plos One 5 (6).
David Moore, Geoffrey D. Robson and Anthony P. J. Trinci. 2010.
21st Century Guidebook to Fungi.
E.-C. Oerke. 2006. "Centenary
Review: Crop Losses to Pests." Journal of Agricultural Science
Entine, Jon. 2011.
Scared to Death. How Chemophobia Threatens Public Health. A Position
Statement of The American Council on Science and Health. American
Council on Science and Health.
Fernandez-Cornejo, Jorge et al. 2014.
Pesticide Use in U.S. Agriculture: 21 Selected Crops, 1960-2008.
USDA Economic Information Bulletin #124 (May).
Hayes' Handbook of Pesticide Toxicology (Third Edition)
Insects and Other Arthropods, ARS Image Gallery.
National Research Council (Committee on Comparative Toxicity of
Naturally Occurring Carcinogens). 1996.
Anticarcinogens in the Human Diet. A Comparison of Naturally Occurring
and Synthetic Substances. National Academy Press
P.E. Russell. 2005. "Centenary
Review: A Century of Fungicide Evolution." Journal of
Agricultural Science 145 (1): 11-25.
Sparks, Thomas C. 2013. "Insecticide
Discovery: An Evaluation and Analysis." Pesticide Biochemistry
and Physiology 107: 8-17.
• Animal Diseases
Cattle Diseases on
a global cattle killer to rest" BBC News, 20 May 2011.
declared "free" from deadly cattle disease" United Nations Radio, 28
Rinderpest Eradication Programme" FAO.
"Disease Facts -
Rinderpest" Institute for Animal Health.
Cattle Diseases and
Conditions on TheCattleSite.com
Boudreaux, Karol. 2006. "Seeds of Hope: Agricultural Technologies and
Poverty Alleviation in Rural South Africa." Policy Comment No. 6,
EnterpriseAfrica!, September 8.
Canadian Seed Trade Association. 1995.
The Merchants of Seeds: A History of the Canadian Seed Industry.
A brief history of the UK
seed producer Suttons
A brief history of
the Gallatin Valley Seed Company
Tripp, Robert. 2002.
Seed Provision & Agricultural Development: The Institutions of Rural
Change. Overseas Development Institute.
Minister of Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada. 2004.
Report of the Seed Sector Advisory Committee.
Salzman, James. 2006. "Thirst: A Short History of Drinking Water." Duke
Law School Faculty Scholarship Paper Series. Paper 31.
• Animal Reproductive Technologies
National Institute of Food and Agriculture. Animal Reproduction
BBC4 and the British Museum. "Seed Industry Dodder Counting Machine."
A History of the World in 100 Objects.
Smithsonian Institutions Library on The American Seed and Nursery
• Pest Management
American Phytopathological Society "Common
Names of Plant Diseases"
CBC News In Depth - The Pesticide Debate
Insecticide Resistance Action
Institute of Food and Agriculture. Pest Management
Weis, Judith. 2008. "DDT" In Cutler J. Cleveland (ed.)
International Fertilizer Development
Global Phosphorus Research
Week 11: Policy
Controversies I: Environment, Biotechnologies and Organic Production
• Agriculture & Environment, Current perspectives and debates
and Climate Change." In Cleveland, Cutler J. (ed.) Encyclopedia
of the Earth.
Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada. 2009.
Impact of Agricultural Management Practices on the Environment.
• Environment (General)
Avery, Dennis T. 2003. "Sustaining
Both Planet and People: The Moral Challenge of the 21st Century,"
University of Maryland's First Annual Conference on Hunger, October 14.
Erle Ellis and Navin Ramankutty. 2009. "Anthropogenic
biomes." Encyclopedia of Earth.
McNeill, J.R. and Verena Winiwarter. 2004. "Breaking
the Sod: Humankind, History, and Soil." Science 304 (5677)
(June 11): 1627-1629.
Thomas E. Dahl and Gregory J. Allord. 1997. "History
of Wetlands in the Conterminous United States." United States
Geological Survey Water Supply Paper 2425.
• Biodiversity and monocultures
Angelson, A. and D. Kaimowitz (edited by). 2001.
Agricultural Technologies and Tropical Deforestation. CABI
Publishing in association with Center for International Forestry
Andrew, Toby. 2002. "Lost
in the Maize." Spiked Online.
Brazeau, Marc. 2014. "The
10 Minor Realizations That Flipped My Thinking About GMOs." Daily
Kos (April 15).
Cayford, Jerry. 2003. "Breeding
Sanity into the GM Food Debate" Issues in Science and Technology,
Committee on the Impact of Biotechnology on Farm-Level Economics and
Sustainability; National Research Council. 2010. "Impact
of Genetically Engineered Crops on Farm Sustainability in the United
States." National Academies Press.
Gruère, Guillaume P., Purvi Mehta-Bhatt and Debdatta Sengupta. 2008. "Bt
Cotton and Farmer Suicides in India: Reviewing the Evidence."
IFPRI Discussion Paper 00808.
Prakash, C. S. and Gregory Conko. 2004. "Technology
for Life: How Biotech Will Save Billions from Starvation." The
American Enterprise (March): 16-20.
Haruko Okusu. 2009. "Biotechnology
Research in the CGIAR: An Overview." AgBioForum 12 (1).
Herdt, Robert W. 2006. "Biotechnology
in Agriculture." Annual Review of Environment and Resources
31: 265-295 (November).
Kathage, Jonas and Matin Qaim. 2012. "Economic
impacts and impact dynamics of Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) cotton in
India." Proceedings of the National Academy of the Sciences
109 (29): 11652-11656.
McWilliams, James E. 2009. "Could
Frankenfoods be Good for the Environment?" Slate, January 28.
Miller, Henry I. 2005. "The UN's
Biotech for Food Scandal." Tech Central Station,
Susman, Megan M. 2000. "Biotechnology
in Food and Agriculture - Facts and Fears." Progressive Policy
Institute, May 1.
Trewavas, Anthony. "A
Critical Assessment of Organic Farming-and-Food Assertions With
Particular Respect to the UK and the Potential Environmental Benefits of
No-Till Agriculture." Crop Protection 23 (2004) 757-781.
Woodall, Jack. 2006. "Our
Food is Dying - Infectious Agents are Threatening the World's Crops."
The Scientist, March, Vol. 20, Issue 3, p. 62.
World Bank. 2007. World Development Report 2008: Agriculture and
Development, Policy Briefs
Science and Technology
Intelligence2 USA on Organic Food Debate (February 2010) - Briefing
About.com - An Overview of Some Common Organic Pesticides
Alan D. Dangour, Sakhi K. Dodhia, Arabella Hayter, Elizabeth Allen,
Karen Lock and Ricardo Uauy. 2009. "Nutrional
Quality of Organic Foods: A Systematic Review." American Journal
of Clinical Nutrition 93 (6): 680-685.
Center for Consumer Freedom
Organic?" June 17, 2010
Context on Organic Pesticides Claims," May 27, 2010
Nutritional Superiority (Still) Nonexistent," May 27, 2010
Brian Dunning. 2007. "Organic
Food Myths." Skeptoid Podcast. Skeptoid Media, Inc., (January 5).
Byrne, Jay, Gregory Conko, Jon Entine, Tony Gilland, Thomas Jefferson
Hoban, Patrick Moore, Andrew S. Natsios, Martina Newell-McGloughlin,
Robert L. Paarlberg, C.S. Prakash, & Carol Tucker Foreman.
Let Them Eat Precaution. How Politics Is Undermining the Genetic
Revolution in Agriculture, Edited by Jon Entine. AEI Press
(Washington) January 2006.
Leonard, Andrew. 2006. "Save
the Rain Forest - Boycott Organic?" Salon, December 12.
Popoff, Mischa. 2012. "Time to
Deregulate Organic." bigthink.com (January 13).
Agriculture Can Contribute to Fighting Hunger - But Chemical Fertilizers
Needed to Feed the World." FAO Newsroom, 10 December 2007.
Report from the Bichel Committee (Danish Government). 2001. Organic
Scenarios for Denmark.
Rosenthal, Elisabeth. 2011. "Questions
About Organic Produce and Sustainability." NYTimes.com (December
Soupcoff, Marni. 2012. "Stanford
study shows organic food no safer or healthier than conventional food."
National Post (September 5).
Winter, Carl K. and Sarah F. Davis. 2006. "Organic
Foods." Journal of Food Science 71 (9): R117-R124.
• Meat Production and the Environment
Nierenberg, Danielle. 2005. "Happier
Meals: Rethinking the Global Meat Industry." Worldwatch Paper
UN FAO. 2006.
Long Shadow: Environmental Issues and Options.
- Critics of Meat Production
Motavalli, Jim. 2008. "The
Meat of the Matter: Our Livestock Industry Creates More Greenhouse Gas
than Transportation Does." E Magazine (July-August).
Belli, Brita. 2008. "Fixing
the Animal Farms: An Interview with Robert Martin" E Magazine
Colleran, Brian. 2008. "Think
Before You Eat: The Widespread Effects of Factory-Farmed Meat" E
Gerber, P.J., Steinfeld, H., Henderson, B., Mottet, A., Opio, C.,
Dijkman, J., Falcucci, A. & Tempio, G. 2013.
Tackling climate change through livestock - A global assessment of
emissions and mitigation opportunities. Food and Agriculture
Organization of the United Nations (FAO), Rome.
- Defenders of Meat and Modern Production Methods
Less Meat and Dairy Products won't Have Major Impact on Global Warming,
Expert Argues" Science Daily, March 22, 2010.
Avery, Dennis T. 2010. "Confined
Livestock Better for the Planet." CFGI Blog, July 6.
• Soil Erosion and Degradation
Cutler J. Cleveland (ed). Encyclopedia of the Earth
- Buonanduci, Michele. 2009. "Dust
Avery, Dennis T. 2010. "Muddy
Rivers: Don't Blame Farmers." CFACT, November 18.
• Environment (General)
Anthromes: The Global Ecological
Patterns Created by Humans
Commission (European Union). Agriculture and Rural Development -
Agriculture and the Environment
- Indicators (Overview)
(Browse) OECD. 2008.
Agri-Environment Indicators (Key points)
• Meat Production and the Environment
Mitloehner, Frank. 2009.
Clearing the Air: Livestock's Contribution to Climate Change
(Power Point Presentation)
Pitesky, Maurice E., Kimberly R. Stackhouse and Frank F. Mitloehner.
the Air: Livestock's Contribution to Climate Change." Advances in
Agronomy 103: 1-40.
Toronto Vegetarian Association. 2007.
The Pew Initiative on Food and
debate on the future of GM technologies, Spiked-Science Debates.
Council for Biotechnology
"Frankenfood" Frenzy on
ReasonOnline. A pro-technology Website, but with several links to
"Harvest of Fear," a 2001
Nova (PBS) documentary.
WHO (World Health Organization) on
- Biotechnology (GM
Foods) and Nanotechnology
• Organic Production
International Federation of Organic
International Organic Inspectors
Organic Materials Review Institute
OMAFRA. Organic Agriculture (in Ontario)
Public Works and Government Services Canada. Organic Agriculture
Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada. Organic Production
Canadian Food Inspection Agency. Organic Products
Canadian Consumer Information Gateway - Organic Food
The Soil Association (UK)
Intelligence2 USA (February 2010):
Is Organic Food Marketing Hype?
Week 12: Policy
Controversies II: Food Safety and Security, Subsidies and Barriers to
• Food Safety
Encyclopedia Britannica. 1911.
Blum, Deborah. 2011. "Death
in the Pot." Lapham’s Quarterly (Summer).
Fromson, Daniel. 2011. "The
Milkman Cometh." Lapham's Quarterly (Summer).
Marc T. 2010. "History
of Food and Drug Regulation in the United States." In Robert Whaples
(ed.) EH.Net Encyclopedia.
EPA et al. 1999. "Achievements
in Public Health, 1900-1999: Safer and Healthier Foods." Morbidity
and Mortality Weekly Reports (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)
48 (40): 905-913.
Codex Alimentarius: How it All Began. FAO.
Richard Williams, Robert L. Scharff, and David Bieler. 2010. "Food
Safety in the 21st Century." Mercatus on Policy no. 71
Elaine Scallan, Robert M. Hoekstra, Frederick J. Angulo, Robert V. Tauxe,
Marc-Alain Widdowson, Sharon L. Roy, Jeffery L. Jones, and Patricia M.
Griffin. 2011. "Foodborne
Illness Acquired in the United States-Major Pathogens." Emerging
Infectious Diseases 17 (1).
Elaine Scallan, Patricia M. Griffin, Frederick J. Angulo, Robert V.
Tauxe, and Robert M. Hoekstra. 2011. "Foodborne
Illness Acquired in the United States-Unspecified Agents."
Emerging Infectious Diseases 17 (1).
• Famine (Historical Perspective)
O'Grada, Cormac. 2008. "Ireland's
Great Famine." EH.Net Encyclopedia.
Mirsky, Jonathan. 2010. "'Livelihood
Issues.' Mao's Great Famine: The History of China's Most Devastating
Catastrophe, 1958-62" by Frank Dikötter," Literary Review,
Maloney, C. J. 2010. "Count
our Holiday Blessings: At Least we're not Starving."
LewRockwell.com, December 7.
• Hunger and Food Security
The State of
Food Insecurity - Economic Crises: Impacts and Lessons Learned.
Murton, Brian. 2000. "Famine" in Kenneth F. Kiple and Kriemhild Coneè
World History of Food. Cambrige: Cambridge University Press, VI.
Currey, Bruce and Graeme Hugo. (ed) 1984.
Famine as a Geographical Phenomenon. Dordrecht: Kluwer.
-Concepts and Numbers
Easterly, William. 2010. "Spot
the Made-Up World Hunger Numbers" AidWatch, September 15.
Headey, Derek. 2011. "Was
the global food crisis really a crisis? Simulations versus
self-reporting." VOX (6 June).
- Policy Analysis and Proposals
The Reformed Committee on World Food Security. A Briefing Paper for
Civil Society (Section 1).
Charlebois, Sylvain. 2010. "There's
a New World Order in Food." The Globe and Mail, August 19.
Surowiecki, Jame. 2008. "The
Perils of Efficiency." The New Yorker, November 24.
Weissmann, Jordan. 2011. "How
Kim Jong Il Starved North Korea." The Atlantic, December 20.
- Ancient History
Garnsey, Peter. 1999.
Society in Classical Antiquity. Cambridge University Press.
Garnsey, Peter. 1988.
and Food Supply in the Graeco-Roman World: Responses to Risk and Crisis.
Cambridge University Press.
Stathakopoulos, Dionysios Ch. 2004.
Famine and Pestilence in the Late Roman and Early Byzantine Empire: A
Systematic Survey of Subsistence Crises and Epidemics. London:
Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.
- Recent History
Baro, Mamadou, and Tara F. Deubel. 2006. "Persistent
Hunger: Perspectives on Vulnerability, Famine, and Food Security in
Sub-Saharan Africa." Annual Review of Anthropology 35:
Christiaensen, Luc. 2009. "Revisiting
the Global Food Architecture: Lessons from the 2008 Food Crisis."
UNU WIDER Discussion Paper.
Shaw, D. J. 2007.
World Food Security since 1945. (Book launch, Overseas
- Current Controversies
Globalization of Food Systems in Developing Countries: Impact on Food
Security and Nutrition, FAO Food and Nutrition Paper 83
Charlotte Hebebrand and Kristin Wedding. 2010.
The Role of Markets and Trade in Food Security. Center for
Strategic and International Studies.
Gerald Nelson, Amanda Palazzo, Claudia Ringler, Timothy Sulser and
Miroslav Batka. 2009.
The Role of International Trade in Climate Change Adaptation.
Issue Brief #4. ICTSD (International Center for Trade and Sustainable
Development) and IF&ATPC (International Food and Agricultural Policy
Dalziel, G. R. 2009. "Food
Defence Incidents 1950-2008: A Chronology and Analysis of Incidents
Involving the Malicious Contamination of the Food Supply Chain."
Nanyang Technological University.
Tierney, John. 2008. "Greens
and Hunger." The New York Times, May 19.
Garrett, Laurie. 2008. "Food
Failures and Futures." Center for Geoeconomic Studies (Council on
Foreign Relations) Working Paper, May 15.
Bradsher, Keith, & Andrew Martin. 2008. "World's
Poor Pay Price as Crop Research Is Cut." The New York Times,
Irvine, Ian. 2008.
Viewpoint on the World Food Crisis, Economic Note, Montreal
Economic Institute, May.
Paul Teng PHD, "Food
(In)Security in Uban Population." Asia Security Initiative Policy
Series, Working Paper no. 5, August 2010.
Gerald Nelson, Amanda Palazzo, Claudia Ringler, Timothy Sulser and
Miroslav Batka. 2009.
The Role of International Trade in Climate Change Adaptation. Issue
Brief #4. ICTSD and IF&ATPC.
• Subsidies and Barriers to Trade
Griswold, Dan. 2006. "Grain
Drain: The Hidden Cost of U.S. Rice Subsidies." Trade Briefing
Paper No. 25, Cato Institute's Center for Trade Policy Studies,
Agricultural Policies in OECD Countries: Monitoring and Evaluation -
2007/08 Agricultural Price Spikes: Causes and Policy Implications."
HM Government ("Executive Summary").
Siddharta Mitra and Tim Josling. 2009.
Agricultural Export Restrictions: Welfare Implications and Trade
Disciplines. IPC Position Paper Agricultural and Rural Development
Policy Series, International Food and Agricultural Trade Policy Council
• Food Safety
WHO on Food Safety
FAO on Food Safety and Quality
CDC on Food Related
USDA. Food Safety Research Office
US EPA. Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP)
Government of Canada
- Public Health Agency of Canada.
- Food Poisoning
Government of Ontario
Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs on:
food safety and traceability
Be Food Safe Canada
• Food Security
- FAOSTAT - Food
Global Food Security - Bibliography and links
Special issue of Science Magazine on food security (February
Special issue of Issues in
Science and Technology on food security (Summer 2009).
Special issue "Hunger
and History: The Impact of Changing Food Production and Consumption
Patterns on Society," Journal of Interdisciplinary History 14
(2), Autumn 1983.
Special Issue (open access) on "Food
Security: Feeding the World in 2050." Philosophical Transactions of
the Royal Society B (Biological Sciences) 365 (1554), September 27,
and Hunger." Copenhagen Consensus 2004 (very good survey
papers and critiques).
Institute (Columbia University) on Food Security
The Ripple that Drowns:
Twentieth Century Famines as Economic History. The Tawney
Memorial Lecture 2007, Cormac O' Grada.
FAO. 2009. World
Summit on Food Security
- List of
• Subsidies and Barriers to Trade
Kick all agricultural subsidies
• Food Sovereignty
La Via Campesina on
Pimbert, Michel. 2009. "Towards
food sovereignty: reclaiming autonomous food systems." IED
(International Institute for Environment and Development).
Annette Aurélie Desmarais, Nettie Wiebe, Hannah Wittman (eds). 2011.
in Canada: Creating Just and Sustainable Food
Systems. Fernwood Publishing.
Chapter 1: Nurturing Food Sovereignty in Canada.
Week 13: Policy Controversies III: Urban Agriculture, Locavorism and Urbanization
• Urban Agriculture
Satthertwaite, David, Gordon McGranahan and Cecilia Tacoli. 2010. "Urbanization
and its Implications for Food and Farming." Philosophical Transactions
of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 365 (1554): 2809-2820.
Fighting Poverty and Hunger: What Role for Urban Agriculture?
Policy Briefs, August.
Profitability and Sustainability of Urban and Peri-Urban
Agriculture, Agricultural Management, Marketing and Finance Occasional
Paper, Executive Summary (xi-xii).
- 1999. "Issues in Urban Agriculture" FAO Spotlight
Discovering the Food System: A Primer on
Community Food Systems (Linking Food, Nutrition and Agriculture),
Despommier, Dickson on "The Vertical Farm"
Avery, Dennis T. 2010. "City Farming - Pigs in the Sky?"
CGFI , October 19th.
Kunzig. 2011. "The
City Solution - Why cities are the best cure for our planet's growing
pains." National Geographic Magazine (December).
Urban Agriculture: A Literature Review, USDA.
Mark Redwood. 2008.
Agriculture in Urban Planning. Generating Livelihoods and Food Security.
Luc J.A. Mougeot. 2005.
The Social, Political, and Environmental Dimensions of Urban Agriculture.
Maria Caridad Cruz and Roberto Sánchez Medina. 2003.
in the City: Key to Sustainability in Havana, Cuba. Ian Randle
Olanrewaju B. Smith. 1999.
Agriculture in West Africa. Contributing to Food Security and Urban
Auxumite G. Egziabher, Diana Lee-Smith, Daniel G. Maxwell, Pyar Ali
Memon, Luc J.A. Mougeot, and Camillus J. Sawio (eds). 1994.
Feeding People. An Examination of Urban Agriculture in East Africa.
- Substantial Reports
Rai Chi, Kelly, James McGregor and Richard King. 2009.
Recharting the Food Miles Map. IIED and Oxfam.
Desrochers, Pierre and Hiroko Shimizu. 2008. "Yes
We Have No Bananas: A Critique of the Food Mile Perspective."
Mercatus Policy Series, Policy Primer No. 8.
Garnett, Tara. 2008.
Cooking Up a Storm: Food, Greenhouse Emissions and our Changing Climate,
Food Climate Research Network (University of Surrey).
McIntyre, Lynn, and Kristen Rondeau. 2011. "Individual
consumer food localism: A review anchored in Canadian farmwomen's
reflections." Journal of Rural Studies 27 (2) (April):
Saunders, Caroline, & Peter Hayes. 2007. "Air
Freight Transport of Fresh Fruit and Vegetables." Research Report
No. 299, Lincoln University.
Saunders, Caroline, Andrew Barber and Greg Taylor. 2006.
Food Miles - Comparative Energy/Emissions Performance of New Zealand's
Agriculture Industry, Lincoln University, Agribusiness and
Economics Research Unit (AERU), Research Report 285. Chapters 1-6, 8.
Watkiss, Paul et al. 2005. "The
Validity of Food Miles as an Indicator of Sustainable Development."
DEFRA Report ED50254.
Halweil, Brian. 2002. "Home
Grown: The Case for Local Food in a Global Market." WorldWatch paper
#163, Worldwatch Institute.
Steve Martinez, Michael Hand, Michelle Da Pra, Susan Pollack, Katherine
Ralston, Travis Smith, Stephen Vogel, Shellye Clark, Luanne Lohr, Sarah
Low and Constance Newman. 2010.
Food Systems: Concepts, Impacts, and Issues. Economic Research
Report #97. United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Economic
Roosevelt, M. 2006. "The Lure of the 100-Mile Diet."
Time, June 11.
Know your Farmer, Know your
Support Local Farmers
Strengthen Rural Communities
Promote Healthy Eating
Protect Natural Resources
"Beans are Bullets" and "Of Course I Can!" War-Era Food Posters
Ronald G. McCormick. 2010. "An
Insider's Account of Walmart's Local Foods Program." The Atlantic
Leeder, Jessica. 2009. "Debunking our 'Fetish of the Fresh'"
The Globe and
Mail, Nov. 24.
Zezima, Katie. 2010. "Push to Eat Local is Hampered by Shortage"
York Times, March 27.
Urban Agriculture." Sprouts in the Sidewalk.
Sanderson, Allen R. 2007. "De
Minimis." The Library of Economics and Liberty, September 3.
Sellick, Karen. 2008. "The
Buy Locally-Owned Fallacy." Library of Economics and Liberty,
on the Economics of Buy Local," April 16, 2007.
-. "Food Movement
'Harms Environment'." BBC News, July 15, 2005.
Averill, Victoria. 2007. "African
Trade Fears Carbon Footprint Backlash." BBC News, February 21.
Bennett, Drake. 2007. "The
localvore's dilemma." The Boston Globe, July 22.
Cowen, Tyler. 2010. "The
Economics of Air Freight" Marginal Revolution, April 18.
Desrochers, P., & Hiroko Shimizu. 2008. "Buy
Global - The 'Food Mile' Perspective Severely Distorts the Environmental
Impacts of Agricultural Production." National Post, November
Edwards-Jones, Gareth. 2006. "Food
Miles don't go the Distance." BBC News Viewpoint, March 16.
Foster, Peter. 2008. "Just
Plain Bananas." National Post, November 7.
Freakonomics » The Inefficiency of Local Food
Agriculture Heritage Program
• Urbanization and the Environment
Rifkin, Jeremy. 2006. "The Risks of Too Much City."
The Washington Post, December 17.
Bailey, Ronald. 2006. "The Lingering Stench of Malthus - Debunking
Jeremy Rifkin's Beef with Cities." ReasonOnline, December 22.
• Urban Agriculture
Community food systems and civic agriculture
IATP | Local Foods
The Locavore.ca (Sarah Elton's
PlanetGreen.com on the 100 mile challenge
Special issue "Local
Food - Perceptions, Prospects and Policies" of Choices: The
Magazine of Food, Farms, and Resource Issues 25 (1) 2010.
Toronto Food Policy Council
Twigs Way and Mike Brown. 2010.
Digging for Victory:
Gardens and Gardening in Wartime Britain. Sabrestorm Publishing.
(World War II):Victory Garden