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University of Toronto Mississauga • Department of Geography • Fall 2018

GGR 329H5F: Environment and the Roots of Globalization

 

 Instructor: Pierre Desrochers

 

 Lectures: Monday 7-9 PM

 

 Phone: (905) 828-5206

 Office: Davis Building, room 3273

 

 Lecture room: CC 2150

 

 E-mail: pierre.desrochers@utoronto.ca

 

DIRECT LINKS


>
Course Description
> Course Format
>
Course Objectives
>
Assignments
>
Required Texts
> Terms Test and Final Exam
> Contacting the Instructor
> Written Assignments
> Department of Geography Late Assignment/Missed Test Policy
> Equity Statement and Academic Rights
>
Expectations/Classroom Behaviour/Behaviour in the Academic Setting
> Academic Integrity/Honesty or Academic Offenses
> Accessibility
> Accommodations for Religious Observances
>
Diamond's Other Books, Critics and Topical Suggestions
> Lecture Schedule


> Lecture 1 (September 10): Is Geography (and Climate) Destiny? Part I
> Lecture 2 (September 17): Out of Africa
> Lecture 3 (September 24): Collision at Cajamarca
> Lecture 4 (October 1): Farmer Power, Part I
> Thanksgiving; Fall Reading Week (October 8) No class
> Lecture 5 (October 15): Farmer Power, Part II
> Lecture 6 (October 22): Term Test
> Lecture 7 (October 29): Germs and "Virgin Soils", Part I
> Lecture 8 (November 5): Germs and "Virgin Soils", Part II
> Lecture 9 (November 12): Writing, Technology and Government
> Lecture 10 (November 19): Around the World, Part I
> Lecture 11 (November 26): Around the World, Part II
> Lecture 12 (December 3): Is Geography (and Climate) Destiny? Part II

> Suggested Readings

 

COURSE DESCRIPTION

Geographical or environmental factors, such as landscape, flora and fauna, are obviously of some importance in explaining why history unfolded differently on different continents. The idea that some form of environmental (or geographical) determinism has affected the fate of human societies is therefore as old as it is controversial. While this perspective was in retreat for most of the twentieth century, it has made an impressive comeback in recent years with the publication of influential books and academic articles. The purpose of this course is to discuss critically some of this recent literature and to examine how "geography" and "the environment" might have impacted the development of agriculture, complex technologies, writing, centralized government and how, in the process, it has shaped the current world economic map. While the subjects discussed are often technical, the assigned readings are accessible to students with no previous backgrounds in scientific disciplines or geographical research.
 

Course format

The course format will alternate between formal classes and open discussions. Students are expected to have read the assigned texts in advance.
 

COURSE OBJECTIVES

The course has five (5) main objectives:


1) To provide a broad survey of how geographical and environmental factors have impacted the development of human civilization;
2) To provide some historical perspective on the current processes of globalization;
3) To advance students' skills in critical analysis and writing;
4) To memorize and use, without aids, the basic terminology with which professionals in relevant disciplines communicate their work and their research findings;
5) To apply a wide range of academic skills in active listening, note-taking, studying, reading, and test-taking to upper-level university courses.
 

 ASSIGNMENTS

% OF GRADE

DATE DUE

1) Written Assignment 1
2) Term Test
3) Written Assignment 2
4) Written Assignment 3
5) Final Exam
 

10%
20%
20%
15%
35%
 

October 1
October 22
December 3
December 3
Dec. 8th 1-3 pm IB 120
 

As per the University Grading Practices Policy, please note that "after the methods of evaluation have been made known, the instructor may not change them or their relative weight without the consent of at least a simple majority of the students enrolled in the course. Any changes shall be reported to the division or the department."

How to Query or Challenge a Mark

Please note that you have two weeks from the date an item is discussed in class to ask for the item to be remarked. Contact the Course Instructor for all queries about course marks, or if you wish to challenge a mark. Absolutely no item will be remarked after the two-week period has passed. Material submitted for remarking must be accompanied by a brief written explanation detailing your reasons for dissatisfaction with the original mark (such as an addition error or something you think the marker may have missed). A request for a remark without a written explanation will not be acted upon.

Please note that you are allowed two questions where you and the instructor can agree to disagree (meaning you believe that you are entitled to a higher mark, but your instructor disagrees) without penalty. Beginning with the third question where you and your instructor disagree, one point will be taken off your final mark by question for which a revised mark was requested by you and denied by the instructor.

Discussions of the test/exam and written assignments can be found below.
 

Required Texts

The main text for the course is Jared Diamond's Guns, Germs, and Steel. The Fates of Human Societies (W.W. Norton & Company, 1999, ISBN 978-0-393-31755-8) (Any edition of the book is acceptable. The latest is the 2017 Anniversary ISBN-10: 0393354326; ISBN-13: 978-039335432.) Summaries of Diamond's thesis can be found here, here, here, here, here and here. We will also watch the PBS - National Geographic 3 part series based on Diamond's book. Keep in mind, however, that the summaries and the TV special are not substitutes for the book.

Additional readings, both Required and suggested, are listed below. Most of the readings are freely accessible from anywhere. Some of them, however, may require you to use a UofT terminal or user code.
 

Terms Test and Final Exam

A set of questions will be given in advance. Students will be asked to answer a number of these during the test along with one or two open-ended questions. PowerPoint slides presented during the lectures WILL NOT be posted online. Note that everything discussed in class can the subject of the open-ended questions. No documentation is allowed during the tests.

  Questions
 

CONTACTING THE INSTRUCTOR

Office hours are Monday 5:30 - 7PM, Davis 3273. You can contact me at pierre.desrochers@utoronto.ca.

Please read the course syllabus before e-mailing a question or expect a one line answer telling you to look it up if the answer is already there.

Always use your University of Toronto e-mail address (@utoronto.ca) for all course-related communications. E-mails from other domains (e.g., hotmail, Rogers, gmail, yahoo, etc.) may be filtered as spam and will at any rate be ignored. Always include the course code (e.g., GGR329) as part of your subject line, along with your full name and student number in the body of the e-mail. E-mails will be answered during office hours as promptly as possible. Please note that I do not open attachments and will not answer during week-ends.

The first person that you should e-mail concerning department- or program-related queries or to submit documentation regarding a missed assignment, quiz, or test is the Academic Counsellor for Geography/Environment, Sabrina Ferrari (sabrina.ferrari@utoronto.ca).

E-mail should NOT be viewed as an alternative to meeting with the TA or professor during office hours. Nor should e-mail be used as a mechanism to receive private tutorials (especially prior to tests) or to explain material that was covered in missed lectures. Not receiving replies to e-mails from the TA or professor, or not receiving them in time, will not be an acceptable excuse for pleas for extensions to assignment or exam deadlines.

Students are advised to consult http://www.enough.utoronto.ca/ for information on university policy concerning the appropriate use of information and communication technology.

© PhD Comics
 

Written Assignments

What is the point of these assignments?
• To acquire more in-depth learning about a topic discussed in this course and its relevance to broader policy discussions
• To develop your writing skills
• To learn to think critically
• To learn the basics of scholarly and policy work

Useful links to help you write your assignments
The University of Toronto Library staff has compiled several links on researching and writing term papers and other types of work. Please look them up, along with the various university resources available to you:
• Writing (University of Toronto Mississauga Library)
• Writing at the University of Toronto
• Robert Gillespie Academic Skills Centre
• University of Toronto Library Research Guides: Geography
• University of Toronto Mississauga Library liaison librarian Andrew Nicholson

Citation styles
Please look up the University of Toronto Library webpage devoted to citing sources and creating your bibliography.
 
For written assignments 1 and 2 your are free to follow any of the Standard Documentation Formats.
 
For assignment 3 no citations are expected.

Turnitin
Students unfamiliar with Turnitin are directed to the Turnitin guide from the University of Toronto's Centre for Teaching Support and Innovation.
 
Normally, students will be required to submit written assignments to Turnitin.com for a review of textual similarity and detection of possible plagiarism. In doing so, students will allow their assignments to be included as source documents in the Turnitin.com reference database, where they will be used solely for the purpose of detecting plagiarism. The terms that apply to the University's use of the Turnitin.com service are described on the Turnitin.com web site (www.Turnitin.com). If you have an objection to the use of Turnitin for the submission of your work, please make an appointment to speak personally with the Course Instructor to discuss alternative arrangements.

Please note that submitting your paper through Turnitin.com or making alternative arrangements with your professor before the relevant deadlines is not optional. Failure to do so will result in a grade of 0 for your assignment. The late penalties describe in this syllabus will apply.

Turnitin.com course ID: 19017113.
The Turnitin key (password) will be given in class and through Quercus.

Details of the written assignments
Written assignment #1 (10% of your final mark)
Please choose your topic for this assignment carefully as it will apply to all your written assignments this semester. [Hint: I strongly encourage you to look at the relevant required readings for each potential subject so that you select the one that is of greatest interest to you.]

Write a 2-3 page reflection on ONE of the following questions. The choice is yours. Please use the relevant required readings of the lectures listed in parenthesis as a basis for your reflection. Cite these relevant readings in your paper. You may cite additional sources if you want to, but this is not required for this assignment.

Questions:
• Can the lack of economic development in most parts of the tropical world today be attributed to some unique environmental characteristics (e.g., soils, diseases) of tropical regions? (Lectures 1 and 12)

• Was agriculture humanity's worst mistake and would we and the planet have been better off if our ancestors had remained hunter-gatherers? (Lectures 4-5)

• Can the fact that some tropical forested regions such as the Amazon basin are not as pristine as was once thought justify their large-scale economic development? (Lectures 7-8)

• What is environmental colonialism and can we use this concept to justify greater human activities / encroachments in wildlife preserves in Africa and other parts of the world where employment opportunities are limited? (Lectures 7-8)

In short, what your professor wants to know is 1) what is the topic about (i.e., define the concept and summarize the relevant controversy if applicable)? 2) What do you think of the debate/controversy on this topic based on your preliminary readings?

Specifications:
• Text should be written in full sentences and paragraphs organized in a clear and coherent fashion.
• The reflection should be written from a first-person perspective (i.e., you can use "I", "me", and "my" in this assignment).
• Text should be 11-12 point font and 1.5-2.0 line spacing on all pages. If applicable, block quotes and bibliography should use 1.0 line spacing.
• Pages should have regular 1 inch (2.54 cm) margins.

Due:
• Monday, October 1st @ 23:59 (week 4) via Turnitin

Written assignment #2 (20% of your final mark)
The goal of this assignment is to write a document similar to the "In Brief" notes produced by the Library of Parliament's Information and Research Service (Ottawa).
 
Here are links to a few "In Brief" notes:
• Barnes, Andre. 2010. In Brief: Youth Voter Turnout in Canada: 1. Trends and Issues. Publication No. 2010-19-E. Parliamentary Information and Research Service. Ottawa: Library of Parliament. 

• Heminthavong, Khamla. 2015. In Brief: Canada's Supply Management System (PDF). Publication No. 2015-138-E. Parliamentary Information and Research Service. Ottawa: Library of Parliament.

• McGlashan, Lindsay. 2015. In Brief: Public-Private Partnerships: Are Canadians Getting the Full Picture? (PDF) Publication No. 2015-50-E. Parliamentary Information and Research Service. Ottawa: Library of Parliament.

As specified on the Library of Parliament's website, their publications aim to "provide analysis to parliamentarians, parliamentary committees and parliamentary associations on current and emerging key issues, legislation and major public policy topics. The publications provide non-partisan, reliable and timely information on subjects that are relevant to parliamentary and constituency work (my emphasis)."

Your goal is to follow the spirit of these "In Brief" notes and produce a short document for busy people that presents all aspects of a particular problem in a non-partisan way. You must present and define the issue or problem, provide some background or context, explain why it is important and list all arguments for and against the problem or issue discussed. You can use bullet points, graphs or maps, but each claim or piece of evidence must be supported through an endnote.

Specifications
• Cover page. Must include subject title, first and last name, student number, course number and year
• Table of contents
• Between 6 and 9 pages of text, excluding cover page, table of contents and endnotes
• Text should be 11-12 point font; 1.0 line spacing on all pages, including cover page, block quotes, and endnotes
• Pages should have regular 1.0 inch margins
• Reference/Citation style: Endnotes. Format of your choice, but you must be consistent

Due:
• Monday, December 3rd @ 23:59 via Turnitin

Written assignment #3 (15% of your final mark)
An op-ed (originally short for "opposite the editorial page") is a written prose piece which presents a specific opinion as opposed to a balanced perspective.

Your task in assignment #3 is to your write your own commentary on the question you have researched in assignments 1 and 2. Present and support your one-sided position with ideas and facts learned while researching your previous assignments and in other lectures and readings during the semester.

Your op-ed should be between 650-750 words, excluding your name, course number and student number. This assignment does not require a cover page, but it requires you to write the word count of your piece at the end of your assignments (e.g., word count: 673 words.)

Keep in mind that your audience is the general reading public, meaning people who are likely not familiar with your topic and who may not have had a post-secondary education. You must therefore draw their interest by using a catchy title and, ideally, a "hook" at the beginning of your story (e.g., "poachers have killed government officials in a nature preserve"; "ruins of a gigantic city have been discovered in the Amazon"). Explain your position using simple language, do your best to persuade and do not simply make assertions (e.g., "every expert agrees with me").

Keep in mind that your word count is low and that you might have to use only your BEST arguments, not all the arguments that support your position.

The University of Toronto offers the following guidelines to write an effective op-ed piece:
• Focus on one main idea or a single theme in your op-ed.
• Have a clear editorial viewpoint. State that point in your first paragraph, and then proceed to back up your opinion or prove your thesis.
• Look for opportunities to wed your specific area of expertise or interest with news developments
• If you can, be controversial in your opinion.
• Always write for the lay reader. Be clear and straightforward. Use simple words, short declarative sentences. Even the brainiest of readers will lose interest if your submission is replete with long, complex sentences and paragraphs.
• Make your submission as argumentative as possible. It should not appear driven by anger and it should follow methodological reasoning.
• Express a strong call to action. Write with passion and "fire in your gut."
• Take pains to educate the reader with your insight, but don't condescend or preach.

See also the op-ed guidelines of Carleton College.

Op-ed links
• New York Times op-ed page

Due:
• Monday, December 3rd @ 23:59 via Turnitin
 

Department of Geography Late assignment/Missed Test Policy

This is the departmental policy for late assignments and missed tests. Please note that the penalty related to your proposal is different. In this particular case, I apply my own policy as specified on the syllabus.

I
n-class or Online QUIZ/TESTS: Students CANNOT petition to re-write a quiz/test once the test has begun. If you are feeling ill, please do not start the online or in-class test and seek medical attention immediately. You must have a physician fill out a U of T Student Medical Certificate and submit a request via the online Special Consideration Request form @ https://utmapp.utm.utoronto.ca/SpecialRequest within 24 hours.

Online Submissions for Term Work: It is every student’s responsibility to ensure that their online submission is submitted successfully by the due date. Accommodations will not be made for unsuccessful submissions due to, but not limited to, i) the system timing out ii) submitting the incorrect document(s) iii) poor internet connection / no internet connection etc.

Missed Term Work (Assignment/Lab - as per Department of Geography policy):
Late assignments will be subject to a late penalty of 10% per day (including weekends) of the total marks for the assignment. Assignments submitted five calendar days beyond the due date will be assigned a grade of zero.

Academic accommodation can be made when an assignment is late. For accommodations on late/missed assignments please see section on "Extension of Time".

Missed Term Work (Quiz/Test - as per Department of Geography policy):
In courses with final exams, there will be no re-writes or make-ups for term tests/quizzes missed for University-accepted, verifiable reasons. Instead, the final exam will be re-weighted by the value of the term test/quiz.

Requesting Academic Accommodation using the Online Special Consideration Request Application: In Geography and Environment courses, professors cannot grant extensions on term work or allow makeups for missed items. If you ask for and receive an extension or a makeup date directly from a professor, without following the appropriate steps as outlined in this document, it will be invalid and may be revoked at any time by the departmental petitions committee.

Students are responsible in ensuring strong reliable internet connection. Special consideration requests due to poor internet connection (ie. unable to complete online quiz / unable to submit assignment before deadline) will not be accepted.

Informing Your Professor and Submitting Appropriate Documentation:
The following steps must be completed in order to be considered for academic accommodation for any course work such as missed tests or late assignments:

1. Students must inform their professor in writing (e-mail is acceptable) within 24 hours of a test date/assignment due date of any circumstances that prevent them from writing a test or submitting an assignment on time.
2. Students must complete an online Special Consideration Request @ https://utmapp.utm.utoronto.ca/SpecialRequest. Students who miss a test due to circumstances beyond their control (e.g. illness or an accident) can request that the Department grant them special consideration. You must inform your instructor within 24 hours and you have up to one (1) week from the date of the missed test to submit your online request (late requests will NOT be considered without a "letter of explanation" as to why the request is late). You must present your case to the Department (not the Instructor). Note: The system only supports Microsoft Internet Explorer and Firefox for the time being.
3. Original supporting documentation (e.g. Verification of Student Illness or Injury form, accident report, etc) MUST BE SUBMITTED to the DROP BOX (labeled "Environment and Geography Petition Documentation") located outside Room 3282, Davis Building. Supporting documentation is required within 48 hours of submitting your online request.
Please Note: If you missed your test for a reason connected to your registered disability, please be advised that the department will accept documentation supplied by the UTM AccessAbility Resource Centre.
Note: (i) ROSI declarations are not accepted as supporting documentation.
(ii) If your reason for absence is due to a last minute flight due to a family emergency (illness/death etc.) you must provide your flight itinerary INCLUDING the date the flight was purchased as well as boarding passes in addition to proof of death/illness/accident.
4. Verification of Student Illness or Injury forms MUST include the statement "This Student was unable to write the test on date(s) for medical reasons". Documentation MUST show that the physician was consulted within ONE day of the test date. A statement merely confirming a report of illness made by the student is NOT acceptable (such as, "This patient tells me that he was feeling ill on that day."). Verification of Student Illness or Injury forms can be found on the Office of the Registrar's webpage (http://www.illnessverification.utoronto.ca/getattachment/index/Verification-of-Illness-or-Injury-form-Jan-22-2013.pdf.aspx).

Please complete the following:
- Special request link: https://utmapp.utm.utoronto.ca/SpecialRequest
- Verification of Illness form: http://www.illnessverification.utoronto.ca/

Please note that the written explanation and documentation that you submit represents an appeal from you, requesting the opportunity to account for that portion of your grade in some other manner. If an appeal is not received, or if the appeal is deemed unacceptable, you will receive a grade of zero for the item you missed. If the appeal is granted - that is, your reason for missing the item is considered acceptable by the committee - then a mechanism for accounting for the grade value of the missed item will be discussed.

A Departmental committee evaluates each request. Decisions will be communicated by email within two weeks of receipt of all completed documents. Note: It is your responsibility to ensure your email account is working and able to receive emails. Claims that a Departmental decision was not received will NOT be considered as a reason for further consideration. Contact Sabrina Ferrari (sabrina.ferrari@utoronto.ca) Academic Counselor, should you NOT receive notification of your decision within 2 weeks of submission.

Note that holidays and pre-purchased plane tickets, family plans, your friend's wedding, lack of preparation, or too many other tests are not acceptable excuses for missing a quiz, a test, or an item of term work.

Extension of Time
Students are expected to back up their work at all times. As such, extension requests due to computer issues (stolen, crashed, damaged etc.) will not be considered. The following steps must be completed in order to be considered for academic accommodation for any assignment extensions. Assignments handed in AFTER the work has been returned to the class cannot be marked for credit.

1. Students must inform their professor in writing (e-mail is acceptable) IN ADVANCE of an assignment due date of any circumstances that prevent them from submitting their assignment on time.
2. Students must complete an online Special Consideration Request @ https://utmapp.utm.utoronto.ca/SpecialRequest IN ADVANCE of the assignment due date. Note: The system only supports Microsoft Internet Explorer and Firefox for the time being.
3. Original supporting documentation (e.g. Verification of Student Illness or Injury form, accident report, etc) MUST BE SUBMITTED to the DROP BOX (labeled "Environment and Geography Petition Documentation") located outside Room 3282, Davis Building. Supporting documentation is required within one (1) week of submitting your online request.
4. Verification of Student Illness or Injury forms: Documentation MUST show that the physician was consulted within ONE day of the assignment due date. A statement merely confirming a report of illness made by the student is NOT acceptable (such as, "This patient tells me that he was feeling ill on that day."). Verification of Student Illness or Injury forms can be found on the Office of the Registrar's webpage (http://www.illnessverification.utoronto.ca/getattachment/index/Verification-of-Illness-or-Injury-form-Jan-22-2013.pdf.aspx).

Original supporting documentation (e.g. Verification of Student Illness or Injury form, accident report, etc) MUST BE SUBMITTED to the DROP BOX (labeled "Environment and Geography Petition Documentation") located outside Room 3282, Davis Building. Note: ROSI declarations are not accepted as supporting documentation. You are expected to submit your request to the Department before the due date of the assignment, unless demonstrably serious reasons prevent you from doing so. In the event of an illness, if you are seeking a one-day extension, Verification of Student Illness or Injury forms must confirm that you were ill on the due date of the assignment; if you are requesting a longer extension, your documentation must specify exactly the length of the period during which you were unable to carry out your academic work. For extensions of time beyond the examination period you must submit a petition through the Office of the Registrar. http://www.erin.utoronto.ca/index.php?id=6988

A Departmental committee evaluates each request for an extension of time. Decisions will be communicated by email within two weeks of receipt of all completed documents. Please note that students are required to submit their assignment/lab as soon as they are able and they should NOT wait for the decision of the committee. Note: It is your responsibility to ensure your email account is working and able to receive emails. Claims that a Departmental decision was not received will NOT be considered as a reason for further consideration. Contact Sabrina Ferrari (sabrina.ferrari@utoronto.ca) Academic Counsellor, should you NOT receive notification of your decision within 2 weeks of submission.

It is your responsibility to follow the appropriate procedures and submit requests for special consideration on time. Failure to do so may result in the committee denying your request.
Should you require further information regarding Special Considerations, please contact the Academic Counselor, Sabrina Ferrari
Undergraduate Academic Counselor
Room 3282, Davis Building, Telephone: 905-828-5465
email: sabrina.ferrari@utoronto.ca

Equity Statement and Academic Rights

The University of Toronto is committed to equity and respect for diversity. All members of the learning environment in this course should strive to create an atmosphere of mutual respect. As a course instructor, I will neither condone nor tolerate behaviour that undermines the dignity or self-esteem of any individual in this course and wish to be alerted to any attempt to create an intimidating or hostile environment. It is our collective responsibility to create a space that is inclusive and welcomes discussion. Discrimination, harassment and hate speech will not be tolerated. If you have any questions, comments, or concerns you may contact the UTM Equity and Diversity officer at edo.utm@utoronto.ca or the University of Toronto Mississauga Students' Union Vice President Equity at vpequity@utmsu.ca.

Academic Rights

You, as a student at UTM, have the right to:
- Receive a syllabus by the first day of class.
- Rely upon a syllabus once a course is started. An instructor may only change marks' assignments by following the University Assessment
  and Grading Practices Policy provision 1.3.
- Refuse to use turnitin.com (you must be offered an alternative form of submission).
- Have access to your instructor for consultation during a course or follow up with the department chair if the instructor is unavailable.
- Ask the person who marked your term work for a re-evaluation if you feel it was not fairly graded. You have up to one month from the date of
  return of the item to inquire about the mark. If you are not satisfied with a re-evaluation, you may appeal to the instructor in charge of the
  course if the instructor did not mark the work. If your work is remarked, you must accept the resulting mark. You may only appeal a mark
  beyond the instructor if the term work was worth at least 20% of the course mark.
- Receive at least one significant mark (15% for H courses, 25% for Y courses) before the last day you can drop a course for H courses, and
  the last day of classes in the first week of January for Y courses taught in the Fall/Winter terms.
- Submit handwritten essays so long as they are neatly written.
- Have no assignment worth 100% of your final grade.
- Not have a term test worth 25% or more in the last two weeks of class.
- Retain intellectual property rights to your research.
- Receive all your assignments once graded.
- View your final exams. To see a final exam, you must submit an online Exam Reproduction Request within 6 months of the exam. There is a
  small non-refundable fee.
- Privacy of your final grades.
- Arrange for representation from Downtown Legal Services (DLS), a representative from the UTM Students' Union (UTMSU), and/or other
  forms of support if you are charged with an academic offence.

Expectations/Classroom Behaviour/Behaviour in the Academic Setting

Our expectation of you is that you will show respect to the Course Instructor, TAs, other faculty, staff, and fellow students. This includes arriving on time and staying for the entire class (so you don't disturb others by your late entry or early departure); listening quietly (so you don't disturb others by your chatting or online activities); approaching your course work with an open, honest spirit and enthusiasm; and otherwise adhering to the Code.

In turn, you can expect the Course Instructor, staff, and TAs to show respect to you and your fellow students; to deliver the best course that they possibly can; to communicate their enthusiasm for the material; to maintain fairness in all aspects of course delivery and assessment; and otherwise to adhere to the University's Code of Behaviour on Academic Matters.

Academic Integrity/Honesty or Academic Offenses

It is your responsibility as a student at the University of Toronto to familiarize yourself with, and adhere to, both the Code of Student Conduct and the Code of Behaviour on Academic Matters.

This means, first and foremost, that you should read them carefully.

  • The Code of Student Conduct is available from the U of T Mississauga website (Registrar > Academic Calendar > Codes and Policies) or in your print version of the Academic Calendar.

  • The Code of Behaviour on Academic Matters is available from the U of T Mississauga website (Registrar > Academic Calendar > Codes and Policies) or in your print version of the Academic Calendar.

Another helpful document that you should read is How Not to Plagiarize, by M. Procter.

Further Thoughts on Academic Honesty:
The Code of Behaviour on Academic Matters states that:

"The University and its members have a responsibility to ensure that a climate that might encourage, or conditions that might enable, cheating, misrepresentation or unfairness not be tolerated. To this end all must acknowledge that seeking credit or other advantages by fraud or misrepresentation, or seeking to disadvantage others by disruptive behaviour is unacceptable, as is any dishonesty or unfairness in dealing with the work or record of a student." ―University of Toronto Mississauga Academic Calendar

This summarizes what we are all trying to achieve through the implementation of this Code―both students and faculty. We are trying―together―to create an atmosphere of fairness and honesty, in which people can learn and receive appropriate credit for work that they have done. Note that the Code refers specifically to expectations for faculty members, not just for students. It is my responsibility, as a member of the faculty of the University of Toronto, to be familiar with these expectations and adhere to them. There are many additional academic requirements that we are expected to meet with regard to the integrity of course materials, returning of marked work to students, maintenance of student privacy, fairness, grading practices, and others. My TAs and I will make every possible effort to meet these expectations.
 

Accessibility

U of T Mississauga and the AccessAbility Resource Centre are committed to the full participation of students with disabilities in all aspects of campus life. The AccessAbility Resource Centre provides academic accommodations and services to students who have a physical, sensory, or learning disability, mental health condition, acquired brain injury, or chronic health condition, be it visible or hidden. Students who have temporary disabilities (e.g., broken dominant arm) are also eligible to receive services. All interested students must have an intake interview with an advisor to discuss their individual needs.

Students who require accommodation are advised to visit the AccessAbility Resource Centre as early as possible to have their needs assessed, as it may take some time to process the application.

For more information please contact the centre at:
Room 2047, South Bldg.
Tel/TTY: 905-569-4699
E-mail: access.utm@utoronto.ca
Web: www.utm.utoronto.ca/accessability/

For students who would like to help

Please note that the AccessAbility Resource Centre is looking for a volunteer note-taker to take notes on behalf of students with a disability registered in this class. Volunteer note-takers are responsible for submitting their notes to AccessAbility every week. The notes can be submitted online or scanned at the Centre. (The form can be downloaded at www.utm.utoronto.ca/accessability/potential-notetakers.)

Volunteer note-takers will receive a certificate of recognition and reference letter at the end of the year. If you are interested in this opportunity, please take a volunteer form and follow the instructions provided. If you have any questions, please call 905-828-5422, email accessvolunteers.utm@utoronto.ca, or drop by the Centre (room 2047, Davis Building).

Accomodations for Religious Observances

As noted in the the Policy on Scheduling of Classes and Examinations and Other Accommodations for Religious Observances, the following provisions are included:

"It is the policy of the University of Toronto to arrange reasonable accommodation of the needs of students who observe religious holy days other than those already accommodated by ordinary scheduling and statutory holidays.
Students have a responsibility to alert members of the teaching staff in a timely fashion to upcoming religious observances and anticipated absences. Instructors will make every reasonable effort to avoid scheduling tests, examinations or other compulsory activities at these times. If compulsory activities are unavoidable, every reasonable opportunity should be given to these students to make up work that they miss, particularly in courses involving laboratory work. When the scheduling of tests or examinations cannot be avoided, students should be informed of the procedure to be followed to arrange to write at an alternate time.

It is most important that no student be seriously disadvantaged because of her or his religious observances. However, in the scheduling of academic and other activities, it is also important to ensure that the accommodation of one group does not seriously disadvantage other groups within the University community."

With respect to minimum advance notice, the Policy provides that "Students have a responsibility to alert members of the teaching staff in a timely fashion to upcoming religious observances and anticipated absences." Since students would normally be aware of upcoming religious observances as well as examination schedules in advance, a minimum of three weeks advance notice will be considered sufficient.

More information and some dates of potential relevance for the U of T community are available at www.viceprovoststudents.utoronto.ca/publicationsandpolicies/guidelines/religiousobservances.htm.

As with any academic accommodation request, students must submit an on-line Special Consideration Request @ https://utmapp.utm.utoronto.ca/SpecialRequest.

Diamond's Other Books, Critics and Topical Suggestions

On Jared Diamond's Collapse (2005)

This seminar will not discuss Jared Diamond's later books, including Collapse (2005). I believe this book is much more problematic than Guns, Germs and Steel. Diamond presented his main arguments in the following lectures: "How Societies Fail, And Sometimes Succeed" and "Collapse: How Societies Choose to Fail or Succeed." Among the most perceptive critics of this book are:
 

Book
McAnany, Patricia and Norman Yoffee. 2010. Questioning Collapse: Human Resilience, Ecological Vulnerability, and the Aftermath of Empire. Cambridge University Press

Special journal issue

Energy and Environment (July 2005 - Several lengthy articles)

Longer essays
Brδtland, John. 2010. "An Austrian Reexamination of Recent Thoughts on the Rise and Collapse of Societies." Journal of Libertarian Studies 22 (1): 65-98.

Middleton, Guy. 2018. "Do Civilisations Collapse? The Idea that the Maya or Easter Islanders Experienced an Apocalyptic End Makes for Good Television but Bad Archaeology." Aeon.

Avery, Dennis. 2018. "Easter Island's "Ecological Suicide" - Myths and Realities." Watts Up with That? (April 7).

Associated Press. 2018. "Why did Greenland's Viking Colonies Disappear? It may have been because the trade in walrus ivory collapsed." South China Morning Post (August 8).

Butzer, Karl W. 2012. "Collapse, Environment, and Society." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 109 (10):3632-3639.

Lawler, Andrew. 2010. "Collapse? What Collapse? Societal Change Revisited." Science 330 (6006) (November 12): 907-909.

Dasgupta, Partha. 2005. "Bottlenecks." London Review of Books, May 19.

McNeill, J. R. 2005. "Diamond in the Rough: Is There a Genuine Environmental Threat to Security?" International Security 30 (1): 178-195.

Tainter, Joseph A. 2008. "Collapse, Sustainability, and the Environment: How Authors Choose to Fail or Succeed." Reviews in Anthropology 37 (4): 342-371

Tainter, Joseph A. 2006. "Archaeology of Overshoot and Collapse." Annual Review of Anthropology, Vol. 35: 59-74.

Shorter reviews
Hanson, Victor Davis . 2005. "Decline and Fall." National Review (March 28).

Smil, Vaclav. 2005. "Review of Collapse by Jared Diamond." International Journal 60 (3): 886-889.

On Diamond's take on Easter Island (Rapa Nui)
Mann, Charles C. 2011. "Don't Blame the Natives." The Wall Street Journal, July 30.

Peiser, Benny. 2005. "From Genocide to Ecocide: The Rape of Rapa Nui." Energy & Environment 16(3): 513-539. 

Hunt, Terry and Lipo, Carl. 2012. Ecological Catastrophe and Collapse: The Myth of 'Ecocide' on Rapa Nui (Easter Island) PERC Research Paper No. 12/3. Available at SSRN or here

Video: Long Now Foundation, Terry Hunt and Carl Lipo. 2013. "The Statues Walked -- What Really Happened on Easter Island." 

Jared Diamonds vs Terry Hunt/Carl Lipo on Mark Lynas' News and Environment (2011)
> Lynas on Hunt/Lipo vs Diamond 
> Diamond against Hunt/Lipo 
> Reply to Diamond by Hunt/Lipo 
 

On Jared Diamond's The World Until Yesterday (2012)

Golub, Alex. 2013. "Anthropology, Footnoted: Jared Diamond's The World Until Yesterday." The Appendix 1 (2).

Acemoglu, Daron and James Robinson. 2013. "Past Perfect?" Democracy 28 (Spring).

Corry, Stephen. 2013. "Savaging Primitives: Why Jared Diamond's "The World Until Yesterday" is Completely Wrong." The Daily Beast (January 30).

Other interesting takes on geographical and environmental determinism


The BBC TV series "How Earth Made Us" hosted by Professor Iain Stewart. The series was "How the Earth changed history" in North America.

I also recommend Nature as "Historical Protagonist," The Tawney Memorial Lecture 2008 (Economic History Association) by Professor Bruce M.S. Campbell (Queen's University of Belfast) (video)

Other influential recent statements of societal collapse

Ehrlich, Paul R. and Anne H. Ehrlich. 2013. "Can a Collapse of Global Civilization be Avoided?" Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 280 (1754): 20122845.

Reuveny, Rafel. 2012. "Taking Stock of Malthus: Modeling the Collapse of Historical Civilizations." Annual Review of Resource Economics 4: 303-329.

Books and Topical Suggestions.
 

LECTURE SCHEDULE

Lecture 1 (September 10): Is Geography (and Climate) Destiny? Part I
Lecture 2 (September 17): Out of Africa
Lecture 3 (September 24): Collision at Cajamarca
Lecture 4 (October 1): Farmer Power, Part I
Thanksgiving; Fall Reading Week (October 8) No class
Lecture 5 (October 15): Farmer Power, Part II
Lecture 6 (October 22): Term Test
Lecture 7 (October 29): Germs and "Virgin Soils", Part I
Lecture 8 (November 5): Germs and "Virgin Soils", Part II
Lecture 9 (November 12): Writing, Technology and Government
Lecture 10 (November 19): Around the World, Part I
Lecture 11 (November 26): Around the World, Part II
Lecture 12 (December 3): Is Geography (and Climate) Destiny? Part II
Deadline for term paper: TBA
Final Exam: TBA
 

LECTURE 1 (SEPT 10): Is Geography (and Climate) Destiny? Part I

Required video

Marginal Revolution University. 2016. "Geography and Growth." 
 

Required readings
 

 

- Environmental determinism, historically considered
Rodrigue, Christine M. 2002, "Four traditions of geography."

Mises, Ludwig von. 1957. Theory and History, Chapter 15 ("Environmentalism"), pp. 324-326.

DeGregori, Thomas R. 1998. "An Updated Adam Smith / David S. Landes studies economic inequity among nations (Review of The Wealth and Poverty of Nations: Why Some Are So Rich and Some So Poor, by David S. Landes. Norton, 1998)," Houston Chronicle, June 21.

- Environmental determinism, recent debates and controversies
Hausmann, Ricardo. 2001, "Prisoners of Geography," Foreign Policy 122 (January): 45 - 53.

Pinkovskiy, Maxim, and Xavier Sala-i-Martin. 2010. "African Poverty is Falling... Much Faster than You Think." Vox (December 6).

Sachs, Jeffrey, Andrew D. Mellinger and John L. Gallup. 2001. "The Geography of Poverty and Wealth." Scientific American (March): 71- 75. 

- Climate and Civilizations
Dunston, Sara. 2016. "Revealed: Cambodia's Vast Medieval Cities Hidden Beneath the Jungle." The Guardian (June 11).

"Hampi - India. The remains of what was, not so long ago, the world's largest city." Atlas Obscura.

Clynes, Tom. 2018. "Exclusive: Laser Scans Reveal Maya "Megalopolis" Below Guatemalan Jungle." National Geographic (February 1).

- Other topics
"China's Age of Invention." PBS Nova (February29, 2000).

Gearin, Conor. 2016. "Mongol Hordes Gave up on Conquering Europe due to Wet Weather." New Scientist (May 26).

Holloway, April. 2014. "The White Slaves of Barbary." Ancient Origins (October 6).

Plus detailed discussion of the syllabus and course requirements.
 

Suggested readings
 

LECTURE 2 (sept 17): Out of Africa

Required videos

American Museum of Natural History. 2016.

Kuzoian, Alex. 2015. "This Animated Map Shows how Humans Migrated across the Globe." Business Insider (May 19).

Smithsonian Channel. 2018 "Terrifying Mammals That May Have Greeted Early Humans in America."

Cooke, Lacy. 2017. "Ancient Village Discovered in Canada is 10,000 Years Older than the Pyramids." Inhabitat (April 17).
 

Required readings
 

 

Mega-Fauna Extinction
Boissoneault, Lorraine. 2017. "Are Humans to Blame for the Disappearance of Earth's Fantastic Beasts?" Smithsonian.com. 

Pearce, Fred. 2017. "Human Arrivals Wiped Out the Caribbean's Giant Ground Sloths." New Scientist (November 10). 

Human Origins and Ancient Migrations

Yirka, Bob. 2017. "Anthropologist Group Suggests First Humans to the Americas Arrived via the Kelp Highway." Phys.org (November 3).

Bae, Christopher. 2017. "In to Asia." Aeon.

Anonymous. 2012. "New Book Reveals Ice Age Mariners from Europe were America's First Inhabitants." Smithsonian Insider (March 1). 
 
Guns, Germs, and Steel

Diamond, Prologue - (to, including Ch. 1) Ch. 2.
 

Suggested readings & links
 

LECTURE 3 (Sept 24): Collision at Cajamarca

Required video

Bury my Heart at Wounded Knee (2007). Excerpt 
 

Required readings
 

We will watch episode 2 of the PBS-National Geographic Series on Guns, Germs and Steel : - video | - summary | - full transcript

Guns, Germs, and Steel
Chapter 3

Critique of Diamond's account of military history
Raudzens, George. 1999, "Military Revolution or Maritime Evolution? Military Superiorities or Transportation Advantages as Main Causes of European Colonial Conquests to 1788," The Journal of Military History 63 (3): 631-641.

Others
Mann, Charles C. 2015. "What Endures From the Ancient Civilizations That Once Ruled the Central Andes?" Smithsonian.com (July 22).

Rubenstein, Hymie. 2017. "The Myth of Indigenous Utopia." C2C Journal (November 8). 

Shoalts, Adam. 2011. "Reverse Colonialism - How the Inuits Conquered the Vikings." Canadian Geographic (March 8).

Sinclair, Niigaan. 2017. "Indigenous Nationhood can Save the World. Here's How." The Globe & Mail (Revised, November 17).
 

Suggested readings & links
 

Lectures 4-5 (Oct 1 - Oct 15):   Farmer Power, Part I & II

Required videoS
 

Deadline for written assignment 1” (23:59 Oct. 1st, 2018)

BBC Scotland. 2012. How to Grow a Planet - Episode 3: The Challenger (Gφbekli Tepe and the domestication of wheat).

WPSU. 2009. Apple Grafting.

North Carolina Museum of Natural Sciences. 2011. Pawpaw Trees and their Tasty Fruit: A Moment of Science
 

Required readings
 

 

Note: Students who fail to turn in their proposal at the beginning of the lecture will be penalized.

Lecture 4

Guns, Germs, and Steel
Chapter 4-6.

On hunting-gathering
Buckner, William. 2017. "Romanticizing the Hunter-Gatherer." Quillette (December 16).  

Agricultural History

"The story of wheat - Ears of plenty." The Economist,  December 20, 2005.

Bradt, Steve. 2005. "Ancient Humans brought Bottle Gourds to the Americas from Asia. Plants Widely Used as Containers Arrived, Already Domesticated, Some 10,000 Years Ago." Harvard University Gazette (December 15).

Diamond, Jared. 1987. "The Worst Mistake in the History of the Human Race." Discover Magazine, May, pp. 64-66.

CIAT (International Center for Tropical Agriculture). "Where our Food Crops Come From" (Interactive website).

University of Sheffield. 2017. "Why did Hunter-gatherers First Begin Farming?" Phys.org (May 16).

Lecture 5

Jarvis, Anne. 2012. "Planting my pawpaw." Windsor Star (April 18).

Breakthrough Staff. 2012. "Is Modern Civilization Unsustainable?

Guns, Germs, and Steel
Chapters 7-10
 

Suggested readings & links
 

 Thanksgiving; Fall Reading Week (OcT 8) No class


 

LECTURE 6 (Oct 22): Term Test

  Questions
 

LECTURES 7-8 (Oct 29 and Nov 5): Germs and "Virgin Soils," Part I & II

Required video

Discovery UK. 2018. "The Eradication Of Smallpox." 
 

Required readings
 

Guns, Germs, and Steel
Chapter 11

Diseases and Civilization
- Americas
-- General
Mann, Charles C. 2002, "1491," The Atlantic 289 (3): 41-53. (see also Gene Expression. 2011. "10 Questions Charles C. Mann." Discover Magazine, September 3.)

Pringle, Heather. 1998, "The Sickness of the Mummies." Discover (December) (Due to new copyright rules, please access the article through the UofT library website).

Pearce, Fred. 2013. "True Nature: Revising Ideas On What is Pristine and Wild." Yale 360 Environment (May 13).

-- Canada and USA
Spaulding, William B. (2015/2006) "Smallpox." Canadian Encyclopedia.

Houston, C. Stuart and Stan Houston. 2000. "The First Smallpox Epidemic on the Canadian Plains: In the fur-traders' words." Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases 11(2): 112-115.

Hopper, Tristin. 2017. "Everyone was Dead: When Europeans First Came to B.C., They Stepped into the Aftermath of a Holocaust." National Post (February 21).

Ostroff, Joshua. 2017. "How a Smallpox Epidemic Forged Modern British Columbia." MacLean's (August 1).

Kelly, David. 2018. "Archaeologists Explore a Rural Field in Kansas, and a Lost City Emerges." Los Angeles Times (August 19). 

-- Mexico and Central America
Zhang, Sarah. 2018. "A New Clue to the Mystery Disease That Once Killed Most of Mexico. The evidence comes from the 16th-century victims' teeth." The Atlantic (January 15). 

BBC News. 2018. "Sprawling Maya Network Discovered under Guatemala Jungle." BBC News (February 2).

-- South America
Meyer, Robinson. 2017. "The Amazon Rainforest Was Profoundly Changed by Ancient Humans. The region's ecology is a product of 8,000 years of indigenous agriculture." The Atlantic (March 2).

University of Exeter. 2018 "Ancient Farmers Transformed Amazon and Left an Enduring Legacy on the Rainforest." Science Daily (July 23).

University of Exeter. 2018. "Parts of the Amazon Thought Uninhabited were Actually Home to Up to a Million People." Science Daily (March 27). 

Panko, Ben. 2017. "The Supposedly Pristine, Untouched Amazon Rainforest Was Actually Shaped By Humans. Over thousands of years, native people played a strong role in molding the ecology of this vast wilderness." Smithsonian.com (March 3).  

- Africa
Nelson, Robert H. 2003, "Environmental Colonialism: 'Saving' Africa from Africans," The Independent Review 8(1): 65-86.

Sikkema, Albert. 2016. "Shades of Colonialism in the War on Poaching." Resource WR (March 23). 

Plus review of the term test.
 

Suggested readings & links
 

LECTURE 9 (Nov 12): Writing, Technology and Government

Required videoS and interactive maps

Woollaston, Victoria. 2015. "Plotting the Spread of Language on our Planet: Interactive Map Reveals how Words have evolved across the World's Continents." Daily Mail (January 30). 

Stef Conner "The Flood" (Background: Main, Douglas. 2014. "What Did Ancient Babylonian Songs Sound Like? Something Like This." Newsweek, December 14).

Johnson, Steven. 2010. "Where Good Ideas Come From." RiverHead Books.

Tech Insider. 2016. "Zipper Truck Builds Tunnel." (March 3). 

Curbed. (Undated) "A Brooklyn Letterpress Studio Uses Fonts that Have Never Been ...
 

Required readings
 

Guns, Germs, and Steel
Chapters 12-14.

Wade, Nicholas. 2011. "Phonetic Clues Hint Language Is Africa-Born." The New York Times, April 14.

Keating, Fiona. 2014. "Ancient Greece: 4,000 Year-Old 'CD-ROM' Code Cracked. Scientists unravelling mystery of the mysterious Minoan stone disk." International Business Times (October 25). 

Smil, Vaclav. 2011. "The Myth of the Innovator Hero." The Atlantic, November 15.

Sowell, Thomas. 2013. "The Tragedy of Isolation." Townhall.com (July 30).

West, Patrick. 2015. "The Secret to Star Wars' Success? Unoriginality." Spiked (December 18).

Davis-Young, Katherine. 2017. "The College Student Who Decoded the Data Hidden in Inca Knots. Manny Medrano cut loose on spring break by analyzing a set of khipus."  
 

Suggested readings & links
 

Lecture 10 (Nov 19): Around the World, Part I

Required video

We will watch episode 3 of the PBS-National Geographic series on Guns, Germs and Steel : - video | - summary | - full transcript
 

Required readings
 

Guns, Germs, and Steel
Chapters 15-16

Berney, Leila. 2014. "Polynesian Migration Mystery Solved." Australian Geographic (October 1). 

Wade, Lizzie. 2013. "Clues to Prehistoric Human Exploration Found in Sweet Potato Genome." ScienceNOW (January 21).

Newitz, Annalee. 2016. "First Discovery of 50,000-year-old Human Settlements in Australian Interior." Ars Technica (November 2). 
 

Suggested readings & links
 

LECTURE 11 (Nov 26): Around the World, Part II

Required video

1000 Years of European Border Changes
 

Required readings
 

Guns, Germs, and Steel
Chapters 17-19. For those of you who have a 2003 (or later) edition of the book, read the "2003 Afterword: Guns, Germs and Steel Today." For those of you who have an earlier edition, read "How To Get Rich," A Talk by Jared Diamond, June 7, 1999.
 

Suggested readings & links
 

LECTURE 12 (Dec 3): Is Geography (and Climate) Destiny? Part II

Required videoS
 

Deadline for assignments 2 and 3 (23:59 Dec. 3rd, 2018)

McCloskey, Deirdre. 2014. "Why Does 1% of History Have 99% of the Wealth?" Learn Liberty.

Marginal Revolution University. 2016. "The Importance of Institutions." 

"Human Population Through Time." 2016. American Museum of Natural History (October).
 

Required readings
 

Jared Diamond on geography and political institutions
Diamond, Epilogue.

Diamond, Jared. 2012. "What Makes Countries Rich or Poor?" (Review of Why Nations Fail: The Origins of Power, Prosperity, and Poverty by by Daron Acemoglu and James A. Robinson), The New York Review of Books, June 7.

Burkeman, Oliver. 2014. "Jared Diamond: 'Humans, 150,000 years ago, wouldn't figure on a list of the five most interesting species on Earth." The Guardian (October 24).

Supporters of Diamond
Laitin, David D. Joachim Moortgat and Amanda Lea Robinson. 2012. "Geographic Axes and the Persistence of Cultural Diversity." PNAS 109(26): 10263-10268.

Critics of Diamond
Blaut, James. 1999, "Environmentalism and Eurocentrencism," The Geographical Review 89 (3): 391-408.

McNeill, J.R. 2001, "The World According to Jared Diamond," The History Teacher 34 (2).

Callahan, Gene. 2005, "The Diamond Fallacy," Mises Institute Website, March 28.

Barker, Jean E. 2005. "The Christian roots of capitalism." San Francisco Chronicle, December 25.

Hanson, Victor Davis. 2005. "Decline and Fall." National Review (March 28).

Acemoglu, Daron and James Robinson. 2012. "The Great Debate: No, A nation's Geography is not its Destiny." Reuters (March 19). 

Deirdre McCloskey

McCloskey, Deirdre. 2006. "Bourgeois Virtues?" Cato Policy Report (May/June).

McCloskey, Deirdre N. 2016. "The Formula for a Richer World? Equality, Liberty, Justice." New York Times (September 2).

McCloskey, Deirdre N. 2018. "Slavery did not Make America Rich." Reason (August-September).

Joel Mokyr
Mokyr, Joel. 2016. "Progress Isn't Natural. Humans Invented It-and not that long ago." The Atlantic (November 17).

Others
Boudreaux, Don. 2005. "Capitalism and Slavery." Pittsburgh Tribune (February 17).

Tupy, Marian. 2016. "Africa is Growing Thanks to Capitalism." Cap X (July 22).
 
Ridley, Matt. 2016. "Free Movement of Genius was Crucial to Europe's Prosperity." The Rational Optimist (December 17). 

Sanandaji, Nima. 2018. "The "Laffer Curve" Was Discovered by a Medieval Islamic Philosopher." Fee.org (May 31).

Tupy, Marian L. 2017. "How Africa Got Left Behind." CapX (April 17).

-Environment and Diseases

- Malaria
- Facts and History
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 
- About Malaria
- The History of Malaria, An Ancient Disease
- Eradication of Malaria in the United States (1947-51)

- Climate Change and Malaria

Reiter, Paul. 2008. "Global warming and malaria: knowing the horse before hitching the cart," Malaria Journal, Volume 7 (Suppl 1):S3, Dec. 11.

"Trying to Hit a Mosquito with a Sledgehammer." World Climate Report, June 8, 2010.
 

Suggested readings & links
 

 

 

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