University of Toronto Mississauga •
Department of Geography • WINTER 2016
GGR 333H5F Energy and Society
Instructor: Pierre Desrochers
Lectures: Tuesday, 3-5PM
Phone: (905) 828-5206
Office: Davis Building, room 3273
Lecture room: CC 2130
The development of new energy sources has had a major
impact on the development of both human societies and the environment.
This course will provide a broad survey of past and current
achievements, along with failures and controversies, regarding the use
of various forms of energy. Understanding of technical terms, physical principles,
creation of resources and trade-offs will be emphasized as a basis for
discussions about energy options. The local and global dimensions of the
economics and politics surrounding the world's energy resources will be
recurring concerns in this course.
The course has five main objectives:
1) To cover the basic
physical, technical and economic issues related to energy use;
2) To cover broadly the history of energy development and use;
3) To introduce students to past debates and current controversies;
4) To memorize and use, without aids, the basic terminology with which
professionals in relevant disciplines communicate their work and
their research findings;
5) To apply a wide range of academic skills in active listening,
note-taking, studying, reading, and test-taking to upper-level
There is no textbook or reading package for this
class. Most of the readings are freely available on the web and links
are provided on the course’s webpage. Suggested readings are not
mandatory, but students who will write term papers on topics covered in
these texts are expected to be familiar with them.
Most of the
suggested readings are freely accessible from anywhere. Some of them,
however, may require you to use a UofT terminal or user code.
% OF GRADE
1) Proposal for Term Paper
2) Term Test
3) Term Paper
4) Final Exam
April 4, 5PM
As per the University Grading Practices
Policy, please note that "after the methods of evaluation
have been made known, the instructor may not change them or
their relative weight without the consent of at least a
simple majority of the students enrolled in the course. Any
changes shall be reported to the division or the department."
How to Query or Challenge a Mark
Please note that you have two weeks from the date an
item is returned in class to ask for the item to be remarked.
Contact the Course Instructor for all queries about course
marks, or if you wish to challenge a mark. Absolutely no
item will be remarked after the two-week period has passed.
Material submitted for remarking must be accompanied by a
brief written explanation detailing your reasons for
dissatisfaction with the original mark (such as an addition
error or something you think the marker may have missed). A
request for a remark without a written explanation will not
be acted upon.
Please note that you are allowed two questions where you and
the instructor can agree to disagree (meaning you believe
that you are entitled to a higher mark, but your instructor
disagrees) without penalty. Beginning with the third
question where you and your instructor disagree, one point
will be taken off your final mark by question for which a
revised mark was requested by you and denied by the
Contacting the instructor
Office hours are Tuesday 1-3PM, Davis 3273. You can contact me at
Please read the course syllabus before e-mailing a question or expect a
one line answer telling you to look it up if the answer is already there.
Always use your University of Toronto e-mail address (@utoronto.ca) for
all course-related communications. E-mails from other domains (e.g.,
hotmail, Rogers, gmail, yahoo, etc.) may be filtered as spam and will at
any rate be ignored. Always include the course code (e.g., GGR333) as
part of your subject line, along with your full name and student number
in the body of the e-mail. E-mails will be answered during office hours
as promptly as possible. Please note that I do not open attachments and
will not answer during week-ends.
The first person that you should e-mail concerning department- or
program-related queries or to submit documentation regarding a missed
assignment, quiz, or test is the Academic Counsellor for Geography/Environment,
Sabrina Ferrari (firstname.lastname@example.org).
E-mail should NOT be viewed as an alternative to meeting with the TA or
professor during office hours. Nor should e-mail be used as a mechanism
to receive private tutorials (especially prior to tests) or to explain
material that was covered in missed lectures. Not receiving replies to
e-mails from the TA or professor, or not receiving them in time, will
not be an acceptable excuse for pleas for extensions to assignment or
Students are advised to consult
www.enough.utoronto.ca for information on university policy
concerning the appropriate use of information and communication
A set of questions will be given in advance. Students
will be asked to answer a number of these during the test.
Note that PowerPoint slides presented during the lectures WILL NOT be
posted online. No documentation is allowed during the tests.
UTM Final Exam Schedule.
Your choice of topic or book must be approved by the
instructor before turning in your proposal. Those of you who would like
to submit a book suggestion are asked to provide a link to the
publisher's webpage devoted to the book or, if no such thing exists, to
the Amazon or another large bookseller webpage devoted to the book.
Please note that you do not need to submit your proposal or the
appendixes of your term paper through turnitin.com.
Note Concerning Turnitin
Normally, students will be required to submit written assignments to
Turnitin.com for a review of textual similarity and detection of
possible plagiarism. In doing so, students will allow their assignments
to be included as source documents in the Turnitin.com reference
database, where they will be used solely for the purpose of detecting
plagiarism. The terms that apply to the University's use of the
Turnitin.com service are described on the Turnitin.com web site
(www.Turnitin.com). If you have an objection to the use of Turnitin for
the submission of your work, please make an appointment to speak
personally with the Course Instructor to discuss alternative
arrangements. A guide for students is available from the University of
Toronto's Office of Teaching Advancement, at:
This information will also be made available on the course Blackboard
You are required to submit a hard copy of the assignment as
instructed in the syllabus for the TAs to grade and annotate Electronic
copies will be submitted by students through Turnitin.
> Basic steps for setting up your Turnitin account and submitting papers
Turnitin.com course ID: 10444980 (The
password will be given in class and via e-mail.)
Please note that submitting your paper through
Turnitin.com or making alternative arrangements before the deadline with
your professor is not optional. Failure to do so will result in a grade
of 0 for your term paper. Failure to submit your paper on turnitin.com
before the deadline will result in the same late penalty as if you had
not submitted your hard copy.
Department of Geography Late assignment/Missed
This is the departmental policy for late
assignments and missed tests. Please note that the penalty related to
your proposal is different. In this particular case, I apply my own
policy as specified on the syllabus.
petition to re-write a test once the test has begun. If you are feeling
ill, please leave the room before starting your test and
seek medical attention immediately. You must have a physician fill out a
U of T Student Medical Certificate and submit a request via the online
Special Consideration Request form @
within 24 hours.
Missed Term Work (Assignment/Lab - as per Department of Geography
Late assignments will be subject to a late penalty of 10% per day (including
weekends) of the total marks for the assignment. Assignments submitted
five calendar days beyond the due date will be assigned a grade of zero.
Academic accommodation can be made when an assignment is late. For
accommodations on late/missed assignments please see section on
"Extension of Time".
Missed Term Work (Quiz/Test - as per Department of Geography policy):
In courses with final exams, there will be no re-writes or make-ups for
term tests/quizzes missed for University-accepted, verifiable reasons.
Instead, the final exam will be re-weighted by the value of the term
Informing Your Professor and Submitting Appropriate Documentation:
The following steps must be completed in order to be considered for
academic accommodation for any course work such as missed tests or late
1. Students must inform their professor in writing
(e-mail is acceptable) within 24 hours of a test date/assignment due
date of any circumstances that prevent them from writing a test or
submitting an assignment on time.
2. Students must complete an online Special Consideration Request @
https://utmapp.utm.utoronto.ca/SpecialRequest. Students who miss
a test due to circumstances beyond their control (e.g. illness or an
accident) can request that the Department grant them special
consideration. You must inform your instructor within 24 hours and
you have up to one (1) week from the date of the missed test to
submit your online request (late requests will NOT be considered
without a "letter of explanation" as to why the request is late).
You must present your case to the Department (not the Instructor).
Note: The system only supports Microsoft Internet Explorer and
Firefox for the time being.
3. Original supporting documentation (e.g. Verification of Student
Illness or Injury form, accident report, etc) MUST BE SUBMITTED
to the DROP BOX (labeled "Environment and Geography Petition
Documentation") located outside Room 3282, Davis Building.
Supporting documentation is required within 48 hours of submitting
your online request.
Please Note: If you missed your test for a reason connected to your
registered disability, please be advised that the department will
accept documentation supplied by the
UTM AccessAbility Resource
Note: (i) ROSI declarations are not accepted as supporting
(ii) If your reason for absence is due to a last minute flight due
to a family emergency (illness/death etc.) you must provide your
flight itinerary INCLUDING the date the flight was purchased
as well as boarding passes in addition to proof of
4. Verification of Student Illness or Injury forms MUST
include the statement "This Student was unable to write the test on
date(s) for medical reasons". Documentation MUST show that the
physician was consulted within ONE day of the test date. A statement
merely confirming a report of illness made by the student is NOT
acceptable (such as, "This patient tells me that he was feeling ill
on that day."). Verification of Student Illness or Injury
forms can be found on the Office of the Registrar's webpage (http://www.illnessverification.utoronto.ca/getattachment/index/Verification-of-Illness-or-Injury-form-Jan-22-2013.pdf.aspx).
Please complete the following:
- Special request link:
- Verification of Illness form:
Please note that the written explanation and documentation that you
submit represents an appeal from you, requesting the opportunity to
account for that portion of your grade in some other manner. If an
appeal is not received, or if the appeal is deemed unacceptable, you
will receive a grade of zero for the item you missed. If the appeal is
granted - that is, your reason for missing the item is considered
acceptable by the committee - then a mechanism for accounting for the
grade value of the missed item will be discussed.
A Departmental committee evaluates each request. Decisions will be
communicated by email within two weeks of receipt of all completed
documents. Note: It is your responsibility to ensure your email
account is working and able to receive emails. Claims that a
Departmental decision was not received will NOT be considered as a
reason for further consideration. Contact Sabrina Ferrari (email@example.com)
Academic Counselor, should you NOT receive notification of your decision
within 2 weeks of submission.
Note that holidays and pre-purchased plane tickets, family plans, your
friend's wedding, lack of preparation, or too many other tests are not
acceptable excuses for missing a quiz, a test, or an item of term work.
Extension of Time
Students MUST submit a request for extension in ADVANCE of the deadline
in order to receive a decision.
If you require more time to complete an assignment you will be required
to make your request directly to the Department by completing an on-line
Special Consideration Request @
https://utmapp.utm.utoronto.ca/SpecialRequest. You will be required
to provide supporting documentation.
Original supporting documentation (e.g. Verification of Student Illness
or Injury form, accident report, etc) MUST BE SUBMITTED to the DROP
BOX (labeled "Environment and Geography Petition Documentation") located
outside Room 3282, Davis Building. Note: ROSI declarations are not
accepted as supporting documentation. You are expected to submit your
request to the Department before the due date of the assignment, unless
demonstrably serious reasons prevent you from doing so. In the event of
an illness, if you are seeking a one-day extension, Verification of
Student Illness or Injury forms must confirm that you were ill on the
due date of the assignment; if you are requesting a longer extension,
your documentation must specify exactly the length of the period during
which you were unable to carry out your academic work. For extensions of
time beyond the examination period you must submit a petition through
the Office of the Registrar.
A Departmental committee evaluates each request for an extension of
time. Decisions will be communicated by email within two weeks of
receipt of all completed documents. Please note that students are
required to submit their assignment/lab as soon as they are able and
they should NOT wait for the decision of the committee. Note: It is
your responsibility to ensure your email account is working and able to
receive emails. Claims that a Departmental decision was not received
will NOT be considered as a reason for further consideration. Contact
Sabrina Ferrari (firstname.lastname@example.org)
Academic Counsellor, should you NOT receive notification of your
decision within 2 weeks of submission.
It is your responsibility to follow the appropriate procedures and
submit requests for special consideration on time. Failure to do so may
result in the committee denying your request.
Should you require further information regarding Special Considerations,
please contact the Academic Counselor, Sabrina Ferrari
Undergraduate Academic Counselor
Room 3282, Davis Building, Telephone: 905-828-5465
Equity Statement and
The University of Toronto is committed to equity and respect for
diversity. All members of the learning environment in this
course should strive to create an atmosphere of mutual respect.
As a course instructor, I will neither condone nor tolerate
behaviour that undermines the dignity or self-esteem of any
individual in this course and wish to be alerted to any attempt
to create an intimidating or hostile environment. It is our
collective responsibility to create a space that is inclusive
and welcomes discussion. Discrimination, harassment and hate
speech will not be tolerated. If you have any questions,
comments, or concerns you may contact the UTM Equity and
Diversity officer at
email@example.com or the University of Toronto Mississauga
Students' Union Vice President Equity at
You, as a student at UTM, have the right to:
- Receive a syllabus by the first day of class.
- Rely upon a syllabus once a course is started. An instructor
may only change marks' assignments by following the University
Assessment and Grading Practices Policy provision 1.3.
- Refuse to use turnitin.com (you must be offered an alternative
form of submission).
- Have access to your instructor for consultation during a
course or follow up with the department chair if the instructor
- Ask the person who marked your term work for a re-evaluation
if you feel it was not fairly graded. You have up to one month
from the date of return of the item to inquire about the mark.
If you are not satisfied with a re-evaluation, you may appeal to
the instructor in charge of the course if the instructor did not
mark the work. If your work is remarked, you must accept the
resulting mark. You may only appeal a mark beyond the instructor
if the term work was worth at least 20% of the course mark.
- Receive at least one significant mark (15% for H courses, 25%
for Y courses) before the last day you can drop a course for H
courses, and the last day of classes in the first week of
January for Y courses taught in the Fall/Winter terms.
- Submit handwritten essays so long as they are neatly written.
- Have no assignment worth 100% of your final grade.
- Not have a term test worth 25% or more in the last two weeks
- Retain intellectual property rights to your research.
- Receive all your assignments once graded.
- View your final exams. To see a final exam, you must submit an
online Exam Reproduction Request within 6 months of the exam.
There is a small non-refundable fee.
- Privacy of your final grades.
- Arrange for representation from Downtown Legal Services (DLS),
a representative from the UTM Students' Union (UTMSU), and/or
other forms of support if you are charged with an academic
Expectations/Classroom Behaviour/Behaviour in
the Academic Setting
Our expectation of you is that you will show respect to the
Course Instructor, TAs, other faculty, staff, and fellow
students. This includes arriving on time and staying for the
entire class (so you don't disturb others by your late entry or
early departure); listening quietly (so you don't disturb others
by your chatting or online activities); approaching your course
work with an open, honest spirit and enthusiasm; and otherwise
adhering to the Code.
In turn, you can expect the Course Instructor, staff, and TAs to
show respect to you and your fellow students; to deliver the
best course that they possibly can; to communicate their
enthusiasm for the material; to maintain fairness in all aspects
of course delivery and assessment; and otherwise to adhere to
the University's Code of Behaviour on Academic Matters.
Academic Integrity/Honesty or Academic Offenses
It is your responsibility as a student at the University of
Toronto to familiarize yourself with, and adhere to, both the
Code of Student Conduct and the Code of Behaviour on Academic
This means, first and foremost, that you should read them
Code of Student Conduct
is available from the U of T Mississauga website (Registrar >
Academic Calendar > Codes and Policies) or in your print version
of the Academic Calendar.
Code of Behaviour on Academic Matters
is available from the U of T Mississauga website (Registrar >
Academic Calendar > Codes and Policies) or in your print version
of the Academic Calendar.
Another helpful document that you should read is
How Not to
Plagiarize, by M. Procter.
Further Thoughts on Academic Honesty:
The Code of Behaviour on Academic Matters states that:
"The University and its members have a
responsibility to ensure that a climate that might encourage, or
conditions that might enable, cheating, misrepresentation or
unfairness not be tolerated. To this end all must acknowledge that
seeking credit or other advantages by fraud or misrepresentation, or
seeking to disadvantage others by disruptive behaviour is
unacceptable, as is any dishonesty or unfairness in dealing with the
work or record of a student." ―University of Toronto Mississauga
This summarizes what we are all trying to
achieve through the implementation of this Code―both students and
faculty. We are trying―together―to create an atmosphere of fairness and
honesty, in which people can learn and receive appropriate credit for
work that they have done. Note that the Code refers specifically
to expectations for faculty members, not just for students. It is my
responsibility, as a member of the faculty of the University of Toronto,
to be familiar with these expectations and adhere to them. There are
many additional academic requirements that we are expected to meet with
regard to the integrity of course materials, returning of marked work to
students, maintenance of student privacy, fairness, grading practices,
and others. My TAs and I will make every possible effort to meet these
U of T Mississauga and the AccessAbility Resource Centre
are committed to the full participation of students with
disabilities in all aspects of campus life. The AccessAbility
Resource Centre provides academic accommodations and services to
students who have a physical, sensory, or learning disability,
mental health condition, acquired brain injury, or chronic
health condition, be it visible or hidden. Students who have
temporary disabilities (e.g., broken dominant arm) are also
eligible to receive services. All interested students must have
an intake interview with an advisor to discuss their individual
Students who require accommodation are advised to visit the
AccessAbility Resource Centre as early as possible to
have their needs assessed, as it may take some time to process
For more information please contact the centre at:
Room 2047, South Bldg.
For students who would like to help
Please note that the AccessAbility Resource Centre is looking
for a volunteer note-taker to take notes on behalf of students
with a disability registered in this class. Volunteer
note-takers are responsible for submitting their notes to
AccessAbility every week. The notes can be submitted online or
scanned at the Centre. (The form can be downloaded at
Volunteer note-takers will receive a certificate of recognition
and reference letter at the end of the year. If you are
interested in this opportunity, please take a volunteer form and
follow the instructions provided. If you have any questions,
please call 905-828-5422, email
firstname.lastname@example.org, or drop by the Centre
(room 2047, Davis Building).
Accomodations for Religious Observances
As noted in the the
Policy on Scheduling of Classes and Examinations and Other
Accommodations for Religious Observances, the following
provisions are included:
"It is the policy of the University of Toronto to
arrange reasonable accommodation of the needs of students who
observe religious holy days other than those already accommodated by
ordinary scheduling and statutory holidays.
Students have a responsibility to alert members of the teaching
staff in a timely fashion to upcoming religious observances and
anticipated absences. Instructors will make every reasonable effort
to avoid scheduling tests, examinations or other compulsory
activities at these times. If compulsory activities are unavoidable,
every reasonable opportunity should be given to these students to
make up work that they miss, particularly in courses involving
laboratory work. When the scheduling of tests or examinations cannot
be avoided, students should be informed of the procedure to be
followed to arrange to write at an alternate time.
It is most important that no student be seriously disadvantaged
because of her or his religious observances. However, in the
scheduling of academic and other activities, it is also important to
ensure that the accommodation of one group does not seriously
disadvantage other groups within the University community."
With respect to minimum advance notice, the Policy provides that
"Students have a responsibility to alert members of the teaching
staff in a timely fashion to upcoming religious observances and
anticipated absences." Since students would normally be aware of
upcoming religious observances as well as examination schedules
in advance, a minimum of three weeks advance notice will be
More information and some dates of potential relevance for the U
of T community are available at
As with any academic accommodation request, students must submit
an on-line Special Consideration Request @
Recommandations & Suggestions
Lecture 1 (January 5): Introduction
Familiarize yourself with energy glossaries and energy conversion tables
Energy IQ. Canada's
Energy Education Resource (Browse).
Bradley Jr, Robert. 2010. "A
Free Market Energy Vision." MasterResource, July 16.
Monbiot, George. 2011. "Let's
face it: none of our environmental fixes break the planet-wrecking
project." The Guardian, May 3.
Canadian Senate - Standing Committee on Energy, the Environment and
Natural Resources. "Consensus
Report Outlines An Energy Vision and Priorities For Canada's Energy
Future." (July 19, 2012).
Coyne, Andrew. 2012. "Too
much heat, too little light in talk of a ‘national energy strategy’."
National Post (July 23).
McKibben, Bill. 2012. "Global
Warming Terrifying New Math." Rolling Stone (July 19).
O'Neill, Brendan (2014/2009). "Hands
off the Human Footprint!" Spiked! (December 17).
Green, Kenneth. 2014. "Anti-Energy
Activists Don't Want to Talk About Energy Poverty." Huffington
Post (July 30).
Epstein, Alex. 2015. "Carbon
Week: The G7's Immoral No-carbon Pledge." National Post (June
• Challenges and trade-offs
Adams, Tom. 2012. "Review of
Mad Like Tesla by Tyler Hamilton (ECW Press, 2011)."
Berkow, Jameson. 2012. "Transportation
fuel shift stuck in slow lane." National Post (April 2).
Hall, James. 2011. "At
least 2,700 a year die in freezing homes." The Telegraph,
Smil, V. 2011. "Global
Energy: The Latest Infatuations." American Scientist
Myers, Todd. 2015. "The
Environmental Failure of 'Green' Schools." Wall Street Journal
National Center for Policy Analysis. 2014.
How Green Policies Hurt the Poor. (April 14).
Zubrin, Robert. 2014. "The
Carbon Benefits Deniers." National Review (September 26).
Agency. 2015. World Energy Outlook 2015
US Energy Information
Administration (EIA). 2015. Annual Energy Outlook 2015
BP. 2015. Energy Outlook 2035
Outlook in Brief
ExxonMobil. 2015. The Outlook for Energy: A view to 2040, page 1
Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC). 2015. World
Oil Outlook 2015
• Forecasting in retrospect
Bailey, Ronald. 2009. "How
Green Is Your Crystal Ball? The National Academy of Sciences tries to
predict America's energy future. Again." ReasonOnline.com, August 4.
• Fossil Fuel Divestment Controversy
Rusbridger, Alan. 2015. "The
Argument for Divesting from Fossil Fuels is becoming Overwhelming."
The Guardian (March 16).
Epstein, Alex. 2015. "The
Moral Case for Investing, not Divesting, in Fossil Fuels." Forbes
Lecture 2 (January 12): Concepts and the Big
• Big picture
Plumer, Brad. 2014. "11
Maps that Explain the US Energy System." Vox.
Montreal Economic Institute. 2014.
Profile in 40 Questions.
EIA. 2015. "EIA's
Mapping System Highlights Energy Infrastructure across the United
States." Today in Energy (June 16).
• Basic concepts
Bradley, Robert L and Richard W. Fulmer. Energy: The Master
Resource, Kendall Hunt Publishing Company, 2004,
Chapter 1: The
Chapter 3: Efficiency - Technical and Economic.
Huber, Peter. 2004. "The
Virtue Of Waste." Forbes, December 13.
Huber, Peter. 2005. "Thermodynamics
and Money." Forbes, May 31.
• Energy transitions
Overview." Institute for Energy Research.
Wrigley, Tony. 2011. "Opening
Pandora’s box: A new look at the industrial revolution. " VOX, 22
Ausubel, Jesse. 2000. "Where
is Energy Going?," The Industrial Physicist 6(1): 16-19.
Bryce, Robert. 2010. "Wood
to Coal to Oil to Natural Gas and Nuclear: The Slow Pace of Energy
Transitions." Energy Tribune, August 16.
Grubler, Arnulf. 2013. "Energy
Transitions." Encyclopedia of the Earth.
Cleveland, Cutler J. 2012. "Energy
Transitions: Past and Future." Encyclopedia of the Earth.
Lecture 3-4-5 (January 19 - February 2):
Carbon-Fuelled Civilizations I-II-III
- Global Picture
AAAS (American Association for the Advancement of Science) and American
Petroleum Institute. Science Net Links: Technology and Oil
Adventures in Energy (browse)
Goklany, Indur. 2012. "Humanity
Unbound: How Fossil Fuels Saved Humanity from Nature and Nature from
Humanity." Cato Policy Analysis No. 715 (Executive Summary)
- Fire and Deforestation
Cowen, Richard. Essays
on Geology, History and People. (Under contract with Johns Hopkins
University Press), Ch. 3 ("Fire
and Metals"), Ch. 4 ("The
Bronze Age") and Ch. 11 (“Timber
McKenna, Philip. 2013. "Inside
North Korea's Environmental Collapse." Nova Next (March 6).
Veer, P. G. 2015. "Earth
Day Heroes: Top 10 Countries With The Lowest Carbon Emissions."
Daily Caller (April 21).
Forbes, Viv. 2015. "Climate
Alarmists Turn Back the Clock." American Thinker (January 6).
- From Whale Oil to Manufactured Gas
Oil” on the
Website by Samuel T. Pees.
Fuels.” Environmental Literacy Council.
Alex Epstein. "Energy
at the Speed of Thought (Part 2: Individual Planning in the
Pre-Petroleum Illumination Market)." Master Resource,
December 21, 2010.
Ostrom, Elinor. 2010. "Tragedy
of the Commons." The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics Online.
Environmental Literacy Council
Coal Basics — Coal Association
BP. 2015. Statistical Review of World Energy 2015. "Coal"
Mann, Charles C. 2014. "Renewables
aren't Enough. Clean Coal is the Future." Wired (March 25).
Sharma, Sadhvi. 2015. "India
is Right : Coal Makes the World Go Round." Spiked! (December
Pearson, Brendan and Michael Roche. 2015. "Global
Coal Use Growing Faster Than Any Other Energy." The Australian
Institute for Energy Research.
Coal Trade." Euracoal (2012).
US Energy Information Administration. 2011. "Asia
Leads Growth in Global Coal Production since 1980." Today in
Energy (December 7).
The Classification of Petroleum
- API Gravity
- Sweet Vs Sour Crude
- Benchmark Oils
Environmental Literacy Council.
(Oil)." Institute for Energy Research.
BP. 2015. Statistical Review of World Energy 2015. "Oil."
and Petrochemical Technologies.” Greatest
Engineering Achievements of the 20th Century. National Academy of Engineering. 2000.
"The unsung masters of
the oil industry." The Economist, July 21, 2012.
- Tight Oil
Casselman, Ben. 2010. "Oil
Industry Booms - in North Dakota." The Wall Street Journal,
Wile, Rob. 2012. "The
Most Profitable Oil Field In The World Is Right Here In America."
Business Insider, December 4.
Mills, Mark. P. 2016. "After the Carnage, Shale will Rise Again - Vast
swaths of shale will be profitable with oil at about $40 a barrel, and
the nimble industry is ready." The Wall Street Journal (January
it through the UofT library website).
- Oil Transport
Stopford, Martin. 2011. "An
Anniversary - 150 Years of Oil Transport by Sea." Shipping
Intelligence Network (November 18).
Stena Bulk. Type of Vessels
Furchtgott-Roth, Diana. 2013. "Pipelines
are Safest for Transportation of Oil and Gas." Manhattan
Institute Issue Brief No. 23 (June).
Green, Kenneth P. 2013. "Canada
Should Take to Oil Pipeline Safety." Huffington Post Canada (October
Green, Kenneth P. 2014. "Flash
Point: New Oil-by-Rail Rules." The American (August 20).
Palen, Wendy J. et al. 2014. "Energy:
Consider the Global Impacts of Oil Pipelines." Nature (June
- Refining and Petrochemicals
Association. Fuels Production - How Refining Works
American Fuel and Petrochemical Manufacturers. "Petrochemicals."
- Global Picture
AAAS (American Association for the Advancement of Science) and American
Petroleum Institute. Science Net Links: Technology and Oil
Oil Refining: A Closer Look
- Crude Oil and Refined Petroleum Markets
US EIA. "What Drives Crude
Blackmon, David. 2013. "Texas
Amazing Shale Oil and Gas Abundance." Forbes (July 5).
Canadian Fuels Association, Fuel Markets and Pricing
What's up with the price of gasoline?
Canada/U.S. Price Component Comparison
The Kent Group, Trend of retail price components over time
Daily/Weekly/Monthly Price Component Data
- Petroleum and other
liquids: Data (browse)
- Crude oil
and other spot prices
Udland, Myles. 2014. "Here
Are The Breakeven Oil Prices For Every Drilling Project In The World."
Business Insider (November 28).
Udland, Myles. 2014. "Here
are the Most and Least Expensive Ways to Drill for Oil in the World."
Business Insider / Financial Post (December 30).
- Natural (Conventional and Unconventional) Gas
Gas.” Environmental Literacy Council.
Exxon Mobil. "Tight
Gas and Shale Gas"
Ridley, Matt. "The
Five Myths about Fracking." Rational Optimist (August 16).
Lomborg, Bjorn. 2013. "Innovation's
Vastly Cheaper than Green Subsidies." The Globe and Mail
FracFocus Chemical Disclosure Registry
Gas." Institute for Energy Research.
BP. 2015. Statistical Review of World Energy 2015. "Natural
EIA. 2014. "Natural
Gas Serves a Small, but Growing, Portion of China's Total Energy Demand."
Today in Energy (August 18).
Nick. 2012. "Methane
in the Water: Pennsylvania, 1783." NoHotAir. (Original
source: Thomas Paine. 1819.
The Political and Miscellaneous Works of Thomas Paine, volume
II. R. Carlile, p. 181).
Smil, Vaclav. 2012. "Placing
the American Gas Boom in Perspective." The American Magazine
Waldie, Paul. 2014. "How
Fracking weakens Gazprom, the Bedrock beneath Putin's Feet." The
Globe and Mail (February 18).
Fracking in the USA
Airhard, Marc. 2013. "Natural
Gas Saves Water and Reduces Drought Vulnerability, Even When Factoring
in Water Lost to Hydraulic Fracturing." Geology Foundation, Jackson
School of Geosciences (University of Texas - Austin), December 19.
Bailey, Rona. 2013. "The
Promised Land of Fracking." Reason.com, January 8.
Biello, David. 2010. "What
the Frack? Natural Gas from Subterranean Shale Promises U.S. Energy
Independence - With Environmental Costs." Scientific American
Bullis, Kevin. 2013. "Shale
Gas Will Fuel a U.S. Manufacturing Boom." MIT Technology Review
Harper, Christopher. 2014. "A
Fracking Good Story Missed by the Media." Washington Times
Helman, Christopher. 2012. "EPA
Doubts Its Own Anti-Fracking Study, While Ohio Determines Fracking Did
Not Spawn Earthquake Swarm." Forbes (March 12).
Krauss, Clifford & Eric Lipton, "After
the Boom in Natural Gas." The New York Times (October 20).
McGrath, Matt. 2013. "Report
Suggests 'Permanent Slowdown' in CO2 Emissions." BBC News (October
Rotman, David. 2012. "King
Natural Gas." MIT Technology Review (August 21).
Epstein, Alex. 2015. "Four
Fallacies that Fracktivists Use to Scare You." Forbes
Sarnoff, Nancy. 2013. "Oil
Giant, Developer George Mitchell Dies at 94." Houston Chronicle
Nordhaus, Ted, Alex Trembath, Michael Shellenberger, Max Luke. 2013. "Coal
Killer : How Natural Gas Fuels the Clean Energy Revolution." The
Breakthrough (June 25).
Koch, Wendy. 2014. "Exxon
and Chevron Trailing in U.S. Fracking Boom." USA Today (May
Gertner, Jon 2013. "George
Mitchell : He Fracked Until It Paid Off." New York Times
Fitzgerald, Tim. 2014. "Frackonomics
: The Economics behind America's Shale Revolution." PERC Report
33 (2) (Fall/Winter).
Carlyle, Ryan. 2014. "Fracking
Rant." Quora (September 18).
Driessen, Paul. 2014. "What
Drives Anti-Fracking Zealots?" Townhall.com (September 21).
DiChristopher, Tom and Javier E. David. 2014. "Oil,
Natural Gas Surge makes Philadelphia the New Energy Hotspot."
CNBC.com (November 16).
Ravve, Ruth. 2014. "Sand
Rush in Midwest, Where Rare Material for Fracking is Mined."
FoxNews.com (June 26).
Fracking in the rest of the world
Lawson, Nigel. 2012. "New
Energy Revolution Is Shaking Up Old World Order." Daily Mail
US EIA. 2013. Technically Recoverable Shale Oil and Shale Gas
Resources: An Assessment of 137 Shale Formations in 41 Countries Outside
the United States. (June) (Executive
EIA. 2013. "North
America Leads the World in Production of Shale Gas." Today in
Energy (October 23).
Woudhuysen, James. 2014. "Making
the Case for Shale Gas and Oil." Spiked! (April 3).
Sproule, Dale. 2015. "On
Shaky Ground: How Should we Evaluate the Risks and Benefits of Fracking?"
UofT Magazine (Winter).
- Environmental Impact(s)
Hand, Eric. 2015. "Thirty
Thousand Square Kilometers of Land Lost to Oil and Gas Development."
Science (April 23).
Union of Concerned Scientists. 2015.
The Climate Deception Dossiers.
Epstein, Alex. 2014. "9
Graphs That Prove Using Fossil Fuels Hasn't Harmed The Planet."
Daily Caller (November 13).
Goklany, Indur. 2015.
Carbon Dioxide : The Good News. Global Warming Policy Foundation
Report 18 (Summary).
Theory of Oil Formation.” Environmental Literacy Council.
Bailey, Ronald. 2010. "Oil
Without Dinos? New energy sources." Reason, January Issue.
Shale." Institute for Energy Research.
• Canada and Ontario
Gas Infrastructure (Google Earth)
US Energy Information Administration. Country Analysis Brief - Canada
Government of Canada.
National Energy Board
Crude Oil and Petroleum Products
Natural Gas Liquids
Canadian Pipeline Transportation System
Canada's Energy Future
Canadian Fuels Association. "Petroleum:
Canada's Fuel." Fuels for Thought (Fall 2014).
Chassin, Youri. 2014.
Is the Canadian Oil Industry Subsidized? Montreal Economic
Institute, Economic Note (May).
- Oil and Gas
Bott, Robert D. 2004.
Evolution of Canada's Oil and Gas Industry. Canadian Center for
Lambton County Museums
- Oil Museum of Canada
Current Situation (Production)
Energy Board (NEB)
Natural Resources Canada (NRC)
- Crude Oil
and Petroleum Products Market
Western Canadian Select
Canadian Press. 2013. "Statoil
Discovery off N.L. Estimated at 600 Million Barrels." Chronicle
Herald (September 26).
Canadian Fuels Association
Canada's Petroleum Fuels Value Chain
Tough Questions about the Future of Transporation Fuels in Canada
Van Loon, Jeremy. 2015. "The
Oil-Sands Glut Is About to Get a Lot Bigger." Bloomberg News
Alberta - What is Oil Sands?
energy: The sands of grime." The Economist (November 17,
Henderson, Victoria. 2014. "I,
Rock Star: Why Neil Young Should Jam With Leonard Read. The Fallacy of
First Appearances and the Anti-Oil Lobby." PanAm Post (January
Kasperkevic, Jana. 2012. "Canada
Wants All Tar Sands Haters to Look at These Charts." Business
Insider (April 26).
Pipeline Politics and Economics
Canadian Energy Pipeline Association
- About Pipelines (browse)
- Interactive Maps
Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP)
Committee for a Study of Pipeline Transportation of Diluted Bitumen et
TRB Special Report 311: Effects of Diluted Bitumen on Crude Oil
Transmission Pipelines - Overview. National Academies Press.
Levine, Steve. 2014. "Canada
doesn't need a Pipeline to the US to Exploit its Oil Sands."
Quartz (January 31).
Vaclav. 2011. "Obama's
Indefensible Pipeline Punt." The American (November 15).
TransCanada Energy -
East Pipeline project
Leach, Andrew. 2013. "Energy
Security and the Energy East Pipeline." MacLean's (August
Minardi, Jean-François. 2013. "The
Economic Benefits of Pipeline Projects to Eastern Canada." Montreal
Economic Institute (Economic Note, September).
Mintz:, Jack. 2013."A
Quashed Keystone XL would Cost Canadians $1.7-billion a Year."
Financial Post (October 28).
Green, Ken.2014. "New
Brunswick Derailment Highlights: Rail Vs Pipeline Tradeoffs."
Fraser Forum (Spring): 14-15.
Green, Kenneth and Taylor Jackson. 2015. "Rail
is Quite Safe, but Pipelines are the Safest Way to Transport Oil and Gas."
Financial Post (August 14).
- Current situation (Refining)
Nikiforuk, Andrew. 2011. "Yes,
Refine Oil Sands Crude Right Here." The Tyee (September 22).
Cross, Philip. 2013. "Oil
Industry Confound Critics." National Post (October 2).
Crowley, Brian Lee. 2013. "Market
Hunger for Bitumen, not Refined Oil." The Globe and Mail
Lecture 6 (February 9):
Lecture 7 (February 23):
Electricity (Hydro and Nuclear)
Engineering Achievements of the 20th Century. National Academy of Engineering.
Bradley, Robert L and Richard W. Fulmer. Energy: The Master Resource,
Kendall Hunt Publishing Company, 2004,
Chapter 2: Using Energy, pp. 19-20, 25-29, 30-31, 45-48.
Environmental Literacy Council Website.
Current and Power Transmission.”
Power Grids and Blackouts.”
Lomborg, Bjørn. 2013. "Blinded
by the Light." Project Syndicate (March 13).
Portney, Paul R. "Nuclear
Power: Clean, Costly, and Controversial." Resources (Navigating Energy
Choices in the 21st Century), Winter 2005, Issue 156, pp. 28-30.
Bailey, Ronald. 2011. "Nuclear
Disaster in Japan Does it show a way forward for nuclear power?"
Reason Magazine, March 15.
Fumento, Michael. 2005. "So
What Really Happened After Chernobyl?" Tech Central Station,
Brown, Anthony. 2002. "'Myth'
of Chernobyl suffering exposed." The Observer, January 6.
Death Toll Grossly Underestimated." Greenpeace, April 18, 2006.
Smil, Vaclav. 2011. "Japan's
Crisis: Context and Outlook" The American, April 16.
Lecture 8 (March 1):
Electricity (Alternatives) and Biomass
• General Statements
and Alternative Fuels Basics 101." Energy Information Administration
(read only the general definition).
Bryce, Robert. 2010. "Five
myths about green energy." The Washington Post, April 25.
Stephens, W. R. "Review
of Powering the Dream: The History and Promise of Green Technology
by Alexis Madrigal (De Capo Press, 2011)."
New York Journal of Books.
Wilson, Peter. 2013. "The
Dream of a World Without Oil." American Thinker, March 25.
Yauch, Brady. 2014. "Governments
Rip up Renewable Contracts." Financial Post (March 18).
Runge, C. Ford. 2010. "The
Case Against Biofuels: Probing Ethanol's Hidden Costs." Yale
Environment 360, March 11.
Smith, Aaron. 2012. "Children
of the Corn: The Renewable Fuels Disaster." The American
Magazine, April 1st.
Wynn, Gerard. 2010. "U.S.
corn ethanol "was not a good policy"-Gore."
Energy & Oil | Reuters, November 22.
Gosselin, P. 2012. "From
Rescuing The Climate To Rescuing The Economy - Germany's Energy
Transition Goes Into Reverse." NoTricksZone(January).
Sills, Ben. 2010. "Spain's
Solar Deals on Edge of Bankruptcy as Subsidies Founder."
Bloomberg Markets Magazine, October 18.
Sweet, Cassandra. 2014. "The
$2.2 Billion Bird-Scorching Solar Project At California's Ivanpah Plant,
Mirrors Produce Heat and Electricity-And Kill Wildlife." The Wall
Street Journal (February 12).
Bryce, Robert. 2011. "The
Party's Over for Big Wind." The Huffington Post (August 12).
Driessen, Paul. 2013.
"Cut Fingers, Cancer, Bats and Birds." Townhall.com (April 6).
"Executive summary" of "Study
of the effects on employment of public aid to renewable energy sources"
by Gabriel Calzada Álvarez PhD., Raquel Merino Jara, Juan Ramón Rallo
Julián Technical & José Ignacio García Bielsa. Universidad Rey Juan
Carlos, March 2009.
Helmer MEP, Roger. 2012. "“Sustainable
energy” just isn’t …. well, sustainable."
rogerhelmermep.wordpress.com (April 27).
Rose, Tony, and Michael J. Economides. 2010. "Wind
Energy: The Truth Blows." Energy Tribune, Oct. 20, 2010
Schleede, Glenn (Guest Blogger). 2010. "Understanding
the Limits of Wind Power: Key Industry Terms." MasterResource - A
free-market energy blog, March 14.
• Large Scale Electricity Storage and Battery Technology
Kevin Bullis. 2009. "TR10:
Liquid Battery." Technology Review (March/April).
Kevin Bullis. 2008. "Solar
Power Breakthrough." Technology Review (July 31).
Lecture 9 (March 8): The
Perennial Energy Debate
• Population Growth and the Environment
Ellis, Erle C. 2012. "Overpopulation
is the Problem." The New York Times (September 13).
Pearce, Fred. 2010. "The
overpopulation myth." Prospect Magazine, March 8.
• Jevons Paradox
Encyclopedia of Earth
- Jevons Paradox
Stott, Philip. 2008. "The
Jevons’ Paradox." Global Warming Politics, February 12.
Hertwich, Edgar. 2012. "Jevons
Paradox or Not? The Myth of Resource Efficiency: The Jevons Paradox
by John M. Polimeni, Kozo Mayumi, Mario Giampietro and Blake Alcott
Energy Efficiency and Sustainable Consumption edited by Horace
Herring and Steve Sorrell." Journal of Industrial Ecology 16
(3) (June): 453-454.
• Survey of the issue
Deffeyes, Kenneth, & Peter Huber. 2005. "It's
the End of Oil / Oil Is Here to Stay." Time, October 23.
Mann, Charles. 2013. "What
if We Never Run Out of Oil?" The Atlantic (May).
Quintus Septimius Florens Tertullianus (Tertullian). Approximately 203
AD. "On the Soul."
The Oil Drum
- Three Nails in the
Coffin of Peak Oil
Bardi, Ugo. 2008. "Crude
Oil: how high can it go? (19th century whaling as a model for oil
depletion and price volatility)." The Oil Drum: Europe, May
Campbell, Colin C. and Jean
Laherrère. 1998. “The End
of Cheap Oil.” Scientific
American (March): 78-83.
McGahan, Anita. 2009. "The
End of Oil." Rotman Magazine, Winter.
Monbiot, George. 2012. "We
were wrong on peak oil. There's enough to fry us all." The
Guardian (July 2).
- Historical perspective and conceptual issues
George, Henry. 1912/1879.
Progress and Poverty: An Inquiry into the Cause of Industrial
Depressions and of Increase of Want with Increase of Wealth, The Remedy.
Book II: Population and Subsistence. Chapter III: Inferences from
Baumol, William J. and Sue
Anne Batey Blackman. "Natural
Resources," The Concise Encyclopedia of Economics.
Ausubel, Jesse. 1999/2000.
"Resources are Elastic," Earth Matters (Winter): 46-47.
Will, George. 2012. "Why
doom has not materialized." The Washington Post (August 17).
On Peak Oil
Lynch, Michael. 2009. "‘Peak
Oil’ Is a Waste of Energy." The New York Times, August 24.
Smil, Vaclav. 2007. "Peak
performance." Tech Central Station, February 23
Smil, Vaclav. 2006. "Peak
Oil: A Catastrophist Cult and Complex Realities." World Watch
Smil, Vaclav. 2005. "Peak
Curiosity." Tech Central Station, December 2.
- Ehrlich-Simon Bet
McClintick, David, and Ross B. Emmett. 2005. "Betting
on the Wealth of Nature. The Simon-Ehrlich Wager." PERC Report
23 (3) (Fall).
Kedrosky, Paul. 2010. "Re-litigating
the Simon/Ehrlich Bet." Infectious Greed (February 18).
Perry, Mark. 2013. "Julian
Simon: Still more right than lucky in 2013." Carpe Diem (AEIdeas)
is Oil Shale?" Institute for Energy Research.
Bryce, Robert. 2013. "New
Technology for Old Fuels. Innovation in Oil and Natural Gas Production
Assures Future Supplies." Energy Policy & the Environment Report
No. 12 (Manhattan Institute) (April) (Executive Summary).
Glover, Peter C. 2012. "Whatever
happened to peak oil?" The Commentator (August 15).
Jaffe, Amy Myers. 2011. "The
Americas, Not the Middle East, Will be the World Capital of Energy."
Foreign Policy (September-October).
Lind, Michael. 2011. "Everything
you've heard about fossil fuels may be wrong - War Room." Salon.com,
Perry, Mark. J. AEIdeas.org (American Enterprise Institute)
Year in review: America?s amazing energy revolution (March 27,
Enegy fact of the day: US oil output is close to a 21-year high
(April 10, 2013).
Texas Oil Output has almost Doubled in just the Last 2 Years and Reached
a 32-year High in June (August 30, 2013).
Sebastien, Simone. 2013. "2013
Oil Boom is Biggest Ever, Data Show." Fuel Fix (December 26).
Smil, Vaclav. 2013. "Memories
of Peak Oil." The American Magazine (February 2).
Lecture 10 (March 15): The
Curse of Natural Resources
• General Statement
Palley, Thomas I. 2003.
the Natural Resource Curse.” Foreign Service Journal, December.
• Resource Curse (Debate)
Ali, Saleem H. 2010.
Resource Curse: Minerals and Global Development. Pardee Center,
Issues in Brief, No. 12.
Davies, Viv. 2012. "The
Oil Curse: How Petroleum Wealth Shapes the Development of Nations."
Vox (April 20) (audio and transcript).
Mitchell, Paul. 2003. “The
‘Resource Curse’ is Overstated (PDF document) .” Financial Times, Nov. 18.
Palda, Filip. 2003. "The
High Price of Natural Wealth." Fraser Forum, January, 30-31.
Ryan, Kieron E. 2010. "Blood
Diamonds Farce." LewRockwell.com, August 11.
Stevens, Paul J. 2002. "'Resource
Curse' and Investment in Oil and Gas Projects: The New Challenge."
Internet Journal (The Centre for Energy, Petroleum and Mineral
Law and Policy) June. (later published as "Resource Impact: curse or
blessing? A literature survey." Journal of Energy Literature Vol
IX No 1 June 2003 Pp. 3-42)
van den Bremer, Ton Rick van der Ploeg. 2012. "Managing
and Harnessing Volatile Oil Windfalls: Three Funds, Three Countries and
Three Stories." Vox (December 14).
Wall, Alan. 2013. "PEMEX's
Throttling Mexico's Oil Resources." American Thinker
• Resource Curse, Dutch Disease and the Canadian Economy
Bergevin, Philippe. 2006. "Energy
Resources: Boon or Curse for the Canadian Economy?" Economics
Division, Parliamentary Information and Research Service (PIRS) of the
Library of Parliament 31 March.
Cross, Philip. 2013.
Six Myths Surrounding the Development of Canada's Natural Resources.
MacDonald-Laurier Institute, Executive Summary and pp. 12-14.
Cross, Philip. 2013. "Dutch
Disease in Canada a myth." National Post (January 16).
Holden, Michael. 2012. "Is
Canada suffering from Dutch Disease?" Canada West Foundation Blog
Isfeld, Gordon. 2012. "Mark
Carney dismisses Dutch Disease, says oil strength sign of success."
Financial Post (September 7).
Kelly-Gagnon, Michel. 2012. "Dear
Mr. Thomas Mulcair..." Toronto Star (June 25).
Nikiforuk, Andrew. 2013. "Oh
Canada. How America's Friendly Northern Neighbor became a Rogue,
Reckless Petrostate." Foreign Policy (June 24).
Leach, Andrew. 2013. "Ottawa
is no Caracas." Foreign Policy (September-October).
• Odious Debt
Adams, Patricia. 2002. "The
Doctrine of Odious Debts: Using the Law to Cancel Illegitimate Debts."
Probe International, June 21.
Lecture 11 (March 22): The
Future of the Automobile
• Before the Car
Horse and the Urban Environment" on the Environmental Literacy
Avery, Dennis T. 2000. "Praising
The Gas Engine On Earth Day." Center for Global Food Issue (Hudson
Institute) (April 14).
Gordon, Peter. 2007 "Horse
Manure." Peter Gordon's Blog, August 27.
• Historical Perspective and Overall Challenges
Bradley, Robert L and Richard W. Fulmer. Energy: The Master Resource,
Kendall Hunt Publishing Company, 2004,
Chapter 2: Using Energy, pp. 48-55.
Canadian Petroleum Products Institute. 2012.
Fuels for Life. A Discussion on Canada's Energy Transportation Choices
--. 2013. "The
Other Government Motors. Tesla by the Numbers: How Taxpayers made an
Electric Car Company." Wall Street Journal (May 23).
Broder, John M. 2013. "Stalled
on the E.V. Highway." NYTimes.com, January 8.
Epstein, Alex. 2013.
The Tesla Model S, Elon Musk Has Created A Nice Fossil Fuel Car."
Forbes (August 21).
Debate" Center for Industrial Progress (August 22).
Kinney Bennett, Ralph. 2008. "Why
Gasoline Is Still King." The American Magazine, December 17.
Kinney Bennett, Ralph. 2006. "Who
Killed the Electric Car?" Tech Central Station, June 29.
Lane, Charles. 2010. "Unaffordable
at Any Speed - President Obama's electric car subsidies are snobby and
foolish." Slate, July 30.
Lomborg, Bjorn. 2013. "The
case against electric cars." The National Post, April 13.
Lomborg, Bjorn. 2013. "Green
Cars Have a Dirty Little Secret." The Wall Street Journal,
Michaels, Pat. 2013. "If
Tesla Would Stop Selling Cars, We'd All Save Some Money." Forbes
(May 28) on Tesla Motor.
Smil, Vaclav. 2012. "Far
from Electrifying." The American Magazine, November, 26.
Hybrid Vehicles Not as Cost-Effective as They Seem, Reports Edmunds.com."
Edmunds.com, June 1, 2005.
Booth, David. 2013. "Hybrid
vs. diesel vs. gas: Which one saves you more money?" National
Post, February 21.
Elton, Robert. 2004. "The
Truth About Hybrids." The Truth about Cars. November 12.
Gantert, Tom. 2011. "Chevy
Volt - Costing Taxpayers Up to $250K Per Vehicle." Michigan
Capitol Confidential, December 21.
Green, Kenneth. 2011. "The
Failed Chevy Volt That Just Won't Go Away." RealClearMarkets,
Bullis, Kevin. 2006. "The
Methanol Economy." Technology Review, March 02.
Friedemann, Alice. 2005. "The
Hydrogen Economy - Energy and Economic Black Hole." Energy Pulse,
Smil, Vaclav. 2003. "No
Alternative to Reality," Tech Central Station, June 30.
Zubrin, Robert. "The
Hydrogen Hoax." The New Atlantis, Number 15, Winter 2007, pp.
• Related topics
Biello, David. 2012. "Cheap
Fracked Gas Could Help Americans Keep on Truckin'." Scientific
American (April 23).
Omi, Koji. 2009. "Alternative
Energy for Transportation." Issues in Science and Technology
25 (4), Summer.
Lecture 12 (March 29):
Guest Lecture: TBA