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University of Toronto Mississauga • Department of Geography • Winter 2015

GGR 287H5S: Food and Globalization


 Instructor: Pierre Desrochers


 Lectures: Monday 3-5PM


 Phone: (905) 828-5206

 Office: Davis Building, room 3273


 Lecture room: DV 2072




GGR 287H5S - Primary Syllabus and Mandatory Readings

Primary Syllabus and Mandatory Readings

Suggested Readings' DIRECT LINKS

Week 1 (January 5): Introduction
> Week 2 (January 12): Historical Perspective I
> Week 3 (January 19): Historical Perspective II
> Week 4 (January 26): Commodities I
> Week 5 (February 2): Commodities II
> Week 6 (February 9): Term Test
> Week 7 (February 16): Provincial Holiday - No Lecture
> Week 8 (February 23): Commodities III
> Week 9 (March 2): Commodities IV
> Week 10 (March 9): Agricultural Inputs, Technologies and Food Additives
> Week 11 (March 16): Policy Controversies I: Environment, Biotechnologies and Organic Production
> Week 12 (March 23): Policy Controversies II: Food Security, Subsidies and Barriers to Trade
> Week 13 (March 30): Policy Controversies III: Urban Agriculture, Locavorism and Urbanization


Week 1: Introduction

Suggested readings

Substantial references

Beddington, John. 2010. "Global Food and Farming Futures." Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B (Biological Sciences) 365 (1554) (September): 2767.

Godfray, H. Charles J. 2010. "Introduction: The Future of the Global Food System." Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B (Biological Sciences) 365 (1554) (September): 2769-2777.

Kearney, John. 2010. "Food Consumption Trends and Drivers." Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B (Biological Sciences) 365 (1554) (September): 2793-2807.

Johnson, D. Gale. 2000, "Population, Food, and Knowledge," American Economic Review 90, 2000, p. 1-14.

DeGregori, Thomas R. 2009. "The Green Washing of the Green Ideological Agenda: In Defense of Modern Agriculture, Technology and Life." 

Wimberley, Ronald C. et al. 2003. Food from Our Changing World: The Globalization of Food and How Americans Feel About It, North Carolina State University.

Shorter texts

Robert, Paul. 2009. "Spoiled: Organic and Local is so 2008." Mother Jones (February)

Kotkin, Joel. 2010. "America's Agricultural Angst." Forbes (January 19)

Timmer, Peter C. "A World without Agriculture? The Historical Paradox of Agricultural Development." AEI Outlook May 2009.

Cowen, Tyler. 2006. "Can You Really Save the Planet at the Dinner Table? - An economist's critique of The Omnivore's Dilemma.", November 1st.

Cunningham, Brent. 2011. "Pastoral Romance." Lapham's Quarterly (Summer).


Eames-Sheavly, Marcia. Discovering the Food System: An experiential learning program for young and inquiring minds. Cornell University.

World Bank. 2007. World Development Report 2008: Agriculture and Development, Policy Briefs.
- Growth
- Poverty Reduction
- Climate Change
- Gender
- The 'Three Worlds' of Agriculture Briefs

"Farmers: What do you think of Pollan's Ideas?" Talk of the Nation (National Public Radio), Oct. 8, 2009.

IFPRI - Millions Fed, Proven Solutions

"Pollan and Hurst Debate the Future of Agriculture" Market to Market (Iowa Public Television), July 16, 2010.

The Meatrix

Gapminder. Hans Rosling on 200 countries, 200 years, 4 minutes

Mike Rowe Works on Farming, Fishing, Food

Weeks 2-3: Historical Perspective I-II

Suggested readings

Philipps, Lynne. 2006. "Food and Globalization." Annual Review of Anthropology 35: 37-57.

von Braun, Joachim and Eugenio Díaz-Bonilla. 2008. Globalization of Food and Agriculture and the Poor. Oxford University Press and International Food Policy Research Institute, Chapter 1: Globalization of Agriculture and Food, Causes, Consequences, and Policy Implications.

Insect Agriculture
Bernhard Stadler and Anthony F.G. Dixon. 2006. "Ecology and Evolution of Aphid-Ant Interactions." Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics 36: 345-372.

Peter Foges. 2011. "What Does It Taste Like?" Lapham's Quarterly (Summer).

Cooking and Early Agriculture
Mason, Daniel. 2011. "Balanced Diets." Lapham's Quarterly (Summer).

Nathan Nunn and Nancy Qian. 2010. "The Columbian Exchange: A History of Diseases, Food and Ideas." Journal of Economic Perspectives 24 (2): 163-188.

Pringle, Heather. 1998. "Reading the Signs of Ancient Animal Domestication." Science 282 (5393): 1448.

Smith, Bruce D. 2006. "Eastern North America as an Independent Center of Plant Domestication." Proceedings of the National Academy of the Sciences of the United States 103 (33): 12223-12228.

Chapter 7: Biodiversity and the Technology of Cooking: Uncultivated foods and the technology of cooking / Chapter 8: Uncultivated Greens - the Nutritional Values / Chapter 9. Uncultivated foods and daily diets in Farhad Mazhar, Daniel Buckles, P.V. Satheesh, and Farida Akhter. Food Sovereignty and Uncultivated Biodiversity in South Asia: Essays on the Poverty of Food Policy and the Wealth of the Social Landscape.
Academic Foundation/IDRC International Development Research Centre, 2007.

Thadeusz, Frank. 2009. "Alcohol's Neolithic Origins: Brewing Up a Civilization." Spiegel Online, December 24.

Transition towards the Modern Era
Adams, Edward Francis and Louis Adelbert Clinton. 1899. The Modern Farmer in his Business Relations: A Study of Some of the Principles underlying the Art of Profitable Farming and Marketing, and of the Interests of Farmers as Affected by Modern Social and Economic Conditions and Forces. San Francisco: N.J. Stone Company, pp. 11-17.

Eh.Net Encyclopedia of Economic and Business History
- Stead, David. 2004. "Agricultural Tenures and Tithes."
- Stewart, James I. 2008. "The Economics of American Farm Unrest, 1865-1900."

Green Revolution (History)
- General
"Fueling the Green Revolution." U.S. Department of Agriculture & Agricultural Research Service, October 10, 2003.

"Women and The Green Revolution." Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United States.

"Critique on the Green Revolution" Livelihood 2005.

Borlaug, Norman, & Dowswell, Chris. 2004. "Responses to Discussion Questions." Cyberspace Discussion, January 5 - 9.

Borlaug, Norman E. 2002. "Feeding a World of 10 Billion People: Our 21st Century Challenge." Inaugural lecture, Borlaug Lecture Series, Iowa State University, October 15.

Borlaug, Norman E. 1970. "The Green Revolution, Peace, and Humanity." Nobel Lecture, December 11.

Conko, Greg. 2009. "The Man Who Fed the World.", September 13.

DeGregori, Thomas R. "Green Myths against the Green Revolution."

Hesser, Leon. 2006. The Man Who Fed the World. Durban House Publishing.

Leonard, Andrew. 2009. "The Paradox of Norman Borlaug." Salon, Sept. 14.

Miller, Henry I. 2006. "History and Culture: The Man Who Launched the Green Revolution." Hoover Digest, no 4.

Murray H. Milford and ECA Runge. 2008. "Beachell and Borlaug: Two Giants of the American Society of Agronomy's First Century." Agronomy Journal 100 Supplement 3: S-1-S-3.

- Norman Borlaug
"Norman Borlaug" Wikipedia 

"Presidential Medal of Freedom Recipient Norman Borlaug." Medal of

Rosset, Peter. 2000. "Lessons from the Green Revolution." Food First - Institute for Food and Development Policy, March/April.

Sanchez, Pedro. 2004. "The Next Green Revolution." New York Times, October 6.

Shiva, Vandana. 1991. "The Green Revolution in the Punjab." The Ecologist, Vol. 21, No. 2, March-April.

Zeyen, Richard. "Yaqui Valley Farmers Provide Eternal Resting Place for Their Friend and Our Colleague, Norman Borlaug."

Zeyen, Richard, Carol Ishimaru, Marty Dickman & Christine Richardson. "Norman Borlaug: Plant Pathologist/Humanitarian."

Recent Controversies
Potrykus, Ingo. 2005. "Missing a Golden Rice opportunity." The Economic Times, December 26.

Taverne, Dick. 2007. "The Real GM Food Scandal." Prospect Magazine, November.

Modern Agriculture and the Green Revolution
"Agricultural Mechanization." Greatest Engineering Achievements of the 20th Century. National Academy of Engineering. 2000.

USDA Economics Research Service. 2010. Agricultural Productivity in the United States.

USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture. 2010. Family Farms Overview.

GB Tripletta and Warren A Dick. 2008. "No-Tillage Crop Production: A Revolution in Agriculture!" Agronomy Journal 100 Supplement 3: S153-S165. (Abstract, Introduction, History).

Agropolis Museum - Food and Agricultures of the World

The Food Timeline

Transition to Modern Era
Wessels Living History Farm (York, Nebraska)

Green Revolution
A short video in which Norman Borlaug explains his work and the future of agricultural science.

The Norman Borlaug Heritage Foundation

Navdayana (critics)

Weeks 4-9: Commodities I-II-III-IV

Suggested readings

Foodland Ontario, Food Facts

- Potato
McNeill, William H. 1999. "How the Potato changed World History." Social Research 66 (1): 67-83.

J. M. Prescott, P. A. Burnett, E. E. Saari, J. Ranson, J. Bowman, W. de Milliano, R. P. Singh, G. Bekele. Wheat Diseases and Pests: A Guide for Field Identification. International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center.

Olmstead, Alan L., & Paul W. Rhode, "Biological Globalization: The Other Grain Invasion," in Timothy J. Hatton, Kevin O'Rourke, & Alan M. Taylor, (eds.), The New Comparative Economic History: Essays in Honor of Jeffrey G. Williamson (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2007), pp. 115-140.

University of Nebraska–Lincoln. 2010. Wheat Disease Management.

Lupton, F. "Advances in work on breeding wheat with improved grain quality in the twentieth century." The Journal of Agricultural Science (2005), 143: 113-116.

Claudia Reinhardt and Bill Ganzel. 2003. "The Science of Hybrids." Living History Farm (York, Nebraska).

Hopkins, A., and R. J. Wilkins. "Temperate grassland: key developments in the last century and future perspectives." The Journal of Agricultural Science (2006), 144: 503-523.

- Soybeans
Gibson, Lance, and Garren Benson. 2005. "Origin, History, and Uses of Soybean (Glycine max)."  Iowa State University, Department of Agronomy.

"How Soybeans are Used." North Carolina Soybean Producers Association, Inc.

"Trends in U.S. Agriculture - Oats and Soybeans." National Agricultural Statistics Service, United States Department of Agriculture.

- Entomophagy
Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations (FAO). 2013. Edible Insects - Future Prospects for Food and Feed Security. FAO Forestry Paper.

- Domesticated Land Animals

Randal R. Rucker and Walter N. Thurman. 2012. Colony Collapse Disorder: The Market Response to Bee Disease. PERC Policy Series: PS-50.

Smil, Vaclav. 2002. "Eating Meat: Evolution, Patterns and Consequences," Population and Development Review 28 (4): 599-639.

UN FAO 2010. The State of Food and Agriculture 2009: Livestock in the Balance.

Pew Commission on Industrial Farm Animal Production. 2008. Final Report: Putting Meat on The Table: Industrial Farm Animal Production in America.

Critchell, James and Raymond Joseph Troubridge. 1912. A History of the Frozen Meat Trade: An account of the development and present day methods of preparation, transport, and marketing of frozen and chilled meats. London: Constable & Company Ltd., pp. 1-17.

Schulz, Matthias. 2010. "Neolithic Immigration: How Middle East Milk Drinkers Conquered Europe." Der Spiegel (October 15).

- Fisheries, Seafood and Aquaculture
- Fisheries
* Overview
UN FAO. 2004. The State of the World Fisheries

Welcomme, Robin L. et al. 2010. "Inland Capture Fisheries" Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B (Biological Sciences) 365 (1554) (September): 2881-2896.

* Problems and solutions
OECD. 2010. While Stocks Last?

Burnett, H. Sterling. Ph.D. 2007. "Ocean Fisheries: Common Heritage or Tragic Commons?" Brief Analysis No. 581, National Center for Policy Analysis, February 27.

Ellis, Richard. 2008. "The Bluefin Tuna in Peril." Scientific American, June 24.

Garcia, Serge M. and Andrew Rosenberg. 2010. "Food Security and Marine Capture Fisheries: Characteristics, Trends, Drivers and Future Perspectives" Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B (Biological Sciences) 365 (1554) (September): 2869-2880.

Gissurarson, Hannes. 2000. Overfishing: the Icelandic Solution. London: Institute of Economic Affairs.

Hannesson, Rögnvaldur. "The Privatization of the Oceans." The Independent Review, Vol. 11 No 3, Winter 2007.

Leal, Donald R. 2002. "Fencing the Fishery - A Primer on Ending The Race for Fish." Property and Environment Research Center (PERC).

Safina, Carl. 2009 "A Future for US Fisheries" Issues in Science and Technology 25 (4), (Summer).

Marra, John. 2005. "When will we tame the oceans?" Nature 436: 175-176, 14 July.

- Aquaculture
* Historical Perspective
Geoffrey Kron. 2005. "Possible Evidence for the Aquaculture of Tilapia in GrecoRoman Antiquity." Revue d'histoire comparée de l'environnement.

Herminio R. Rabanal. 1988. "History of Aquaculture." FAO.

Whit Richardson. 2011. "The Mastery of Fish." Lapham's Quarterly (Summer).

* Overview and controversies
AIMS & CAI. 2006. Aquaculture: The Blue Revolution. Autumn 2006.

Halweil, Brian. 2008. "Farming Fish for the Future." WorldWatch Report 176.

FAO - IIRR - World Fish Center. 2001. Integrated agriculture-aquaculture - A primer. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper #407.

Alder, Jacqueline, Brooke Campbell, Vasiliki Karpouzi, Kristin Kaschner, and Daniel Pauly. 2008. "Forage Fish: From Ecosystems to Markets." Annual Review of Environment and Resources 33: 153-166.

Naylor, Rosamond & Marshall Burke. 2005. "Aquaculture and Ocean Resources: Raising Tigers of the Sea." Annual Review of Environment and Resources 30: 185-218.

Rosamond L. Naylor et al. 2009. "Feeding Aquaculture in an Era of Finite Resources." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 106 (36): 15103?15110.

- Canada fisheries and aquaculture
Bavington, Dean. 2010. Managed Annihilation. An Unnatural History of the Newfoundland Cod Collapse
Introduction and chapter 1

Young, Nathan and Ralph Matthews. 2010. Aquaculture Controversy in Canada. UBC Press.
Introduction and chapter 1: aquaculture in global context

Neill, Robin. 2006. "It Is Farming, Not Fishing: Why Bureaucrats and Environmentalists Miss the Point of Canadian Aquaculture." How to Farm the Seas (Paper # 4), Atlantic Institute for Market Studies (AIMS), April.


- General
USDA. National Agricultural Library Plants and Crops

- Potato
International Year of the Potato
International Potato Center (CGIAR center)
The Potato Museum

- Corn
Dolan DNA Learning Center (Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory)
- Explosives Origins of Corn
- Maize (Corn) Genome Completed

National Corn Growers Association (USA)

Chocolat "Chocolate Week"

- Entomophagy
UN FAO on Edible Forest Insects

- Land Animals

USDA. National Agricultural Library Animals and Livestock

Pew Commission on Industrial Animal Farm Production

- Fisheries, Seafood and Aquaculture
USDA. National Agricultural Library. Aquaculture on Fisheries

The OECD on fisheries

UN FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Department

The U.S. Commission on Ocean Policy

Sushi and the End of the Southern Bluefish Tuna (2009)

Global Sushi: Soft Powers and Hard Realities

Week 10: Agricultural Inputs, Technologies and Food Additives

Suggested readings

Brunt, Liam. 2007. "Where There's Muck, There's Brass: The Market for Manure in the Industrial Revolution." The Economic History Review, Vol. 60 No. 2, pp. 333-372.

Charlebois, Sylvain. 2010. "Potash: The Pink Gold Rush is Upon Us." National Post, September 24.

Frink, Charles R., Paul E. Waggoner, & Jesse H. Ausubel. "Nitrogen fertilizer: Retrospect and prospect." Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA Vol. 96, Issue 4, pp. 1175-1180, February 16, 1999.

Martinez, Ibsen. 2008. "Reflections from Latin America - Guano." Library of Economics and Liberty, August 4.

Smil, Vaclav. 2012. "Jeremy Grantham, Starving for Facts." The American Magazine (December 5).

Smil, Vaclav. 2005. "Nitrogen in modern European agriculture." In: Scholliers, P., L. Van Molle and C. Sarasua, eds. Land, Shops and Kitchens: Technology and the Food Chain in Twentieth-Century Europe. Turnhout: Brepols Publishers, pp. 110-119.

Pest Management
Avery, Alex A. 2006. Organic Pesticide Use: What we Know and don't Know about Use, Toxicity, and Environmental Impacts. Crop Protection Products for Organic Agriculture. Washington, DC: American Chemical Society. pp. 58-77.

Bahlai, Christine A, Yingen Xue1, Cara M. McCreary, Arthur W. Schaafsma and Rebecca H. Hallett. 2010. "Choosing Organic Pesticides over Synthetic Pesticides May Not Effectively Mitigate Environmental Risk in Soybeans." Plos One 5 (6).

David Moore, Geoffrey D. Robson and Anthony P. J. Trinci. 2010. 21st Century Guidebook to Fungi.

E.-C. Oerke. 2006. "Centenary Review: Crop Losses to Pests." Journal of Agricultural Science 144: 31-43.

Entine, Jon. 2011. Scared to Death. How Chemophobia Threatens Public Health. A Position Statement of The American Council on Science and Health. American Council on Science and Health.

Fernandez-Cornejo, Jorge et al. 2014. Pesticide Use in U.S. Agriculture: 21 Selected Crops, 1960-2008. USDA Economic Information Bulletin #124 (May).

Hayes' Handbook of Pesticide Toxicology (Third Edition)

Insects and Other Arthropods, ARS Image Gallery.

National Research Council (Committee on Comparative Toxicity of Naturally Occurring Carcinogens). 1996. Carcinogens and Anticarcinogens in the Human Diet. A Comparison of Naturally Occurring and Synthetic Substances. National Academy Press

P.E. Russell. 2005. "Centenary Review: A Century of Fungicide Evolution." Journal of Agricultural Science 145 (1): 11-25.

Sparks, Thomas C. 2013. "Insecticide Discovery: An Evaluation and Analysis." Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology 107: 8-17.

Animal Diseases
(Browse) Cattle Diseases on

"Laying a global cattle killer to rest" BBC News, 20 May 2011.

"World declared "free" from deadly cattle disease" United Nations Radio, 28 June 2011.

"Global Rinderpest Eradication Programme" FAO.

"Disease Facts - Rinderpest" Institute for Animal Health.

Cattle Diseases and Conditions on

Boudreaux, Karol. 2006. "Seeds of Hope: Agricultural Technologies and Poverty Alleviation in Rural South Africa." Policy Comment No. 6, EnterpriseAfrica!, September 8.

Canadian Seed Trade Association. 1995. The Merchants of Seeds: A History of the Canadian Seed Industry.

A brief history of the UK seed producer Suttons

A brief history of the Gallatin Valley Seed Company

Tripp, Robert. 2002. Seed Provision & Agricultural Development: The Institutions of Rural Change. Overseas Development Institute.

Minister of Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada. 2004. Report of the Seed Sector Advisory Committee.

Salzman, James. 2006. "Thirst: A Short History of Drinking Water." Duke Law School Faculty Scholarship Paper Series. Paper 31.


Animal Reproductive Technologies
USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture. Animal Reproduction

BBC4 and the British Museum. "Seed Industry Dodder Counting Machine." A History of the World in 100 Objects.

Smithsonian Institutions Library on The American Seed and Nursery Industry

Pest Management
American Phytopathological Society "Common Names of Plant Diseases"

Arthropod Pesticide Resistance Database

CBC News In Depth - The Pesticide Debate

Insecticide Resistance Action Committee

USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture. Pest Management

Weis, Judith. 2008. "DDT" In Cutler J. Cleveland (ed.) Encyclopedia of the Earth.

International Fertilizer Development Center

Global Phosphorus Research Initiative

Week 11: Policy Controversies I: Environment, Biotechnologies and Organic Production

Suggested readings

Agriculture & Environment, Current perspectives and debates
"Agriculture and Climate Change." In Cleveland, Cutler J. (ed.) Encyclopedia of the Earth.

Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada. 2009. Impact of Agricultural Management Practices on the Environment.

Environment (General)
Avery, Dennis T. 2003. "Sustaining Both Planet and People: The Moral Challenge of the 21st Century," University of Maryland's First Annual Conference on Hunger, October 14.

Erle Ellis and Navin Ramankutty. 2009. "Anthropogenic biomes." Encyclopedia of Earth.

McNeill, J.R. and Verena Winiwarter. 2004. "Breaking the Sod: Humankind, History, and Soil." Science 304 (5677) (June 11): 1627-1629.

Thomas E. Dahl and Gregory J. Allord. 1997. "History of Wetlands in the Conterminous United States." United States Geological Survey Water Supply Paper 2425.

Biodiversity and monocultures
Angelson, A. and D. Kaimowitz (edited by). 2001. Agricultural Technologies and Tropical Deforestation. CABI Publishing in association with Center for International Forestry Research.

Andrew, Toby. 2002. "Lost in the Maize." Spiked Online.

Brazeau, Marc. 2014. "The 10 Minor Realizations That Flipped My Thinking About GMOs." Daily Kos (April 15). 

Cayford, Jerry. 2003. "Breeding Sanity into the GM Food Debate" Issues in Science and Technology, Winter.

Committee on the Impact of Biotechnology on Farm-Level Economics and Sustainability; National Research Council. 2010. "Impact of Genetically Engineered Crops on Farm Sustainability in the United States." National Academies Press.

Gruère, Guillaume P., Purvi Mehta-Bhatt and Debdatta Sengupta. 2008. "Bt Cotton and Farmer Suicides in India: Reviewing the Evidence." IFPRI Discussion Paper 00808.

Prakash, C. S. and Gregory Conko. 2004. "Technology for Life: How Biotech Will Save Billions from Starvation." The American Enterprise (March): 16-20.

Haruko Okusu. 2009. "Biotechnology Research in the CGIAR: An Overview." AgBioForum 12 (1).

Herdt, Robert W. 2006. "Biotechnology in Agriculture." Annual Review of Environment and Resources 31: 265-295 (November).

Kathage, Jonas and Matin Qaim. 2012. "Economic impacts and impact dynamics of Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) cotton in India." Proceedings of the National Academy of the Sciences 109 (29): 11652-11656.

McWilliams, James E. 2009. "Could Frankenfoods be Good for the Environment?" Slate, January 28.

Miller, Henry I. 2005. "The UN's Biotech for Food Scandal." Tech Central Station, September 28.

Susman, Megan M. 2000. "Biotechnology in Food and Agriculture - Facts and Fears." Progressive Policy Institute, May 1.

Trewavas, Anthony. "A Critical Assessment of Organic Farming-and-Food Assertions With Particular Respect to the UK and the Potential Environmental Benefits of No-Till Agriculture." Crop Protection 23 (2004) 757-781.

Woodall, Jack. 2006. "Our Food is Dying - Infectious Agents are Threatening the World's Crops." The Scientist, March, Vol. 20, Issue 3, p. 62.

World Bank. 2007. World Development Report 2008: Agriculture and Development, Policy Briefs
- Science and Technology
- GMOs

Intelligence2 USA on Organic Food Debate (February 2010) - Briefing Paper. - An Overview of Some Common Organic Pesticides

Alan D. Dangour, Sakhi K. Dodhia, Arabella Hayter, Elizabeth Allen, Karen Lock and Ricardo Uauy. 2009. "Nutrional Quality of Organic Foods: A Systematic Review." American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 93 (6): 680-685.

Center for Consumer Freedom
- "Eco-Unfriendly Organic?" June 17, 2010
- "Spraying Context on Organic Pesticides Claims," May 27, 2010
- "Organic's Nutritional Superiority (Still) Nonexistent," May 27, 2010

Brian Dunning. 2007. "Organic Food Myths." Skeptoid Podcast. Skeptoid Media, Inc., (January 5).

Byrne, Jay, Gregory Conko, Jon Entine, Tony Gilland, Thomas Jefferson Hoban, Patrick Moore, Andrew S. Natsios, Martina Newell-McGloughlin, Robert L. Paarlberg, C.S. Prakash, & Carol Tucker Foreman. Let Them Eat Precaution. How Politics Is Undermining the Genetic Revolution in Agriculture, Edited by Jon Entine. AEI Press (Washington) January 2006.

Leonard, Andrew. 2006. "Save the Rain Forest - Boycott Organic?" Salon, December 12.

Popoff, Mischa. 2012. "Time to Deregulate Organic." (January 13).

-, "Organic Agriculture Can Contribute to Fighting Hunger - But Chemical Fertilizers Needed to Feed the World." FAO Newsroom, 10 December 2007.

Report from the Bichel Committee (Danish Government). 2001. Organic Scenarios for Denmark.

Rosenthal, Elisabeth. 2011. "Questions About Organic Produce and Sustainability." (December 30).

Soupcoff, Marni. 2012. "Stanford study shows organic food no safer or healthier than conventional food." National Post (September 5).

Winter, Carl K. and Sarah F. Davis. 2006. "Organic Foods." Journal of Food Science 71 (9): R117-R124.

Meat Production and the Environment
Nierenberg, Danielle. 2005. "Happier Meals: Rethinking the Global Meat Industry." Worldwatch Paper #171 (September).

UN FAO. 2006. Livestock Long Shadow: Environmental Issues and Options.

- Critics of Meat Production
Motavalli, Jim. 2008. "The Meat of the Matter: Our Livestock Industry Creates More Greenhouse Gas than Transportation Does." E Magazine (July-August).

Belli, Brita. 2008. "Fixing the Animal Farms: An Interview with Robert Martin" E Magazine (July-August).

Colleran, Brian. 2008. "Think Before You Eat: The Widespread Effects of Factory-Farmed Meat" E Magazine (July-August).

Gerber, P.J., Steinfeld, H., Henderson, B., Mottet, A., Opio, C., Dijkman, J., Falcucci, A. & Tempio, G. 2013. Tackling climate change through livestock - A global assessment of emissions and mitigation opportunities. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), Rome. 

- Defenders of Meat and Modern Production Methods
"Eating Less Meat and Dairy Products won't Have Major Impact on Global Warming, Expert Argues" Science Daily, March 22, 2010.

Avery, Dennis T. 2010. "Confined Livestock Better for the Planet." CFGI Blog, July 6.

Soil Erosion and Degradation
Cutler J. Cleveland (ed). Encyclopedia of the Earth
- Buonanduci, Michele. 2009. "Dust Bowl." 

Avery, Dennis T. 2010. "Muddy Rivers: Don't Blame Farmers." CFACT, November 18.


Environment (General)
Anthromes: The Global Ecological Patterns Created by Humans

European Commission (European Union). Agriculture and Rural Development - Agriculture and the Environment

- Indicators (Overview)
(Browse) OECD. 2008. Agri-Environment Indicators (Key points)

Meat Production and the Environment
Mitloehner, Frank. 2009. Clearing the Air: Livestock's Contribution to Climate Change (Power Point Presentation)

Pitesky, Maurice E., Kimberly R. Stackhouse and Frank F. Mitloehner. 2009. "Clearing the Air: Livestock's Contribution to Climate Change." Advances in Agronomy 103: 1-40.

Toronto Vegetarian Association. 2007. Meat's Production Environmental Toll.

The Pew Initiative on Food and Biotechnology

A debate on the future of GM technologies, Spiked-Science Debates.

Council for Biotechnology Information

"Frankenfood" Frenzy on ReasonOnline. A pro-technology Website, but with several links to GM opponents.

"Harvest of Fear," a 2001 Nova (PBS) documentary.

WHO (World Health Organization) on
- Biotechnology (GM Foods) and Nanotechnology

Organic Production
International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements

International Organic Inspectors Association

Organic Materials Review Institute

OMAFRA. Organic Agriculture (in Ontario)

Public Works and Government Services Canada. Organic Agriculture

Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada. Organic Production

Canadian Food Inspection Agency. Organic Products

Canadian Consumer Information Gateway - Organic Food

The Soil Association (UK)

Intelligence2 USA (February 2010): Is Organic Food Marketing Hype?

Week 12: Policy Controversies II: Food Safety and Security, Subsidies and Barriers to Trade

Suggested readings

Food Safety
Historical Perspective

Encyclopedia Britannica. 1911. Food Adulteration.

Blum, Deborah. 2011. "Death in the Pot." Lapham’s Quarterly (Summer).

Fromson, Daniel. 2011. "The Milkman Cometh." Lapham's Quarterly (Summer).

Law, Marc T. 2010. "History of Food and Drug Regulation in the United States." In Robert Whaples (ed.) EH.Net Encyclopedia.

EPA et al. 1999. "Achievements in Public Health, 1900-1999: Safer and Healthier Foods." Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Reports (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) 48 (40): 905-913.

FAO. 1995. Codex Alimentarius: How it All Began. FAO.

Recent Issues/Perspectives
Richard Williams, Robert L. Scharff, and David Bieler. 2010. "Food Safety in the 21st Century." Mercatus on Policy no. 71 (February).

Elaine Scallan, Robert M. Hoekstra, Frederick J. Angulo, Robert V. Tauxe, Marc-Alain Widdowson, Sharon L. Roy, Jeffery L. Jones, and Patricia M. Griffin. 2011. "Foodborne Illness Acquired in the United States-Major Pathogens." Emerging Infectious Diseases 17 (1).

Elaine Scallan, Patricia M. Griffin, Frederick J. Angulo, Robert V. Tauxe, and Robert M. Hoekstra. 2011. "Foodborne Illness Acquired in the United States-Unspecified Agents." Emerging Infectious Diseases 17 (1).

Famine (Historical Perspective)
O'Grada, Cormac. 2008. "Ireland's Great Famine." EH.Net Encyclopedia.

Mirsky, Jonathan. 2010. "'Livelihood Issues.' Mao's Great Famine: The History of China's Most Devastating Catastrophe, 1958-62" by Frank Dikötter," Literary Review, September.

Maloney, C. J. 2010. "Count our Holiday Blessings: At Least we're not Starving.", December 7.

• Hunger and Food Security
- Overview
FAO. 2009. The State of Food Insecurity - Economic Crises: Impacts and Lessons Learned.

Murton, Brian. 2000. "Famine" in Kenneth F. Kiple and Kriemhild Coneè Ornelas (eds) Cambridge World History of Food. Cambrige: Cambridge University Press, VI. 4, 1411-1427.

Currey, Bruce and Graeme Hugo. (ed) 1984. Famine as a Geographical Phenomenon. Dordrecht: Kluwer.

-Concepts and Numbers
Easterly, William. 2010. "Spot the Made-Up World Hunger Numbers" AidWatch, September 15.

Headey, Derek. 2011. "Was the global food crisis really a crisis? Simulations versus self-reporting." VOX (6 June).

- Policy Analysis and Proposals
Brem-Wilson, Josh. 2010. The Reformed Committee on World Food Security. A Briefing Paper for Civil Society (Section 1).

Charlebois, Sylvain. 2010. "There's a New World Order in Food." The Globe and Mail, August 19.

Surowiecki, Jame. 2008. "The Perils of Efficiency." The New Yorker, November 24.

Weissmann, Jordan. 2011. "How Kim Jong Il Starved North Korea." The Atlantic, December 20.

- Ancient History
Garnsey, Peter. 1999. Food and Society in Classical Antiquity. Cambridge University Press.

Garnsey, Peter. 1988. Famine and Food Supply in the Graeco-Roman World: Responses to Risk and Crisis. Cambridge University Press.

Stathakopoulos, Dionysios Ch. 2004. Famine and Pestilence in the Late Roman and Early Byzantine Empire: A Systematic Survey of Subsistence Crises and Epidemics. London: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.

- Recent History
Baro, Mamadou, and Tara F. Deubel. 2006. "Persistent Hunger: Perspectives on Vulnerability, Famine, and Food Security in Sub-Saharan Africa." Annual Review of Anthropology 35: 521-538 (October).

Christiaensen, Luc. 2009. "Revisiting the Global Food Architecture: Lessons from the 2008 Food Crisis." UNU WIDER Discussion Paper.

Shaw, D. J. 2007. World Food Security since 1945. (Book launch, Overseas Development Institute).

- Current Controversies

FAO. 2004. Globalization of Food Systems in Developing Countries: Impact on Food Security and Nutrition, FAO Food and Nutrition Paper 83

Charlotte Hebebrand and Kristin Wedding. 2010. The Role of Markets and Trade in Food Security. Center for Strategic and International Studies.

Gerald Nelson, Amanda Palazzo, Claudia Ringler, Timothy Sulser and Miroslav Batka. 2009. The Role of International Trade in Climate Change Adaptation. Issue Brief #4. ICTSD (International Center for Trade and Sustainable Development) and IF&ATPC (International Food and Agricultural Policy Trade Council).

Dalziel, G. R. 2009. "Food Defence Incidents 1950-2008: A Chronology and Analysis of Incidents Involving the Malicious Contamination of the Food Supply Chain." Nanyang Technological University.

Tierney, John. 2008. "Greens and Hunger." The New York Times, May 19.

Garrett, Laurie. 2008. "Food Failures and Futures." Center for Geoeconomic Studies (Council on Foreign Relations) Working Paper, May 15.

Bradsher, Keith, & Andrew Martin. 2008. "World's Poor Pay Price as Crop Research Is Cut." The New York Times, May 25.

Irvine, Ian. 2008. Viewpoint on the World Food Crisis, Economic Note, Montreal Economic Institute, May.

Paul Teng PHD, "Food (In)Security in Uban Population." Asia Security Initiative Policy Series, Working Paper no. 5, August 2010.

Gerald Nelson, Amanda Palazzo, Claudia Ringler, Timothy Sulser and Miroslav Batka. 2009. The Role of International Trade in Climate Change Adaptation. Issue Brief #4. ICTSD and IF&ATPC.

Subsidies and Barriers to Trade
Griswold, Dan. 2006. "Grain Drain: The Hidden Cost of U.S. Rice Subsidies." Trade Briefing Paper No. 25, Cato Institute's Center for Trade Policy Studies, November 16.

OECD. 2009. Agricultural Policies in OECD Countries: Monitoring and Evaluation - Highlights

"The 2007/08 Agricultural Price Spikes: Causes and Policy Implications." HM Government ("Executive Summary").

Siddharta Mitra and Tim Josling. 2009. Agricultural Export Restrictions: Welfare Implications and Trade Disciplines. IPC Position Paper Agricultural and Rural Development Policy Series, International Food and Agricultural Trade Policy Council (Executive Summary).


Food Safety
- International
WHO on Food Safety

FAO on Food Safety and Quality

CDC on Food Related Diseases

USDA. Food Safety Research Office

US EPA. Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP)

- Canada
Government of Canada
- Food Safety Portal
- Public Health Agency of Canada.
- Food Poisoning
- Food Safety Videos

Government of Ontario
- Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs on:
  - food safety
  - food safety and traceability

Be Food Safe Canada

Food Security
- FAOSTAT - Food Security
- Hunger

Global Food Security - Bibliography and links

Special issue of Science Magazine on food security (February 11, 2010).

Special issue of Issues in Science and Technology on food security (Summer 2009).

Special issue "Hunger and History: The Impact of Changing Food Production and Consumption Patterns on Society," Journal of Interdisciplinary History 14 (2), Autumn 1983.

Special Issue (open access) on "Food Security: Feeding the World in 2050." Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B (Biological Sciences) 365 (1554), September 27, 2010.

"Malnutrition and Hunger." Copenhagen Consensus 2004 (very good survey papers and critiques).

The Earth Institute (Columbia University) on Food Security

The Ripple that Drowns: Twentieth Century Famines as Economic History. The Tawney Memorial Lecture 2007, Cormac O' Grada.

FAO. 2009. World Summit on Food Security
- Issues Briefs
- List of documents

Subsidies and Barriers to Trade
Kick all agricultural subsidies (kickAAS)

Food Sovereignty
La Via Campesina on food sovereignty

Pimbert, Michel. 2009. "Towards food sovereignty: reclaiming autonomous food systems." IED (International Institute for Environment and Development).

Annette Aurélie Desmarais, Nettie Wiebe, Hannah Wittman (eds). 2011. Food Sovereignty in Canada: Creating Just and Sustainable Food
. Fernwood Publishing. Chapter 1: Nurturing Food Sovereignty in Canada.

Week 13: Policy Controversies III: Urban Agriculture, Locavorism and Urbanization

Suggested readings

Urban Agriculture
Satthertwaite, David, Gordon McGranahan and Cecilia Tacoli. 2010. "Urbanization and its Implications for Food and Farming." Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 365 (1554): 2809-2820.

- 2010. Fighting Poverty and Hunger: What Role for Urban Agriculture? Policy Briefs, August.
- 2007. Profitability and Sustainability of Urban and Peri-Urban Agriculture, Agricultural Management, Marketing and Finance Occasional Paper, Executive Summary (xi-xii).
- 1999. "Issues in Urban Agriculture" FAO Spotlight

Eames-Sheavly, Marcia. Discovering the Food System: A Primer on Community Food Systems (Linking Food, Nutrition and Agriculture), Cornell University.

Despommier, Dickson on "The Vertical Farm"

Avery, Dennis T. 2010. "City Farming - Pigs in the Sky?" CGFI , October 19th.

Robert Kunzig. 2011. "The City Solution - Why cities are the best cure for our planet's growing pains." National Geographic Magazine (December).

Charles W. Lesher. Urban Agriculture: A Literature Review, USDA.

Mark Redwood. 2008. Agriculture in Urban Planning. Generating Livelihoods and Food Security. Earthscan/IDRC.

Luc J.A. Mougeot. 2005. Agropolis: The Social, Political, and Environmental Dimensions of Urban Agriculture. Earthscan/IDRC 2005.

Maria Caridad Cruz and Roberto Sánchez Medina. 2003. Agriculture in the City: Key to Sustainability in Havana, Cuba. Ian Randle Publishers/IDRC

Olanrewaju B. Smith. 1999. Urban Agriculture in West Africa. Contributing to Food Security and Urban Sanitation. IDRC/CTA

Auxumite G. Egziabher, Diana Lee-Smith, Daniel G. Maxwell, Pyar Ali Memon, Luc J.A. Mougeot, and Camillus J. Sawio (eds). 1994. Cities Feeding People. An Examination of Urban Agriculture in East Africa. IDRC.

- Substantial Reports
Rai Chi, Kelly, James McGregor and Richard King. 2009. Fair Miles: Recharting the Food Miles Map. IIED and Oxfam.

Desrochers, Pierre and Hiroko Shimizu. 2008. "Yes We Have No Bananas: A Critique of the Food Mile Perspective." Mercatus Policy Series, Policy Primer No. 8.

Garnett, Tara. 2008. Cooking Up a Storm: Food, Greenhouse Emissions and our Changing Climate, Food Climate Research Network (University of Surrey).

McIntyre, Lynn, and Kristen Rondeau. 2011. "Individual consumer food localism: A review anchored in Canadian farmwomen's reflections." Journal of Rural Studies 27 (2) (April): 116-124.

Saunders, Caroline, & Peter Hayes. 2007. "Air Freight Transport of Fresh Fruit and Vegetables." Research Report No. 299, Lincoln University.

Saunders, Caroline, Andrew Barber and Greg Taylor. 2006. Food Miles - Comparative Energy/Emissions Performance of New Zealand's Agriculture Industry, Lincoln University, Agribusiness and Economics Research Unit (AERU), Research Report 285. Chapters 1-6, 8.

Watkiss, Paul et al. 2005. "The Validity of Food Miles as an Indicator of Sustainable Development." DEFRA Report ED50254.

Halweil, Brian. 2002. "Home Grown: The Case for Local Food in a Global Market." WorldWatch paper #163, Worldwatch Institute.

Steve Martinez, Michael Hand, Michelle Da Pra, Susan Pollack, Katherine Ralston, Travis Smith, Stephen Vogel, Shellye Clark, Luanne Lohr, Sarah Low and Constance Newman. 2010. Local Food Systems: Concepts, Impacts, and Issues. Economic Research Report #97. United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Economic Research Service.

Roosevelt, M. 2006. "The Lure of the 100-Mile Diet." Time, June 11.

USDA. Know your Farmer, Know your Food
- Support Local Farmers
- Strengthen Rural Communities
- Promote Healthy Eating
- Protect Natural Resources

USDA. 2010. "Beans are Bullets" and "Of Course I Can!" War-Era Food Posters

Ronald G. McCormick. 2010. "An Insider's Account of Walmart's Local Foods Program." The Atlantic (November 17).

Leeder, Jessica. 2009. "Debunking our 'Fetish of the Fresh'" The Globe and Mail, Nov. 24.

Zezima, Katie. 2010. "Push to Eat Local is Hampered by Shortage" The New York Times, March 27.

- Varia
"History of Urban Agriculture." Sprouts in the Sidewalk.


Sanderson, Allen R. 2007. "De Minimis." The Library of Economics and Liberty, September 3.

Sellick, Karen. 2008. "The Buy Locally-Owned Fallacy." Library of Economics and Liberty, November 3.

Econtalk (audio)"Boudreaux on the Economics of Buy Local," April 16, 2007.

-. "Food Movement 'Harms Environment'." BBC News, July 15, 2005.

Averill, Victoria. 2007. "African Trade Fears Carbon Footprint Backlash." BBC News, February 21.

Bennett, Drake. 2007. "The localvore's dilemma." The Boston Globe, July 22.

Cowen, Tyler. 2010. "The Economics of Air Freight" Marginal Revolution, April 18.

Desrochers, P., & Hiroko Shimizu. 2008. "Buy Global - The 'Food Mile' Perspective Severely Distorts the Environmental Impacts of Agricultural Production." National Post, November 7.

Edwards-Jones, Gareth. 2006. "Food Miles don't go the Distance." BBC News Viewpoint, March 16.

Foster, Peter. 2008. "Just Plain Bananas." National Post, November 7.

Freakonomics » The Inefficiency of Local Food

Walmart's Agriculture Heritage Program

Urbanization and the Environment
Rifkin, Jeremy. 2006. "The Risks of Too Much City." The Washington Post, December 17.

Bailey, Ronald. 2006. "The Lingering Stench of Malthus - Debunking Jeremy Rifkin's Beef with Cities." ReasonOnline, December 22.


Urban Agriculture
- Community gardening
- Urban agriculture
- Community food systems and civic agriculture

IATP | Local Foods

The (Sarah Elton's blog) on the 100 mile challenge

Southwestern Ontario Locavore

Special issue "Local Food - Perceptions, Prospects and Policies" of Choices: The Magazine of Food, Farms, and Resource Issues 25 (1) 2010.

Toronto Food Policy Council

Twigs Way and Mike Brown. 2010. Digging for Victory: Gardens and Gardening in Wartime Britain. Sabrestorm Publishing.

Video: USDA (World War II):Victory Garden

Final Exam: TBA


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