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University of Toronto Mississauga • Department of Geography • Spring 2017

GGR 329H5F: Environment and the Roots of Globalization


 Instructor: Pierre Desrochers


 Lectures: Thursday 9-11 AM


 Phone: (905) 828-5206

 Office: Davis Building, room 3273


 Lecture room: IB 235




GGR 329H5F - Primary Syllabus and Mandatory Readings

Primary Syllabus and Mandatory Readings


> Lecture 1: Is Geography (and Climate) Destiny? Part I
> Lecture 2: Out of Africa
> Lecture 3: Collision at Cajamarca
> Lecture 4: Farmer Power, Part I
> Lecture 5: Farmer Power, Part II
> Lecture 6: Term Test
> Lecture 7: No Class
> Lecture 8-9: Germs and "Virgin Soils", Part I & II
> Lecture 10: Writing, Technology and Government
> Lecture 11: Around the World, Part I
> Lecture 12: Around the World, Part II; Is Geography (and Climate) Destiny? Part II

LECTURE 1: Is Geography (and Climate) Destiny? Part I

Suggested readings

• On the history of geographical thought

> General references

"Geography" on Wikipedia.

Johnston, R.J. 2000. The Dictionary of Human Geography. Blackwell Publishers.

Martin, Geoffrey J. 2005. All Possible Worlds: A History of Geographical Ideas, 4th revised edition. Oxford University Press.

Smith, Neil. 1987, "'Academic War over the Field of Geography': The Elimination of Geography at Harvard, 1947-1951," Annals of the Association of American Geographers 77 (2): 155-172.

Pattison, W. D. 1964. "The Four Traditions of Geography." Journal of Geography, Vol. 63 no. 5: 211-216.

Robinson, J. Lewis. 1976. "A New Look at the Four Traditions of Geography." Journal of Geography, Vol. 75 no. 9: 520-530.

Rosenberg, Matt. "The Four Traditions of Geography." Geography.

> Geographical (or Environmental) Determinism
- Classic writings
Aristotle. 350 BC, Politics Book 7, VII

Montesquieu, Charles de Secondat. The Spirit of Laws, Volume 1, Printed for J. Nourse and P. Vaillant, 1750.

Voltaire. 1764. Philosophical Dictionary. "Climate."

Semple, Ellen Churchill. 1911. Influences of Geographic Environment, on the basis of Ratzel's System of Anthropogeography. H. Holt & Co.
Huntingdon, Ellsworth. 1915. Civilization and Climate. Yale University Press. 

Commons, John. R. 1907. Race and Immigrants in America. MacMillan.

- Discussions of classic writings
Isern, Tom. "Griffith Taylor and Environmental Determinism."

Peet, Richard. 1985, "The Social Origins of Environmental Determinism," Annals of the Association of American Geographers 75 (3): 309-333.

Harden, Carol P. 2012. "Framing and Reframing Questions of Human-Environment Interactions." Annals of the Association of American Geographers 102 (4): 737-747.

Judkins, Gabriel, Marissa Smith, Eric Keys (2008). "Determinism Within Human-Environment Research and the Rediscovery of Environmental Causation." The Geographical Journal 174 (1) , 17–29.

Konigsberg, Charles. 1960. "Climate and Society: A Review of the Literature." The Journal of Conflict Resolution 4 (1): 67-82.

Livingstone, David N. "Changing Climate, Human Evolution and the Revival of Environmental Determinism," Bulletin of the History of Medicine 86 (2012), 564-595.

Radcliffe, Sarah A., Elizabeth E. Watson, Ian Simmons, Felipe Fernández-Armesto, and Andrew Sluyter. 2010. "Environmentalist Thinking and/in Geography." Progress in Human Geography 34(1): 98-116.

Beck, Joanna Eunice. 1985. Environmental Determinism in Twentieth Century America Geography: Reflections in the Professional Journals, Volumes 1 and 2, PhD Dissertation (Geography), University of California, Berkeley.

The following books have chapters on the history of environmental determinism:

Arnold, D. 1996. The Problem of Nature: Environment, Culture and European Expansion. Oxford University Press.

Barrow, C.J. 2003. Environmental Change and Human Development. Oxford University Press.

Kitchin, Rob and Nigel Thrift. 2009. International Encyclopedia of Human Geography. Elsevier.

• Herbert Spencer, Social Darwinism and Eugenics
--Herbert Spencer
"Herbert Spencer, 1820-1903." The History of Economic Thought Website.

"Herbert Spencer." Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (SEP).

"Is Social Darwinism a Myth?" History of Economics Playground (June 4 2009) ("Reply : Tim Leonard on Social Darwinism and Mythology." 2009. History of Economics Playground Redux (July 8))

Caplan, Bryan. 2005. "Was Herbert Spencer Reincarnated as Julian Simon?" EconLog | Library of Economics and Liberty, March 07.

Davies, Stephen. 2001. "Spencer's Law: Another Reason Not to Worry." The Freeman | Ideas On Liberty, August 1.

Leonard, Thomas C. 2009. "Origins of the myth of social Darwinism: The ambiguous legacy of Richard Hofstadter's Social Darwinism in American Thought." Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, March 6.

Long, Roderick T. 2003. "Herbert Spencer: The Defamation Continues.", August, 28.

Shapin, Steven. 2007. "Man with a Plan - Herbert Spencer’s theory of everything." The New Yorker, August 13.

Wee, Alvin. 2006. "Herbert Spencer (1820-1903)" University Scholars Programme, National University of Singapore (November 6).

Wilkins, John. 2007. "The inimitable Mr Spencer." Evolving Thoughts, August 07.

Zwolinski, Matt. 2011. "A Bleeding Heart History of Libertarian Thought – Herbert Spencer." Bleeding Heart Libertarians, November 16.

Conniff, Richard. 2016. "How a Notorious Racist Inspired America's National Parks. Madison Grant was dedicated to preserving species-including the "great race." Mother Jones (July/August). 

Levy, David M. & Sandra J. Peart, "The Secret History of the Dismal Science. Part VI. Eugenics and the Amoralization of Economics." Library of Economics and Liberty, May 13, 2002.

Sowell, Thomas. 2012. "An Ignored 'Disparity'." Jewish World Review (January 17).

Cohen, Adam S. 2016. "Harvard's Eugenics Era : When academics embraced scientific racism, immigration restrictions, and the suppression of "the unfit."" Harvard Magazine (March-April).

• The new environmental determinists

Coombes, Paul and Keith Barber. 2005. "Environmental Determinism in Holocene Research: Causality or Coicidence?" Area 37 (3): 303-311.

Cassidy, John. 2005. "Always with us - Jeffrey Sachs’s plan to eradicate world poverty." The New Yorker, April 11.

Hibbs, Douglas A. and Ola Olsson. 2004. "Geography, Biogeography, and Why some Countries are Rich and Others are Poor." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (PNAS) 101 (10): 3715-3720.

Jeffrey Sachs's Website and Wikipedia entry and publications.
- 2003, "Institutions Matter, but not for everything," Finance and Development 40 (2): 38-41.
- and Andrew D. Mellinger and John L. Gallup, 2001, "The Geography of Poverty and Wealth," Scientific American 284 (3): 70-75.
- 2012, "Government, Geography, and Growth. The True Drivers of Economic Development." Foreign Affairs (September/October 2012).
- 2012, "Reply to Acemoglu and Robinson's Response to My Book Review." (December 3). (Reply to Acemoglu and Robinson)

Landes, David S. 1998, The Wealth and Poverty of Nations, W.W. Norton & Company, pp. 3 - 28 (Ch. 1: Nature's Inequalities and Ch. 2: Answers to Geography: Europe and China).

Lora, Eduardo, Alejandro Gaviria and John Luke. 2003. Is Geography Destiny? Lessons from Latin America, Inter-American Development Bank. 

Nolen, Stephanie. 2006. "Millennium Man." The Globe and Mail, March 11.

Nunn, Nathan, & Diego Puga. 2007. "The blessing of bad geography in Africa." Vox, 6 June.

Smith, Evan. "The End of Poverty." Yale Economic Review, Summer 2006.

> Critics of new environmental determinists
Critics of Jared Diamond's work on environmental determinism are listed in lecture 12, suggested readings.

Acemoglu, Daron, and James Robinson. 2012. "Response to Jeffrey Sachs." Why Nations Fail (November 21).

Brätland's, John. 2009. "Geography as Causal in Societal Ascendance: An Austrian Retrospective on Diamond." Quarterly Journal of Austrian Economics 12 (4): 46-63.

Boettke, Peter. 2007. "Entrepreneurial Responses to Poverty and Social Conflict: The Enterprise Africa! Project." Economic Affairs, 27 (2): 2-5.

Correia, David. 2013. "F**k Jared Diamond." Capitalism, Nature, Socialism 24 (4): 1-6.

Easterly, William & Levine, Ross, 2003. "Tropics, Germs, and Crops: How Endowments Influence Economic Development," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 50(1), pages 3-39, January.

Gavin, Robert. 2005. "MIT Professor Named Top Economist Under 40 - Key Study Minimizes Geography in Formation of Rich vs. Poor Nations." The Boston Globe, June 15.

Kimenyi, Mwangi S. 2007. "Markets, institutions and Millenium Development Goals." Economic Affairs, 27 (2): 14-19.

McNeill, J. R. 2014. "Changing Climates of History." Public Books (December 1). 

Radcliffe, Sarah A. (organizing editor), Elizabeth E. Watson, Ian Simmons, Felipe Fernández-Armesto and Andrew Sluyter (contributors). 2010.
"Forum: Environmentalist Thinking and/in Geography." Progress in Human Geography 34(1): 98-116.

Rodrik, Dani & Subramanian, Arvind & Trebbi, Francesco, 2002. "Institutions Rule: The Primacy of Institutions Over Geography and Integration in Economic Development," CEPR Discussion Papers 3643, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers (later published as Dani Rodrik & Arvind Subramanian & Francesco Trebbi, 2004. "Institutions Rule: The Primacy of Institutions Over Geography and Integration in Economic Development," Journal of Economic Growth, Springer, vol. 9(2), pages 131-165).

Judkins, Gabriel, Marissa Smith, Eric Keys (2008). "Determinism Within Human-Environment Research and the Rediscovery of Environmental Causation." The Geographical Journal 174 (1) , 17–29.

Sowell, Thomas. 2015. Wealth, Poverty and Politics: An International Perspective. Basic Books.

• Environment and Diseases

See lecture 13, suggested readings, Malaria, for more readings on the history and debates surrounding malaria.

A debate in the British medical journal The Lancet (1998) on "Global warming and vector-borne disease" between Paul Epstein, Andy Haines and Paul Reiter.

A debate on "Malaria and global warming in perspective" in Emerging Infectious Diseases (2000) between Pim Martens and Paul Reiter.

Reiter, Paul. "Climate Change and Mosquito-Borne Disease." Environmental Health Perspectives Supplements, Volume 109, Number S1, March 2001.

Reiter, Paul. 2007, "It’s Tires, Not Global Warming." The Korea Times, October 4.

Reiter, Paul. 2003, "Could Global Warming Bring Mosquito-Borne Disease to Europe?" In Kendra Okonski (ed.), Adapt or Die: The Science, Politics and Economics of Climate Change, Profile Books, pp. 19-38.

Under the Weather: Climate, Ecosystems, and Infectious Disease. The National Academies Press, 2001. 160 pp.

Suggested links

• Global warming and diseases

See lecture 13, suggested links, Malaria, for more links on the topic.

• Eugenics and Environmental Determinism

Thomas Leonard's (economics, Princeton U) recent writings on eugenics in the American Progressive Era.

Museum of Natural History (Smithsonian Institution) Human Evolution - Timeline Interactive

PBS Nova series "The Human Spark" (2010)

• Environmental Determinism

Sargon of Akkad. 2016. "Re: Environmental Determinism: Crash Course Human Geography #1." (October 26). 

LECTURE 2: Out of Africa

Suggested readings

On Yali and the Cargo Cult

More information on one of the main characters in Guns, Germs, and Steel, the Papua New Guinean politician Yali Singina (1912-75), can be found on the anthropological blog Savage Minds.
About Yali
On cargo and cults - and Yali's Question
Diamond's Argument about the Haves and Have-Nots

More detailed histories of the cargo cult and more information on Yali are available here, here and here.

The Bell Curve and IQ Debates

"The Bell Curve," on Wikipedia.

Auster, Lawrence. 2007. "Michael Hart and the Role of IQ in Human History." View from the Right, September 30.

Flynn, James R. 2007. "Shattering Intelligence: Implications for Education and Interventions." Cato Unbound, November 5th.

Heckman, James. J. 1995. "Cracked Bell." Reason (March).

Murray, Charles. 2005. "The Inequality Taboo." Commentary, September.

Nugent, Helen. 2007. "Black People 'Less Intelligent' Scientist Claims." Times Online, October 17.

Syal, Rajeev. 2007. "Nobel Scientist Who Sparked Race Row Says Sorry — I Didn't Mean It." Times Online, October 19.

Tierney, John. 2016. "The Real War on Science. The Left has done far more than the Right to set back progress." City Journal (Autumn). 

On Human Origins and Ancient Migrations
-Human Origins (Ancient History)

Chabris, Christopher F. 2009. "Last-Minute Changes - Scientific orthodoxy says that human evolution stopped a long time ago. Did it?" The Wall Street Journal, February 12.

Mayell, Hillary. "Documentary Redraws Humans' Family Tree." National Geographic News, January 21, 2003.

McKie, Robin. 2010. "How a hobbit is rewriting the history of the human race." The Observer, 21 February.

Schmid, Randolph E. 2009. "Before Lucy came Ardi, new earliest hominid found." Yahoo! News, October 1st.

Schmid, Randolph E. 2008. "Poop Fossil Pushes Back Date for Earliest Americans." Discovery News, April 3.

Trinkaus, Erik. 2005. "Early Modern Humans." Annual Review of Anthropology, Vol. 34: 207-30, October.

US National Academy of Sciences. 2010. Understanding Climate's Influence on Human Evolution. National Academy Press.

Wade, Nicholas. 2002. "The Human Family Tree: 10 Adams and 18 Eves." New York Times, May 2.

Viegas, Jennifer. 2015. "Big-Toothed Fossil May Be Primitive New Human." Discovery News (January 27).
Heltzel, Paul. 2014. "'Hobbit' Human May Have Had Down Syndrome." Discovery News (August 4). 

-Human Origins (North America)

More to come

-Ancient Migrations (Global)

Antón, Susan C. and Carl C. Swisher III, 2004, "Early Dispersals of HOMO from Africa," Annual Review of Anthropology 33: 271-296.

Manning, Patrick. "Homo sapiens Populates the Earth: A Provisional Synthesis, Privileging Linguistic Evidence." Journal of World History, Vol. 17, Issue 2.

Pringle, Heather. 2008. "Did Humans Colonize the World by Boat?" Discover Magazine, May 20.

Rincon, Paul. 2006. "Early Humans Followed the Coast." BBC News, October 5.

Stix, Gary. 2008. "The Migration History of Humans: DNA Study Traces Human Origins Across the Continents." Scientific American Magazine, July 7.

Warsh, David. 2007. "Putting the (Molecular) Clock on Development." Economic Principals, August 26.

Herman, Doug. 2014. "How the Voyage of the Kon-Tiki Misled the World About Navigating the Pacific." Smithsonian Magazine (September 4).

-Ancient Migrations (North America)

Cressey, Daniel. 2008. "Unexpected origin of an early Eskimo." Nature News, May 29.

Day, Matthew. 2012. "Stone-age Europeans 'were the first to set foot on North America'." The Telegraph (February 28).

Wade, Nicholas. 2010. "Ancient Man in Greenland Has Genome Decoded." The New York Times, February 10.

Preston, Douglas. 2014. "The Kennewick Man Finally Freed to Share His Secrets." Smithsonian Magazine (September).
University Of South Carolina. 2014. "New Evidence Puts Man in North America 50,000 Years Ago." ScienceDaily (18 November).
Hodges, Glen. 2015. "Tracking the First Americans." National Geographic (January).

Megafauna Extinction

Australian Debates and Perspectives
Megafauna Extinction - patterns of extinction
Megafauna Extinction – people theory
Megafauna Extinction

George Washington University. 2009. "Mass Extinction: Why did half of N. America's large mammals disappear 40,000 to 10,000 years ago?" ScienceDaily (November 27).

>Non-anthropogenic factors

"Extraterrestrial Impact Likely Source of Sudden Ice Age Extinctions." Brown University, September 24, 2007.

Holocene Extinction Event

On the Hunting-Gathering Lifestyle

DeGregori, Thomas R. 1998, "Back to the Future: A Review Article of Limited Wants, Unlimited Means: A Reader on Hunter-Gatherer Economics and the Environment, edited by John Gowdy, Island Press," Journal of Economic Issues 32 (4): 1153-1161.

Krech III, Shepherd. 1999, The Ecological Indian, Myth and History, W.W. Norton & Company, pp. 29-43 (Ch. 1: Pleistocene Extinctions).

Smith, Vernon L. 1993, "Humankind in Prehistory: Economy, Ecology and Institutions." In The Political Economy of Customs and Culture, edited by Terry Anderson and Randy Simmons, Rowman and Littlefield Press, pp. 157-184.

Suggested links

-Human Origins (Ancient History)

National Museum of Natural History's (Smithsonian Institution)
- What Does It Mean to be Human
- Human Evolution Research
- Human Timeline Interactive
- Human Characteristics
- Resources

-Human Origins (North America)

More to come

-Ancient Migrations (Global)

"Atlas of the Human Journey - The Genographic Project." National Geographic.

The Journey of Mankind on the Bradshaw Foundation website.

The Great Human Odyssey (CBC The Nature of Things, 2015). 

-Ancient Migrations (North America)

A 2004 NOVA (PBS) episode on America's Stone Age Explorers.

Kennewick Man

Kennewick Man on Trial (Burke Museum of Natural History and Culture)

-Megafauna extinction

A 1997 American Museum of Natural History symposium on "Humans and Other Catastrophes" that looked at the possible causes of past extinctions and on how lessons from past extinctions could help us set policy for preventative action today.

Discovery Channel :: What Killed the Mega Beasts? online

LECTURE 3: Collision at Cajamarca

Suggested readings

On Diamond's Historical Narrative

Raudzens, George (ed.), 2003, Technology, Disease, and Colonial Conquests, Sixteenth to Eighteenth Centuries: Essays Reappraising the Guns and Germs Theories. Brill Academic Publishers.

Historical Facts and Debates
-Norse and Inuits
Arden G Christen, Arden G. and Joan A. Christen. 2011. "The Unicorn and the Narwhal: A tale of the Tooth." Journal of the History of Dentistry 59 (3): 135-142.

Pringle, Heather. 2012. "Vikings and Native Americans." National Geographic (November).

-Chinese Treasure Ship Fleets
Finlay, Robert. "How Not to (Re)Write World History: Gavin Menzies and the Chinese Discovery of America." Journal of World History, Vol. 15, Issue 2.

Gunde, Richard. 2004. "Zheng He's Voyages of Discovery" UCLA International Institute, April 20.

Wake, Christopher. 2004. "The Myth of Zheng He's Great Treasure Ships." International Journal of Maritime History 16 (1): 59-75.

–. 2008. "Gavin Menzies: Mad as a Snake - or a Visionary?" Telegraph, August 1st.

-Inca Empire and Social System
McEwan, Francis Gordon. 2006. The Incas: New Perspectives. ABC-Clio.
Hyland, Sabine. 2003. The Jesuit & the Incas: The Extraordinary Life of Padre Blas Valera, S. J. The University of Michigan Press, Chapter One.

Baudin, Louis. 1961. A Socialist Empire. The Incas of Peru. D. Van Nostrand Company

Hevesi, Dennis. 2006. "John V. Murra, 90, Professor Who Recast Image of Incas, Dies." New York Times (October 24) 

Suggested links

NOVA - The Great Inca Rebellion - PBS

Thompson, Niobe. 2009. Inuit Odyssey. CBC - The Nature of Things.

Morrison, David. 1997. "The Inuvialuit of the Western Arctic, From Ancient Times to 1902." Canadian Museum of Civilization
- From Ancient Times. Early Thule Culture

LECTUREs 4-5: Farmer Power, Part I & II

Suggested readings


• Diamond's Update

Diamond, Jared. 2002. "Evolution, consequences and future of plant and animal domestication." Nature 418, p. 700-707, 8 August.

• Hunting and Gathering Controversy

Caldwell, John C., & Caldwell, Bruce K. 2003. "Was There a Neolithic Mortality Crisis?" Journal of Population Research, Vol. 20, No.2.

Diamond, Jared. 1987. "The Worst Mistake in the History of the Human Race." Discover Magazine, May, p. 64-66.

DeGregori, Thomas R. 1998, "Back to the Future: A Review Article of Limited Wants, Unlimited Means: A Reader on Hunter-Gatherer Economics and the Environment, edited by John Gowdy, Island Press," Journal of Economic Issues 32 (4): 1153-1161.

Krech III, Shepherd. 1999, The Ecological Indian, Myth and History, W.W. Norton & Company, pp. 29-43 (Ch. 1: Pleistocene Extinctions).

Smith, Vernon L. 1993, "Humankind in Prehistory: Economy, Ecology and Institutions." In The Political Economy of Customs and Culture, edited by Terry Anderson and Randy Simmons, Rowman and Littlefield Press, pp. 157-184.

• Early Farmers and the Development of Agriculture

Fuller, Dorian Q. 2006. "Agricultural Origins and Frontiers in South Asia: A Working Synthesis." Journal of World Prehistory 20 (1): 1-86.

Gupta, Anil K. 2004. "Origin of agriculture and domestication of plants and animals linked to early Holocene climate amelioration." Current Science 87 (1): 54-59.

Kirch, Patrick V. 2005. "Archeology and Global Change: The Holocene Record," Annual Review of Environment and Resources 30: 409-440.

Mann, Charles C. 2005. "Archaeology: Oldest Civilization in the Americas Revealed." Science 7 January: Vol. 307. no. 5706, pp. 34 - 35.

Prakash, Channapatna S. 2001, "The Genetically Modified Crop Debate in the Context of Agricultural Evolution," Plant Physiology 126: 8-15.

Pringle, Heather. 1998, "The Slow Birth of Agriculture," Science 282 (5393): 1446.

Stephens, James M. 2009 (1994). "Gourd, Bottle - Lagenaria siceraria (Mol.) Standl." University of Florida IFAs Extension HS602.

Larson, G. et al. 2014. "The Modern View Of Domestication (Special Feature)" PNAS 111 (17) (April) (April 2014) (several articles).

Viegas, Jennifer. 2015. "Oldest Dog Turns out to be a Wolf." Discovery News (February 5).
Weisdorf, Jacob L. 2005. "From Foraging to Farming: Explaining the Neolithic Revolution." Journal of Economic Surveys 19 (4): 561-586. 

• Eastern Agricultural Complex

Hirst, K. Kris. "Eastern Agricultural Complex." archaeology.
"Eastern Agricultural Complex." Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

• The Columbian Exchange

"Columbian Exchange." Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

"Spud we like - In praise of the humble but world-changing tuber." The Economist, February 28, 2008.

"History of the potato - Wonder-food." The Economist, February 28, 2008.

Crosby, Alfred W. "The Columbian Exchange." History Now, Issue 12, June 2007.

Crosby, Alfred W. "The Columbian Exchange: Plants, Animals, and Disease between the Old and New Worlds." National Humanities Center.

Findlay, Ronald, and Kevin O’Rourke. 2006. "Mr Columbus’s Economic Bombshell." BBC History, May, p. 41-43.

Grennes, Thomas. 2007. "The Columbian Exchange and the Reversal of Fortune." Cato Journal 27 (1): 91-107.

Nunn, Nathan and Nancy Qian. 2010. "The Columbian Exchange: A History of Disease, Food and Ideas." Journal of Economic Perspectives 24 (2): 163-188.

• Current controversies

I have posted several links on current agricultural controversies on my GGR 333 (Energy and Society) Webpage. See lecture 3, mandatory and suggested readings.

Miller, F. P. 2008. "After 10,000 Years of Agriculture, Whither Agronomy?" Agronomy Journal, 100: S-40-S-52.

Harari, Yuval Noah. 2014. "Were we Happier in the Stone Age?" The Guardian (September 5).

Suggested link

Natural History Museum (UK)
- Seeds of Trade

Core Historical Literature of Agriculture (CORA), Cornell University

Çatalhöyük - Excavations of a Neolithic Anatolian Höyük

The Food Timeline

History of Food & Agriculture

International Year of Natural Fibres 2009

The Cambridge World History of Food (Edited by Kenneth F. Kiple and Krimhild Conee Ornelas)

Science Tracer Bullets Online - Food History (Library of Congress)

The Food Timeline

International Potato Center

International Year of the Potato 2008

LECTURE 6: Term Test


LECTURE 7: No Class


LECTURES 8-9: Germs and "Virgin Soils," Part I & II

Suggested readings

• Travels and Diseases

Kobler, Stacey et al. (Institute of Medicine (US) Forum on Microbial Threats). 2006. The Impact of Globalization on Infectious Disease Emergence and Control Exploring the Consequences and Opportunities. Washington (DC): National Academies Press.

Wilson, Mary D. 1995. "Travel and the Emergence of Infectious Diseases." Emerging Infectious Diseases 1 (2).

• On diseases and colonial expansion generally

Francis Joseph Brooks, 2003, "The Impact of Disease," in George Raudzens (ed.), Technology, Disease, and Colonial Conquests, Sixteenth to Eighteenth Centuries: Essays Reappraising the Guns and Germs Theories, Brill Academic Publishers, pp. 127-165.

Linda Newson, 2003, "Pathogens, Places and Peoples: Geographical Variations in the Impact of Disease in Early Spanish America and the Philippines," in George Raudzens (ed.), Technology, Disease, and Colonial Conquests, Sixteenth to Eighteenth Centuries: Essays Reappraising the Guns and Germs Theories, Brill Academic Publishers, pp. 167-210.

Symposium on Massimo livi Bacci's Conquest and El Dorado, Population and Development Review 37 (1) 2011.

• Debates on the importance of diseases in the conquest of Mexico

Acuna-Soto, Rodolfo, David W. Stahle, Malcolm K. Cleaveland, and Matthew D. Therrell. 2002. "Megadrought and Megadeath in 16th Century Mexico." Emerging Infectious Diseases 8 (4) (April).

Acuna-Sotoa, Rodofo, David W. Stahle, Matthew D. Therrell, Richard D. Griffin, Malcolm K. Cleveland. "When half of the population died: the epidemic of hemorrhagic fevers of 1576 in Mexico." FEMS Microbiology Letters, Vol. 240 Issue 1, November 2004.

Acuna-Sotoa, Rodofo, Leticia Calderon Romero, and James H. Maguire. "Large Epidemics of Hemorrhagic Fever in Mexico 1545–1815." American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 62(6), 2000, pp. 733–739.

Brooks, Francis Joseph. 1993, "Revising the Conquest of Mexico: Smallpox, Sources, and Populations," Journal of Interdisciplinary History 24 (1): 1-29.

Johnson, Charles William. 2006. "Cocoliztli or Cocolitzli? Indigenous Hemorrhagic Fever and The Spanish Conquest." Earth/matriX, February 3.

Lloyd, Marion. 2006. "Disease Tracker Wants to Rewrite Mexican History." BanderasNews, October issue.

McCaa, Robert. 1995, "Spanish and Nahuatl Views on Smallpox and Demographic Catastrophe in Mexico," Journal of Interdisciplinary History 25 (3): 397-431.

• Animal Diseases

Scott, Gordon R. "The Murrain Now Known As Rinderpest." Newsletter of the Tropical Agriculture Association, U.K., 20 (4) 14-16 (2000).

"History of battle against rinderpest, Animal Production and Health (APH)," Joint FAO/IAEA Programme.

• Broad Academic Overviews

Balée, William. 2006. "The Research Program of Historical Ecology." Annual Review of Anthropology, Vol. 35: 75-98 (October).

Jones, David S. 2004. Rationalizing Epidemics. Meanings and Uses of American Indian Mortality since 1600. Harvard University Press.

Stahl, Peter W. 1996. "Holocene Biodiversity: An Archaeological Perspective from the Americas," Annual Review of Anthropology (October), Vol. 25, Pages 105-126.

• On Charles Mann's 1491

Mann, Charles C. 2005. 1491. New Revelations of the Americas before Columbus. C-SPAN Book TV (September 6) (Video).

Anonymous. 2006. "Reflections on Charles Mann's 1491" Geographical Review 96 (3): 478-513.

Coe, Michael D. 2006. "The Old New World." American Scientist (July-August).

LaCombe, Michael A. "Separate but Equal?" Review of Charles C. Mann's 1491: New Revelations of the Americas before Columbus. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2006.

Sturgis, Amy. 2006. "The Myth of the Passive Indian - Was America before Columbus just a "continent of patsies"?" Reason magazine (April).

• Foreign Diseases, Native Americans and Ecological Disturbances

"Population History of American Indigenous Peoples." From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

"The Secret of El Dorado - Transcript." Horizon (BBC).

Barlow, Jos et al. 2012. "How Pristine are Tropical Forests? An ecological perspective on the pre-Columbian human footprint in Amazonia and implications for contemporary conservation." Biological Conservation 151 (1): 45-49. 

Bermejo , J.E. Hernández, and J. León. Neglected Crops - 1492 from a Different Perspective, FAO Plant Production and Protection Series, no. 26.

Binnema, Theodore. 2000. "Disease History on the Northwest Coast: A Microcosm, or a Unique Region?" (Review of Robert Boyd's The Coming of the Spirit of Pestilence: Introduced Infectious Diseases and Population Decline among Northwest Coast Indians 1774-1874), H-Net Review (April).

Bosveld, Jane. 2008. "Top 100 Stories of 2008 #15: The Lost Cities of the Amazon." Discover Magazine, December 20.

Bowser, David. 2003. "Ecologist Debunks Popular Myth Of 'Pristine West' With Facts," Livestock Weekly, July 3.

Heckenberger, Michael, and Eduardo Góes Neves, "Amazonian Archaeology. " Annual Review of Anthropology, Vol. 38: 251-266 (Volume October 2009).

Hunn, Eugene S. "In Defense of 'The Ecological Indian'," paper presented at the Ninth International Conference on Hunting and Gathering Societies, Edinburgh, Scotland, September 9, 2002.

Kay, Charles E. 2003, "Lewis and Clark: Aboriginal Overkill, and the Myth of Once Abundant Wildlife," Proceedings of the Conference "A Confluence of Cultures: Native Americans and the Expedition of Lewis and Clark," May 28-30, University of Montana - Missoula.

Kay, Charles, and Randy Simmons, 2002, Wilderness & Political Ecology: Aboriginal Influences & the Original State of Nature, The University of Utah Press.
> Ch 5: William L. Preston, "Post-Columbian Wildlife Irruptions in California: Implications for Cultural and Environmental Understanding," pp. 111-140.
> Ch 6: Thomas W. Newmann, "The Role of Prehistoric People in Shaping Ecosystems in the Eastern United States : Implications for Restoration Ecology and Wilderness Management," pp. 141-178.
> Ch 8: Charles Kay, "Are Ecosystems Structured from the Top-Down or Bottom-Up? A New Look at an Old Debate," pp. 215-237.
> Ch 9: Charles Kay, "Afterword: False Gods, Ecological Myths, and Biological Reality," pp. 238-261.
References Cited, pp. 263-337.

Mann, Charles C. 2000. "Earthmovers of the Amazon." Science, February 4, Vol. 287:786-789.

Messenger, Stephen. 2009. "Strange Geoglyphs Discovered Beneath Clearcut Amazon." TreeHugger, December 28.

Newitz, Annalee. 2016. "Finding North America's Lost Medieval City. Cahokia was Bigger than Paris." Ars Technica (December 13). 

Pearce, Fred. 2007. “Virginity Lost.” Conservation, January-March.

Petit, Charles. 2006, "Jade Axes Proof of Vast Ancient Caribbean Network, Experts Say," National Geographic, June 12.

Richter, Daniel K. 2002, "Review of Elizabeth Fenn's Pox Americana: The Great Smallpox Epidemic of 1775-82. Hill & Wang Publishers, 2001," Common Place 2 (3).

Roach, John. 2010. ""Lost" Amazon Complex Found; Shapes Seen by Satellite." National Geographic, January 4.

Sturgis, Amy H. 2006. "The Myth of the Passive Indian - Was America Before Columbus Just a 'Continent of Patsies'?" Reason Online, April.

Watts, Sheldon. 1999, "Review of N.D. Cook's Born to Die: Disease and New World Conquest, 1492-1650. Cambridge University Press, 1998," Journal of World History 10 (2): 459-461.

• Neo (Green) Colonialism

Dowie, Mark. 2009. "Human Nature." Guernica Magazine, May.

Dowie, Mark. 2005. "Conservation Refugees." Orion Online, November-December.

DeGregori, Thomas R. 2002. "The Environment, our Natural Resources, and Modern Technology," Iowa State Press.

• Varia

Friedman, Sharon. 2008. "USDA Forest Service - Change Changes Everything." Prometheus: The Science Policy Weblog, February 1st.

Khamsi, Roxanne. 2007. "Were 'Cursed' Rams the First Biological Weapons?", 26 November.

Mann, Charles C. 2003. "Cracking the Khipu Code." Science, June 13.

O’Toole, Donald. "Cattle Plague: A History. By C. A. Spinage. Published by Kluwer/Plenum Publishers, New York, USA. 2003. 770 Pages. ISBN 0-306-47789-0, US$249.50 (Hardback)." Journal of Wildlife Diseases, 40(3), 2004, pp. 612-613.

Seppa, Nathan. 1997. "Metropolitan Life on the Mississippi." The Washington Post, March 12.

Riedel, Stefan. 2005. "Edward Jenner and the History of Smallpox and Vaccination." BMUC Proceedings 18(1): 21-25. 

• Ted Turner's Bison Operations

Yablonski, Brian. 2007. "Bisonomics." PERC Report, Vol. 25 No. 3.

Suggested links

On Wikipedia:
Black Death
Spanish flu
Population history of American indigenous peoples

College of Charleston historian Peter McCandless' research seminar syllabus on Disease, Migration and the Environment

A talk by Rodolfo Acuna-Soto on "Drought-Associated Epidemics of Hemorrhagic Fevers and Massive Population Loss in Mexico" given at Yale University in December 2005.

WHO | Health topics - Zoonoses

WHO | Zoonoses and veterinary public health (Information resources)

An audio link to a column written by Charles C. Mann on the background of his book 1491: New Revelations of the Americas Before Columbus.

Journalist Charles Mann's homepage  including the homepage of his book 1491

Anthropology Professor Clark Erickson's homepage

Cahokia Mounds

LECTURE 10: Writing, Technology and Government

Suggested readings

Cowen, Tyler. "Globalization and Diversity: Friends or Foes?" Independent Institute, 2003.

Hames, Raymond. 2007. "The Ecologically Noble Savage Debate." Annual Review of Anthropology, Vol. 36: 177-190.

Highfield, Roger. 2005. "Is this a message from the Incas?", September 21.

Potier, Beth. 2003. "String theorist: Anthropologist Gary Urton untangles the mystery of Inkan khipus." Harvard University Gazette, May 23.

What Is A Khipu

Suggested links

Jared Diamond on The Evolution of Religions (2009)

Khipu Database Project

LECTUREs 11: Around the World, Part I & II

Suggested readings

• Chinese History

"Chinese writing '8,000 years old'." BBC News, May 18, 2007.

• African History

Diop-Maes, Louise Marie. 2008. "What Slavery Did To Africa." The Toronto Star, February 3.

> South Africa

History of South Africa on

"In Focus: The Battle of Blood River, 16 December 1838." South African History Online.

Cmdt S. Bourquin, DWD. "The Zulu Military Organization and the Challenge of 1879." Military History Journal, Vol 4 No 4.

Major (Dr) Felix Machanik. "Firepower and Firearms in the Zulu War of 1879." Military History Journal, Vol 4 No 6.

Tomaselli, Keyan G. 2003. "Shaka Zulu and Visual Constructions of History." Screening the Past, June 30.

Hale, Frederick. "The Defeat of History in the Film Zulu." Military History Journal, Vol 10 No 4.

"African languages," Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

"Bantu," Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Manning, Patrick. "The Civilizations of Africa: A History to 1800. By Christopher Ehret. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 2002. 481 + xiv pp. Maps and illustrations. $22.50 (paper)." Journal of World History, Vol. 15, Issue 2.

Oppenheimer, Stephen. "Myths of British Ancestry." Prospect Magazine, October 2006.

Webb, James L. A. "Malaria and the Peopling of Early Tropical Africa." Journal of World History, Vol. 16, Issue 3.

Suggested links

South African History Online

The Story of Africa | BBC World Service

LECTURE 12: Around the World, Part II; Is Geography (and Climate) Destiny? Part II

Suggested readings

• Other Critics of Jared Diamond
Brätland's, John. 2009. "Geography as Causal in Societal Ascendance: An Austrian Retrospective on Diamond." Quarterly Journal of Austrian Economics 12 (4): 46-63.

Jaschik, Scott. 2005. "‘Guns, Germs, and Steel’ Reconsidered." Inside Higher Ed, August 3.

Jones, Leslie. 1998. "Jared Diamond, Guns, Germs And Steel; The Fates Of Human Societies, Jonathan Cape, 1997, £18. 99, pp 480." Galton Institute Home Page (February).

McNeill, William H. 2003. "History Upside Down." Gene Expression, November 11.

Sluyter, Andrew. 2003. "Neo-Environmental Determinism, Intellectual Damage Control, and Nature/Society Science," Antipode 35 (4): 813-817(5)

Judkins, Gabriel, Marissa Smith, Eric Keys (2008). "Determinism Within Human-Environment Research and the Rediscovery of Environmental Causation." The Geographical Journal 174 (1) , 17–29.

[For more recent debates on the importance or irrelevance of geography for economic development, see lecture 1, suggested readings, especially the recent debate between Jeffrey Sachs and Daron Acemoglu and James Robinson]

• Historical lock-ins and QWERTY
Gandy, Anthony. 2014. "QWERTY - Kay's analysis of a non sub-optimal standard." NEP-HIS Blog (April 16).

• Malaria
- Substantial Pieces
Anelli, Carol M. et al. 2006. "Professional Entomology and the 44 Years since Silent Spring. Part 1." American Entomologist (Winter).

Arrow, Kenneth J., Claire Panosian, and Hellen Gelband. Saving Lives, Buying Time: Economics of Malaria Drugs in an Age of Resistance. The National Academies Press, 2004, 388 pp.

Bleakley, Hoyt. 2007. "Malaria Eradication in the Americas: A Retrospective Analysis of Childhood Exposure." August 17.

Carter, Richard, and Kamini N. Mendis. "Evolutionary and Historical Aspects of the Burden of Malaria." Clinical Microbiology Reviews, October 2002, p. 564-594, Vol. 15, No. 4.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The History of Malaria, An Ancient Disease.

Hay, Simon I., Carlos A. Guerra, Andrew J. Tatem, Abdisalan M. Noor and Robert W. Snow. 2004. "The Global Distribution and Population at Risk of Malaria: Past, Present, and Future." Lancet Infectious Diseases 4 (6): 327-336.

Hay, Simon I. and Robert W Snow. 2006. "The Malaria Atlas Project: Developing Global Maps of Malaria Risk." PLoS Med. 3(12): e473.

Heaton, Leonard D. Medical Department, United States Army, Preventive Medicine In World War II, Volume VI - Communicable Diseases: Malaria, Medical Department, United States Army.

Krupke, Christian et al. 2007. "Professional Entomology and the 44 Years since Silent Spring. Part 2: Response to Silent Spring." American Entomologist (Spring).

Kumar, Sanjai Ph.D. 2006. "Global Problem of Malaria, Biology of Malaria Parasites and Implications for Transfusion-Transmitted Malaria and Detection Methods." Center for Biologics Research and Review Food and Drug Administration, Malaria Workshop, July 12.

Packard, Randall M. "'Roll Back Malaria, Roll in Development'? Reassessing the Economic Burden of Malaria." Population and Development Review, Volume 35, Issue 1, Pages 53 - 87.

Reiter, Paul. 2003, "Could Global Warming Bring Mosquito-Borne Disease to Europe?" In Kendra Okonski (ed.), Adapt or Die: The Science, Politics and Economics of Climate Change, Profile Books, pp. 19-38.

Reiter, Paul. "Climate Change and Mosquito-Borne Disease." Environmental Health Perspectives Supplements, Volume 109, Number S1, March 2001.

Reiter, Paul. 2000. "From Shakespeare to Defoe: Malaria in England in the Little Ice Age," Emerging Infectious Diseases 6(1).

Roberts, Donald, Richard Tren. "DDT in Malaria Control: Roberts and Tren Respond." Environmental Health Perspectives 118 (7): A283.

Snow, Bob & John Ouma, "Report prepared for Roll Back Malaria, Resource Network on Epidemics, World Health Organisation." July 1999.

Wiser, Mark. "Plasmodium Species Infecting Humans." Tulane University.

[Note: Project MUSE - Disease, Colonialism, and the State in the list is not referenced properly. It should instead be Yip, Ka-che (ed.). 2009. Disease, Colonialism and the State: Malaria in Modern East Asian History. Hong Kong University Press]

- Popular Articles
Berlau, John. 2006. "The Case of the DDT Deniers - Kenya Crazy Talk." National Review Online, November 29.

Cotton, Simon. "The Mighty Quinine." Molecule of the Month.

"DDT and Attacks on Rachel Carson: The CliffsNote Version." Bug Girl’s Blog, June 29, 2007.

Dobson, Mary. 1999. "The History of Malaria in England." The Wellcome Trust, December 1st.

Driessen, Paul. 2008. "Killing Malarial Mosquitos Now!", October 4.

Dugger, Celia W. 2006. "W.H.O. Supports Wider Use of DDT vs. Malaria."
The New York Times, September 16.

Finkel, Michael. 2007. "Stopping A Global Killer." National Geographic (July).

Gladwell, Malcom. 2001. "The Mosquito Killer.", July 2.

Greenwood, Brian. 2006. "Lessons from Italy." Nature, 441, 933-934, 22 June.

Dr. Miller, Henry I. and Gregory Conko. 2006. "The UN vs. Technology." Tech Central Station, April 7.

Muir-Cochrane, Ian. 2005. "WHO malaria figures are 'flawed'." BBC News, August 30.

Paul, Marla. 2007. "Researchers Discover Surprising Drug that Blocks Malaria." EurekAlert!, January 15.

Reiter, Paul. 2007. "Dangers of Disinformation." International Herald Tribune, January 11.

Reiter, Paul. 2007, "It’s Tires, Not Global Warming." The Korea Times, October 4.

Reiter, Paul. 2007. "Global Warming Won’t Spread Malaria." EIR Science & Environment, April 7.

> Malaria in Ontario

McManus, Paul. 2007. "Malaria in Canada?" Mysteries in Canada, October 30.

Wayson, Ken W. 2007. "Malaria - A Rideau Mythconception." Rideau Reflections, Winter/Spring Ed.

"History of the Rideau Lockstations - Malaria on the Rideau."

• DDT and other insects and diseases
"Bed Bugs." University of Kentucky Entomology.

Suggested links

Special Issue of Antipode (volume 35, no. 4, 2003): Review Symposium: Jared Diamond's Guns, Germs and Steel.

J. M. Blaut, Eight Eurocentric Historians, Guilford Press, 228 pp., August 2000.

WHO | Control of Neglected Tropical Diseases is Feasible

• Malaria
3 Billion and Counting (movie)

A special issue of the Malaria Journal on "Towards a research agenda for global malaria elimination."

aBetterEarth.Org - Insecticides, DDT, and the Malaria Epidemic

The Malaria Website of the Wellcome Trust

The WHO on Malaria

Africa Fighting Malaria

Malaria Site: Comprehensive Malaria Website

The History of Malaria, an Ancient Disease

Malaria (WHO)

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The History of Malaria, An Ancient Disease

Final Exams : TBA


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