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University of Toronto Mississauga • Department of Geography • WINTER 2014

GGR 333H5F Energy and Society


 Instructor: Pierre Desrochers


 Lectures: Tuesday, 3-5PM


 Phone: (905) 828-5206

 Office: Davis Building, room 3273


 Lecture room: NE 134





Course Description
Course Objectives
> Assignments
> Contacting the Instructor
> Tests
> Term Paper
> Department of Geography Late Assignment/Missed Test Policy
> Expectations/Classroom Behaviour/Behaviour in the Academic Setting
> Academic Integrity/Honesty or Academic Offenses
> Accessibility
> Accommodations for Religious Observances
> Recommendations & Suggestions
> Lecture Schedule

Lecture 1 (January 7): Introduction
> Lecture 2 (January 14): Concepts and the Big Picture
> Lecture 3 (January 21): Carbon-Fuelled Civilizations 1
> Lecture 4 (January 28): Carbon-Fuelled Civilizations 2
> Lecture 5 (February 4): Carbon-Fuelled Civilizations 3
> Lecture 6 (February 11): Term test - Questions
> Lecture 7 (February 25): Electricity (Hydro and Nuclear)
> Lecture 8 (March 4): Electricity (Alternatives) and Biomass
> Lecture 9 (March 11): The Perennial Energy Debate
> Lecture 10 (March 18): The Curse of Natural Resources
> Lecture 11 (March 25): The Future of the Automobile
> Lecture 12 (April 1): Ontario's Energy Dilemma
> Suggested Readings


Course Description

The development of new energy sources has had a major impact on the development of both human societies and the environment. This course will provide a broad survey of past and current achievements, along with failures and controversies, regarding the use of various forms of energy. Understanding of technical terms, physical principles, creation of resources and trade-offs will be emphasized as a basis for discussions about energy options. The local and global dimensions of the economics and politics surrounding the world's energy resources will be recurring concerns in this course.


Course Objectives

The course has five main objectives:

1) To cover the basic physical, technical and economic issues related to energy use;
2) To cover broadly the history of energy development and use;
3) To introduce students to past debates and current controversies;
4) To memorize and use, without aids, the basic terminology with which professionals in relevant disciplines communicate their work and their research findings;
5) To apply a wide range of academic skills in active listening, note-taking, studying, reading, and test-taking to upper-level university courses.


There is no textbook or reading package for this class. Most of the readings are freely available on the web and links are provided on the course’s webpage. Suggested readings are not mandatory, but students who will write term papers on topics covered in these texts are expected to be familiar with them.

Most of the suggested readings are freely accessible from anywhere. Some of them, however, may require you to use a UofT terminal or user code.




1) Proposal for Term Paper
2) Term Test
3) Term Paper
4) Final Exam


January 28
February 11
April 1, 5PM
April 14th, 9-11AM, IB 120

Term test results

As per the University Grading Practices Policy, please note that "after the methods of evaluation have been made known, the instructor may not change them or their relative weight without the consent of at least a simple majority of the students enrolled in the course. Any changes shall be reported to the division or the department."

How to Query or Challenge a Mark

Please note that you have two weeks from the date an item is returned in class to ask for the item to be remarked. Contact the Course Instructor for all queries about course marks, or if you wish to challenge a mark. Absolutely no item will be remarked after the two-week period has passed. Material submitted for remarking must be accompanied by a brief written explanation detailing your reasons for dissatisfaction with the original mark (such as an addition error or something you think the marker may have missed). A request for a remark without a written explanation will not be acted upon.

Please note that you are allowed two questions where you and the instructor can agree to disagree (meaning you believe that you are entitled to a higher mark, but your instructor disagrees) without penalty. Beginning with the third question where you and your instructor disagree, one point will be taken off your final mark by question for which a revised mark was requested by you and denied by the instructor.

Contacting the instructor

Office hours are Tuesday 1-3PM, Davis 3273. You can contact me at

Please read the course syllabus before e-mailing a question or expect a one line answer telling you to look it up if the answer is already there.

Always use your University of Toronto e-mail address ( for all course-related communications. E-mails from other domains (e.g., hotmail, Rogers, gmail, yahoo, etc.) may be filtered as spam and will at any rate be ignored. Always include the course code (e.g., GGR333) as part of your subject line, along with your full name and student number in the body of the e-mail. E-mails will be answered during office hours as promptly as possible. Please note that I do not open attachments and will not answer during week-ends.

The first person that you should e-mail concerning department- or program-related queries or to submit documentation regarding a missed assignment, quiz, or test is the Academic Counsellor for Geography/Environment, Sabrina Ferrari (

E-mail should NOT be viewed as an alternative to meeting with the TA or professor during office hours. Nor should e-mail be used as a mechanism to receive private tutorials (especially prior to tests) or to explain material that was covered in missed lectures. Not receiving replies to e-mails from the TA or professor, or not receiving them in time, will not be an acceptable excuse for pleas for extensions to assignment or exam deadlines.

Students are advised to consult for information on university policy concerning the appropriate use of information and communication technology.


A set of questions will be given in advance. Students will be asked to answer a number of these during the test.

Note that PowerPoint slides presented during the lectures WILL NOT be posted online. No documentation is allowed during the tests.


Term Paper

Students will be asked to write a 15 page essay on a topic of their choice. The essay can also be a 15 page review essay of a book dealing with topics covered in class. The choice of topic or book must be approved by the instructor. Team work is allowed for term papers, but not for book reviews. Papers should follow one of the Standard Documentation Formats.

The papers are due by April 1, 5 PM. There will be a drop-off box in front of Room Davis 3284.

Here are the detailed instructions to write your proposal and essay.

On the Art of Writing a Term Paper
Writing and Advice on Academic Writing at the University of Toronto.

Some additional advice from Professor Daniel Drezner of Tufts University (On writing a paper / On researching a paper) and Professor Steven Horwitz of St. Lawrence University (Guide to Writing Formal Academic Papers).

Your choice of topic or book must be approved by the instructor before turning in your proposal. Those of you who would like to submit a book suggestion are asked to provide a link to the publisher's webpage devoted to the book or, if no such thing exists, to the Amazon or another large bookseller webpage devoted to the book.

Please note that you do not need to submit your proposal or the appendixes of your term paper through

Normally, students will be required to submit their course essays to for a review of textual similarity and detection of possible plagiarism. In doing so, students will allow their essays to be included as source documents in the reference database, where they will be used solely for the purpose of detecting plagiarism. The terms that apply to the University's use of the service are described on the web site. > Full legal statement

Students are permitted, under our conditions of use, to opt-out of using Turnitin. If a student chooses not to submit an assignment through Turnitin, the instructor will need to find alternative arrangements to check their work as rigorously. Students will not be penalized for choosing to opt out, but they will be asked to have a short meeting with the instructor and be asked questions about their research methodology and work.

You are required to submit a hard copy of the assignment as instructed in the syllabus for the TAs to grade and annotate Electronic copies will be submitted by students through Turnitin.

> Basic steps for setting up your Turnitin account and submitting papers course ID: 7861307

Note Concerning Turnitin (This is only required if you plan to have students submit work to, and you must offer students alternative submission options):

Normally, students will be required to submit written assignments to for a review of textual similarity and detection of possible plagiarism. In doing so, students will allow their assignments to be included as source documents in the reference database, where they will be used solely for the purpose of detecting plagiarism. The terms that apply to the University's use of the service are described on the web site ( If you have an objection to the use of Turnitin for the submission of your work, please make an appointment to speak personally with the Course Instructor to discuss alternative arrangements. A guide for students is available from the University of Toronto's Office of Teaching Advancement, at: This information will also be made available on the course Blackboard site.

Please note that submitting your paper through or making alternative arrangements before the deadline with your professor is not optional. Failure to do so will result in a grade of 0 for your term paper. Failure to submit your paper on before the deadline will result in the same late penalty as if you had not submitted your hard copy.


Department of Geography Late assignment/Missed Test Policy

This is the departmental policy for late assignments and missed tests. Please note that the penalty related to your proposal is different. In this particular case, I apply my own policy as specified on the syllabus.

In-class Tests:
Students CANNOT petition to re-write a test once the test has begun. If you are feeling ill, please leave the room before starting your test and seek medical attention immediately. You must have a physician fill out a U of T Student Medical Certificate and submit a request via the online Special Consideration Request form @ within 24 hours.

Missed Term Work (Assignment/Lab - as per Department of Geography policy):
Late assignments will be subject to a late penalty of 10% per day (including weekends) of the total marks for the assignment. Assignments submitted five calendar days beyond the due date will be assigned a grade of zero.

Academic accommodation can be made when an assignment is late. For accommodations on late/missed assignments please see section on "Extension of Time".

Missed Term Work (Quiz/Test - as per Department of Geography policy):
In courses with final exams, there will be no re-writes or make-ups for term tests/quizzes missed for University-accepted, verifiable reasons. Instead, the final exam will be re-weighted by the value of the term test/quiz.

Informing Your Professor and Submitting Appropriate Documentation:
The following steps must be completed in order to be considered for academic accommodation for any course work such as missed tests or late assignments:

1. Students must inform their professor in writing (e-mail is acceptable) within 24 hours of a test date/assignment due date of any circumstances that prevent them from writing a test or submitting an assignment on time.
2. Students must complete an online Special Consideration Request @ Students who miss a test due to circumstances beyond their control (e.g. illness or an accident) can request that the Department grant them special consideration. You must inform your instructor within 24 hours and you have up to one (1) week from the date of the missed test to submit your online request (late requests will NOT be considered without a "letter of explanation" as to why the request is late). You must present your case to the Department (not the Instructor). Note: The system only supports Microsoft Internet Explorer and Firefox for the time being.
3. Original supporting documentation (e.g. Verification of Student Illness or Injury form, accident report, etc) MUST BE SUBMITTED to the DROP BOX (labeled "Environment and Geography Petition Documentation") located outside Room 3282, Davis Building. Supporting documentation is required within 48 hours of submitting your online request.
Please Note: If you missed your test for a reason connected to your registered disability, please be advised that the department will accept documentation supplied by the UTM AccessAbility Resource Centre.
Note: (i) ROSI declarations are not accepted as supporting documentation.
(ii) If your reason for absence is due to a last minute flight due to a family emergency (illness/death etc.) you must provide your flight itinerary INCLUDING the date the flight was purchased as well as boarding passes in addition to proof of death/illness/accident.
4. Verification of Student Illness or Injury forms MUST include the statement "This Student was unable to write the test on date(s) for medical reasons". Documentation MUST show that the physician was consulted within ONE day of the test date. A statement merely confirming a report of illness made by the student is NOT acceptable (such as, "This patient tells me that he was feeling ill on that day."). Verification of Student Illness or Injury forms can be found on the Office of the Registrar's webpage (

Please complete the following:
- Special request link:
- Verification of Illness form:

Please note that the written explanation and documentation that you submit represents an appeal from you, requesting the opportunity to account for that portion of your grade in some other manner. If an appeal is not received, or if the appeal is deemed unacceptable, you will receive a grade of zero for the item you missed. If the appeal is granted - that is, your reason for missing the item is considered acceptable by the committee - then a mechanism for accounting for the grade value of the missed item will be discussed.

A Departmental committee evaluates each request. Decisions will be communicated by email within two weeks of receipt of all completed documents. Note: It is your responsibility to ensure your email account is working and able to receive emails. Claims that a Departmental decision was not received will NOT be considered as a reason for further consideration. Contact Sabrina Ferrari ( Academic Counselor, should you NOT receive notification of your decision within 2 weeks of submission.

Note that holidays and pre-purchased plane tickets, family plans, your friend's wedding, lack of preparation, or too many other tests are not acceptable excuses for missing a quiz, a test, or an item of term work.

Extension of Time
Students MUST submit a request for extension in ADVANCE of the deadline in order to receive a decision.

If you require more time to complete an assignment you will be required to make your request directly to the Department by completing an on-line Special Consideration Request @ You will be required to provide supporting documentation.

Original supporting documentation (e.g. Verification of Student Illness or Injury form, accident report, etc) MUST BE SUBMITTED to the DROP BOX (labeled "Environment and Geography Petition Documentation") located outside Room 3282, Davis Building. Note: ROSI declarations are not accepted as supporting documentation. You are expected to submit your request to the Department before the due date of the assignment, unless demonstrably serious reasons prevent you from doing so. In the event of an illness, if you are seeking a one-day extension, Verification of Student Illness or Injury forms must confirm that you were ill on the due date of the assignment; if you are requesting a longer extension, your documentation must specify exactly the length of the period during which you were unable to carry out your academic work. For extensions of time beyond the examination period you must submit a petition through the Office of the Registrar.

A Departmental committee evaluates each request for an extension of time. Decisions will be communicated by email within two weeks of receipt of all completed documents. Please note that students are required to submit their assignment/lab as soon as they are able and they should NOT wait for the decision of the committee. Note: It is your responsibility to ensure your email account is working and able to receive emails. Claims that a Departmental decision was not received will NOT be considered as a reason for further consideration. Contact Sabrina Ferrari ( Academic Counsellor, should you NOT receive notification of your decision within 2 weeks of submission.

It is your responsibility to follow the appropriate procedures and submit requests for special consideration on time. Failure to do so may result in the committee denying your request.
Should you require further information regarding Special Considerations, please contact the Academic Counselor, Sabrina Ferrari
Undergraduate Academic Counselor
Room 3282, Davis Building, Telephone: 905-828-5465

Expectations/Classroom Behaviour/Behaviour in the Academic Setting

Our expectation of you is that you will show respect to the Course Instructor, TAs, other faculty, staff, and fellow students. This includes arriving on time and staying for the entire class (so you don't disturb others by your late entry or early departure); listening quietly (so you don't disturb others by your chatting or online activities); approaching your course work with an open, honest spirit and enthusiasm; and otherwise adhering to the Code.

In turn, you can expect the Course Instructor, staff, and TAs to show respect to you and your fellow students; to deliver the best course that they possibly can; to communicate their enthusiasm for the material; to maintain fairness in all aspects of course delivery and assessment; and otherwise to adhere to the University's Code of Behaviour on Academic Matters.

Academic Integrity/Honesty or Academic Offenses

It is your responsibility as a student at the University of Toronto to familiarize yourself with, and adhere to, both the Code of Student Conduct and the Code of Behaviour on Academic Matters.

This means, first and foremost, that you should read them carefully.

  • The Code of Student Conduct is available from the U of T Mississauga website (Registrar > Academic Calendar > Codes and Policies) or in your print version of the Academic Calendar.

  • The Code of Behaviour on Academic Matters is available from the U of T Mississauga website (Registrar > Academic Calendar > Codes and Policies) or in your print version of the Academic Calendar.

Another helpful document that you should read is How Not to Plagiarize, by M. Procter.

Further Thoughts on Academic Honesty:
The Code of Behaviour on Academic Matters states that:

"The University and its members have a responsibility to ensure that a climate that might encourage, or conditions that might enable, cheating, misrepresentation or unfairness not be tolerated. To this end all must acknowledge that seeking credit or other advantages by fraud or misrepresentation, or seeking to disadvantage others by disruptive behaviour is unacceptable, as is any dishonesty or unfairness in dealing with the work or record of a student." ―University of Toronto Mississauga Academic Calendar

This summarizes what we are all trying to achieve through the implementation of this Code―both students and faculty. We are trying―together―to create an atmosphere of fairness and honesty, in which people can learn and receive appropriate credit for work that they have done. Note that the Code refers specifically to expectations for faculty members, not just for students. It is my responsibility, as a member of the faculty of the University of Toronto, to be familiar with these expectations and adhere to them. There are many additional academic requirements that we are expected to meet with regard to the integrity of course materials, returning of marked work to students, maintenance of student privacy, fairness, grading practices, and others. My TAs and I will make every possible effort to meet these expectations.


U of T Mississauga and the AccessAbility Resource Centre are committed to the full participation of students with disabilities in all aspects of campus life. The AccessAbility Resource Centre provides academic accommodations and services to students who have a physical, sensory, or learning disability, mental health condition, acquired brain injury, or chronic health condition, be it visible or hidden. Students who have temporary disabilities (e.g., broken dominant arm) are also eligible to receive services. All interested students must have an intake interview with an advisor to discuss their individual needs.

Students who require accommodation are advised to visit the AccessAbility Resource Centre as early as possible to have their needs assessed, as it may take some time to process the application.

For more information please contact the centre at:
Room 2047, South Bldg.
Tel/TTY: 905-569-4699

For students who would like to help

Please note that the AccessAbility Resource Centre is looking for a volunteer note-taker to take notes on behalf of students with a disability registered in this class. Volunteer note-takers are responsible for submitting their notes to AccessAbility every week. The notes can be submitted online or scanned at the Centre. (The form can be downloaded at

Volunteer note-takers will receive a certificate of recognition and reference letter at the end of the year. If you are interested in this opportunity, please take a volunteer form and follow the instructions provided. If you have any questions, please call 905-828-5422, email, or drop by the Centre (room 2047, Davis Building).

Accomodations for Religious Observances

As noted in the the Policy on Scheduling of Classes and Examinations and Other Accommodations for Religious Observances, the following provisions are included:

"It is the policy of the University of Toronto to arrange reasonable accommodation of the needs of students who observe religious holy days other than those already accommodated by ordinary scheduling and statutory holidays.
Students have a responsibility to alert members of the teaching staff in a timely fashion to upcoming religious observances and anticipated absences. Instructors will make every reasonable effort to avoid scheduling tests, examinations or other compulsory activities at these times. If compulsory activities are unavoidable, every reasonable opportunity should be given to these students to make up work that they miss, particularly in courses involving laboratory work. When the scheduling of tests or examinations cannot be avoided, students should be informed of the procedure to be followed to arrange to write at an alternate time.

It is most important that no student be seriously disadvantaged because of her or his religious observances. However, in the scheduling of academic and other activities, it is also important to ensure that the accommodation of one group does not seriously disadvantage other groups within the University community."

With respect to minimum advance notice, the Policy provides that "Students have a responsibility to alert members of the teaching staff in a timely fashion to upcoming religious observances and anticipated absences." Since students would normally be aware of upcoming religious observances as well as examination schedules in advance, a minimum of three weeks advance notice will be considered sufficient.

More information and some dates of potential relevance for the U of T community are available at

As with any academic accommodation request, students must submit an on-line Special Consideration Request @

Recommandations & Suggestions

Suggested Scholarly Sources
Suggested Websites
Suggested Scholarly journals
Suggested Blogs

Lecture Schedule

Lecture 1 (January 7): Introduction
Lecture 2 (January 14): Concepts and the Big Picture
Lecture 3 (January 21): Carbon-Fuelled Civilizations 1 (Guest lecture by Andrew Nicholson)
Lecture 4 (January 28): Carbon-Fuelled Civilizations 2 (Deadline for Proposal)
Lecture 5 (February 4): Carbon-Fuelled Civilizations 3
Lecture 6 (February 11): Term test  Questions
February 18: Reading Week
Lecture 7 (February 25): Electricity (Hydro and Nuclear)
Lecture 8 (March 4): Electricity (Alternatives) and Biomass
Lecture 9 (March 11): The Perennial Energy Debate
Lecture 10 (November 18): The Curse of Natural Resources
Lecture 11 (March 25): The Future of the Automobile
Lecture 12 (April 1): Ontario's Energy Dilemma (Guest lecture by Tom Adams) (Deadline for Term Paper/Review Essay)
Final exam: April 14th, 9-11AM, IB 120

Lecture 1 (January 7): Introduction

Mandatory videos

GGR 333: Energy and Society - Lecture 1

BP. 2013. BP Energy Outlook 2030 - Infographic Animation

Mandatory readings


Familiarize yourself with energy glossaries and energy conversion tables

• Visions

Bradley Jr, Robert. 2010. "A Free Market Energy Vision." MasterResource, July 16.

Monbiot, George. 2011. "Let's face it: none of our environmental fixes break the planet-wrecking project." The Guardian, May 3.

Canadian Senate - Standing Committee on Energy, the Environment and Natural Resources. "Consensus Report Outlines An Energy Vision and Priorities For Canada's Energy Future." (July 19, 2012).

Coyne, Andrew. 2012. "Too much heat, too little light in talk of a ‘national energy strategy’." National Post (July 23).

• Challenges and trade-offs

Adams, Tom. 2012. "Review of Mad Like Tesla by Tyler Hamilton (ECW Press, 2011)."

Berkow, Jameson. 2012. "Transportation fuel shift stuck in slow lane." National Post (April 2).

Hall, James. 2011. "At least 2,700 a year die in freezing homes." The Telegraph, October 20.

Smil, V. 2011. "Global Energy: The Latest Infatuations." American Scientist 99:212-219.

• Forecasts
International Energy Agency. 2013. World Energy Outlook 2013
- Press material

US Energy Information Administration (EIA). 2013. Annual Energy Outlook 2013
- Executive Summary

BP. 2013. Energy Outlook 2030
- Press Release (January 15) : BP Energy Outlook 2030 Shows Increasing Impact of Unconventional Oil and Gas on Global Energy Markets

ExxonMobil. 2013. The Outlook for Energy: A view to 2040, page 1

Shell. 2008. Shell Energy Scenarios to 2050
- Pdf (English), pp. 6-10

Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC). 2012. World Oil Outlook 2012
- Executive Summary

• Forecasting in retrospect
Bailey, Ronald. 2009. "How Green Is Your Crystal Ball? The National Academy of Sciences tries to predict America's energy future. Again.", August 4.

• Canada
Montreal Economic Institute. 2014. Canada's Energy Profile in 40 Questions.

Suggested readings & links

Lecture 2 (January 14): Concepts and the Big Picture

Mandatory readings

• Basic concepts
Bradley, Robert L and Richard W. Fulmer. Energy: The Master Resource, Kendall Hunt Publishing Company, 2004, Chapter 1: The Basics and Chapter 3: Efficiency - Technical and Economic.

Huber, Peter. 2004. "The Virtue Of Waste." Forbes, December 13.

Huber, Peter. 2005. "Thermodynamics and Money." Forbes, May 31.

• Energy transitions
Wrigley, Tony. 2011. "Opening Pandora’s box: A new look at the industrial revolution. " VOX, 22 July.

Ausubel, Jesse. 2000. "Where is Energy Going?," The Industrial Physicist 6(1): 16-19.

Bryce, Robert. 2010. "Wood to Coal to Oil to Natural Gas and Nuclear: The Slow Pace of Energy Transitions." Energy Tribune, August 16.

Suggested readings & links

Lecture 3-4-5 (January 21 - February 4): Carbon-Fuelled Civilizations I-II-III

Guest lecture by UTM Geography librarian Andrew Nicholson (; 905-828-3886) on finding book reviews (January 21).

Mandatory readings


• World
- Global Picture
AAAS (American Association for the Advancement of Science) and American Petroleum Institute. Science Net Links: Technology and Oil
- Adventures in Energy (browse)
- Oil Refining: A Closer Look

Goklany, Indur. 2012. "Humanity Unbound: How Fossil Fuels Saved Humanity from Nature and Nature from Humanity." Cato Policy Analysis No. 715 (Executive Summary)

- Fire and Deforestation

Cowen, Richard. Essays on Geology, History and People. (Under contract with Johns Hopkins University Press), Ch. 3 ("Fire and Metals"), Ch. 4 ("The Bronze Age") and Ch. 11 (“Timber Crisis”).

- From Whale Oil to Manufactured Gas
Whale Oil” on the Oil History Website by Samuel T. Pees.

Fossil Fuels.” Environmental Literacy Council.

Alex Epstein. "Energy at the Speed of Thought (Part 2: Individual Planning in the Pre-Petroleum Illumination Market)." Master Resource, December 21, 2010.

Ostrom, Elinor. 2010. "Tragedy of the Commons." The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics Online.

- Coal
Coal.” Environmental Literacy Council

Coal Basics — Coal Association of Canada

BP. 2013. Statistical Review of World Energy 2013. "Coal"

Mann, Charles C. 2014. "Renewables aren't Enough. Clean Coal is the Future." Wired (March 25).

- Oil
These videos are strongly recommended to help you get a better understanding of the technologies briefly discussed in class.
Oklahoma's Oil & Natural Gas Producers and Royalty Owners (2007) Educational Animations
- Drilling Rig Animation
- Horizontal Drilling Animation
- Multi-stage Vertical Drilling
- Well Frac Animation
- Seismic Line Animation
- Seismic Survey Animation
- The Classification of Petroleum
- API Gravity
- Sweet Vs Sour Crude Oil
- Benchmark Oils

Centre for Energy
- What is Crude Oil?

Petroleum.” Environmental Literacy Council.

Petroleum and Petrochemical Technologies.” Greatest Engineering Achievements of the 20th Century. National Academy of Engineering. 2000.

"The unsung masters of the oil industry." The Economist, July 21, 2012.

- Tight Oil
Casselman, Ben. 2010. "Oil Industry Booms - in North Dakota." The Wall Street Journal, January 26.

Johnson, Robert. 2012. "You've Never Seen Anything Like This North Dakota Oil Boomtown." Business Insider, March 7.

Wile, Rob. 2012. "The Most Profitable Oil Field In The World Is Right Here In America." Business Insider, December 4.

- Oil Transport
Stopford, Martin. 2011. "An Anniversary - 150 Years of Oil Transport by Sea." Shipping Intelligence Network (November 18).

Stena Bulk. Type of Vessels "Pipeline Transport"

Furchtgott-Roth, Diana. 2013. "Pipelines are Safest for Transportation of Oil and Gas." Manhattan Institute Issue Brief No. 23 (June).

Green, Kenneth P. 2013. "Canada Should Take to Oil Pipeline Safety." Huffington Post Canada (October 31).

- Refining
Canadian Fuels Association. Fuels Production - How Refining Works

- Crude Oil and Refined Petroleum Markets
US EIA. "What Drives Crude Oil Prices?"

Blackmon, David. 2013. "Texas Amazing Shale Oil and Gas Abundance." Forbes (July 5).

Fuel Prices
Canadian Fuels Association, Fuel Markets and Pricing
- What's up with the price of gasoline?
- Canada/U.S. Price Component Comparison

The Kent Group, Trend of retail price components over time (utilise les liens qui sont deja la)
- Monthly Analysis
- Daily/Weekly/Monthly Price Component Data

- Petroleum and other liquids: Data (browse)
- Crude oil and other spot prices

Job Opportunities
Petroleum Human Resources Council of Canada

- Natural (Conventional and Unconventional) Gas
Natural Gas.” Environmental Literacy Council.

Exxon Mobil. "Tight Gas and Shale Gas"

"Uses in Industry."

Centre for Energy
- Shale Gas
- Liquefied Natural Gas

Ridley, Matt. "The Five Myths about Fracking." Rational Optimist (August 16).

Lomborg, Bjorn. 2013. "Innovation's Vastly Cheaper than Green Subsidies." The Globe and Mail (July 15).

FracFocus Chemical Disclosure Registry

Historical perspective
Grealy, Nick. 2012. "Methane in the Water: Pennsylvania, 1783." NoHotAir. (Original source: Thomas Paine. 1819. The Political and Miscellaneous Works of Thomas Paine, volume II. R. Carlile, p. 181).

Smil, Vaclav. 2012. "Placing the American Gas Boom in Perspective." The American Magazine (May 3).

Waldie, Paul. 2014. "How Fracking weakens Gazprom, the Bedrock beneath Putin's Feet." The Globe and Mail (February 18).

Fracking in the USA
Airhard, Marc. 2013. "Natural Gas Saves Water and Reduces Drought Vulnerability, Even When Factoring in Water Lost to Hydraulic Fracturing." Geology Foundation, Jackson School of Geosciences (University of Texas - Austin), December 19.

Bailey, Rona. 2013. "The Promised Land of Fracking.", January 8.

Biello, David. 2010. "What the Frack? Natural Gas from Subterranean Shale Promises U.S. Energy Independence - With Environmental Costs." Scientific American (March 30).

Bullis, Kevin. 2013. "Shale Gas Will Fuel a U.S. Manufacturing Boom." MIT Technology Review (January 9).

Harper, Christopher. 2014. "A Fracking Good Story Missed by the Media." Washington Times (January 29).

Helman, Christopher. 2012. "EPA Doubts Its Own Anti-Fracking Study, While Ohio Determines Fracking Did Not Spawn Earthquake Swarm." Forbes (March 12).

Krauss, Clifford & Eric Lipton, "After the Boom in Natural Gas." The New York Times (October 20).

McGrath, Matt. 2013. "Report Suggests 'Permanent Slowdown' in CO2 Emissions." BBC News (October 31).

Rotman, David. 2012. "King Natural Gas." MIT Technology Review (August 21).

Fracking in the rest of the world
Lawson, Nigel. 2012. "New Energy Revolution Is Shaking Up Old World Order." Daily Mail (December 8).

US EIA. 2013. Technically Recoverable Shale Oil and Shale Gas Resources: An Assessment of 137 Shale Formations in 41 Countries Outside the United States. (June) (Executive Summary).

- Others
Abiotic Theory of Oil Formation.” Environmental Literacy Council.

Bailey, Ronald. 2010. "Oil Without Dinos? New energy sources." Reason, January Issue.

Canada and Ontario
- Overview
Oil and Gas Infrastructure (Google Earth)
- Canada (browse)

Centre for Energy
- Canadian Energy
- Coal Timeline
- Coal - Charts and Illustrations
- Coal - Energy Fast Facts
- Crude Oil
- Oil Timeline
- What are Oil Sands and Heavy Oil?
- Natural Gas
- Unconventional Natural Gas

US Energy Information Administration. Country Analysis Brief - Canada

- Oil and Gas
Historical Perspective
Oil Museum of Canada (Lambton)

Oil Springs Boom and Bust

Canadian Center for Energy Information

Bott, Robert D. 2012. Evolution of Canada's Oil and Gas Industry. Canadian Center for Energy Information.

Current Situation (Production)
National Energy Board (NEB)
- Crude Oil and Petroleum Products - The Canadian Industry
- Tight Oil Developments in the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin - Energy Briefing Note (2011)

Natural Resources Canada (NRC)
- Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Market

Cenovus Energy
- Western Canadian Select

Canadian Press. 2013. "Statoil Discovery off N.L. Estimated at 600 Million Barrels." Chronicle Herald (September 26).

Bituminous Sands
Government of Alberta - What is Oil Sands?

"Canadian energy: The sands of grime." The Economist (November 17, 2012).

Henderson, Victoria. 2014. "I, Rock Star: Why Neil Young Should Jam With Leonard Read. The Fallacy of First Appearances and the Anti-Oil Lobby." PanAm Post (January 21).

Kasperkevic, Jana. 2012. "Canada Wants All Tar Sands Haters to Look at These Charts." Business Insider (April 26).

Pipeline Politics and Economics
Canadian Energy Pipeline Association (CEPA)
- About Pipelines (browse)
- Interactive Maps (browse)

Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP)
- Pipeline projects

Frontier Centre for Public Policy
- The Pipeline Gap

Committee for a Study of Pipeline Transportation of Diluted Bitumen et al. 2013. TRB Special Report 311: Effects of Diluted Bitumen on Crude Oil Transmission Pipelines - Overview. National Academies Press.

Levine, Steve. 2014. "Canada doesn't need a Pipeline to the US to Exploit its Oil Sands." Quartz (January 31).

Smil, Vaclav. 2011. "Obama's Indefensible Pipeline Punt." The American (November 15).

Taylor, Jerry, and Peter Van Doren. 2011. "Keystone XL: Liberal Histrionics Answered With Conservative Histrionics." Forbes (December 19).

TransCanada Energy - East Pipeline project

Leach, Andrew. 2013. "Energy Security and the Energy East Pipeline." MacLean's (August 25).

Minardi, Jean-François. 2013. "The Economic Benefits of Pipeline Projects to Eastern Canada." Montreal Economic Institute (Economic Note, September).

Mintz:, Jack. 2013."A Quashed Keystone XL would Cost Canadians $1.7-billion a Year." Financial Post (October 28).

- Current situation (Refining)
Nikiforuk, Andrew. 2011. "Yes, Refine Oil Sands Crude Right Here." The Tyee (September 22).

Cross, Philip. 2013. "Oil Industry Confound Critics." National Post (October 2).

Crowley, Brian Lee. 2013. "Market Hunger for Bitumen, not Refined Oil." The Globe and Mail (October 4).

- Ontario
Government of Ontario
- Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Crude Oil and Natural Gas Resources

Suggested readings & links

Lecture 6 (February 11): Term Test


Lecture 7 (February 25): Electricity (Hydro and Nuclear)

Mandatory readings

Electrification.” Greatest Engineering Achievements of the 20th Century. National Academy of Engineering. 2000.

Bradley, Robert L and Richard W. Fulmer. Energy: The Master Resource, Kendall Hunt Publishing Company, 2004, Chapter 2: Using Energy, pp. 19-20, 25-29, 30-31, 45-48.

Environmental Literacy Council Website.
Electric Current and Power Transmission.”
Electric Power Grids and Blackouts.”

Lomborg, Bjørn. 2013. "Blinded by the Light." Project Syndicate (March 13).

Portney, Paul R. "Nuclear Power: Clean, Costly, and Controversial." Resources (Navigating Energy Choices in the 21st Century), Winter 2005, Issue 156, pp. 28-30.

Bailey, Ronald. 2011. "Nuclear Disaster in Japan Does it show a way forward for nuclear power?" Reason Magazine, March 15.


Fumento, Michael. 2005. "So What Really Happened After Chernobyl?" Tech Central Station, September 19.

Brown, Anthony. 2002. "'Myth' of Chernobyl suffering exposed." The Observer, January 6.

"Chernobyl Death Toll Grossly Underestimated." Greenpeace, April 18, 2006.

>Fukushima Daiichi
Smil, Vaclav. 2011. "Japan's Crisis: Context and Outlook" The American, April 16.

Suggested readings & links

Lecture 8 (March 4): Electricity (Alternatives) and Biomass

Mandatory readings

General Statements
"Renewable and Alternative Fuels Basics 101." Energy Information Administration (read only the general definition).

Bryce, Robert. 2010. "Five myths about green energy." The Washington Post, April 25.

Stephens, W. R. "Review of Powering the Dream: The History and Promise of Green Technology by Alexis Madrigal (De Capo Press, 2011)."
New York Journal of Books.

Wilson, Peter. 2013. "The Dream of a World Without Oil." American Thinker, March 25.

Yauch, Brady. 2014. "Governments Rip up Renewable Contracts." Financial Post (March 18).

Runge, C. Ford. 2010. "The Case Against Biofuels: Probing Ethanol's Hidden Costs." Yale Environment 360, March 11.

Smith, Aaron. 2012. "Children of the Corn: The Renewable Fuels Disaster." The American Magazine, April 1st.

Wynn, Gerard. 2010. "U.S. corn ethanol "was not a good policy"-Gore." Energy & Oil | Reuters, November 22.

Gosselin, P. 2012. "From Rescuing The Climate To Rescuing The Economy - Germany's Energy Transition Goes Into Reverse." NoTricksZone(January).

Sills, Ben. 2010. "Spain's Solar Deals on Edge of Bankruptcy as Subsidies Founder." Bloomberg Markets Magazine, October 18.

Sweet, Cassandra. 2014. "The $2.2 Billion Bird-Scorching Solar Project At California's Ivanpah Plant, Mirrors Produce Heat and Electricity-And Kill Wildlife." The Wall Street Journal (February 12).

Bryce, Robert. 2011. "The Party's Over for Big Wind." The Huffington Post (August 12).

Driessen, Paul. 2013. "Cut Fingers, Cancer, Bats and Birds." (April 6).

"Executive summary" of "Study of the effects on employment of public aid to renewable energy sources" by Gabriel Calzada Álvarez PhD., Raquel Merino Jara, Juan Ramón Rallo Julián Technical & José Ignacio García Bielsa. Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, March 2009.

Helmer MEP, Roger. 2012. "“Sustainable energy” just isn’t …. well, sustainable." (April 27).

Rose, Tony, and Michael J. Economides. 2010. "Wind Energy: The Truth Blows." Energy Tribune, Oct. 20, 2010

Schleede, Glenn (Guest Blogger). 2010. "Understanding the Limits of Wind Power: Key Industry Terms." MasterResource - A free-market energy blog, March 14.

Large Scale Electricity Storage and Battery Technology
Kevin Bullis. 2009. "TR10: Liquid Battery." Technology Review (March/April).

Kevin Bullis. 2008. "Solar Power Breakthrough." Technology Review (July 31).

Suggested readings & links

Lecture 9 (March 11): The Perennial Energy Debate

Mandatory videos


Royal Society (UK). 2012. People and the Planet Report. (Watch the John Sulton video). 

Sabin, Paul. 2013. The Bet. Paul Ehrlich, Julian Simon, and Our Gamble over Earth's Future. Yale University Press.

"Oil: The Next Revolution." Harvard - Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs (June 2012) Executive Summary (excerpts video).

Mandatory readings

Population Growth and the Environment
Ellis, Erle C. 2012. "Overpopulation is the Problem." The New York Times (September 13). 

Pearce, Fred. 2010. "The overpopulation myth." Prospect Magazine, March 8.

Jevons Paradox
Encyclopedia of Earth
- Jevons Paradox

Stott, Philip. 2008. "The Jevons’ Paradox." Global Warming Politics, February 12.

Hertwich, Edgar. 2012. "Jevons Paradox or Not? The Myth of Resource Efficiency: The Jevons Paradox by John M. Polimeni, Kozo Mayumi, Mario Giampietro and Blake Alcott Energy Efficiency and Sustainable Consumption edited by Horace Herring and Steve Sorrell." Journal of Industrial Ecology 16 (3) (June): 453-454.

Survey of the issue
Deffeyes, Kenneth, & Peter Huber. 2005. "It's the End of Oil / Oil Is Here to Stay." Time, October 23.

Mann, Charles. 2013. "What if We Never Run Out of Oil?" The Atlantic (May). 

Quintus Septimius Florens Tertullianus (Tertullian). Approximately 203 AD. "On the Soul." Chapter 30.

The Oil Drum 
- Three Nails in the Coffin of Peak Oil
- Bardi, Ugo. 2008. "Crude Oil: how high can it go? (19th century whaling as a model for oil depletion and price volatility)." The Oil Drum: Europe, May 15.

Campbell, Colin C. and Jean Laherrère. 1998. “The End of Cheap Oil.” Scientific American (March): 78-83.

McGahan, Anita. 2009. "The End of Oil." Rotman Magazine, Winter.

Monbiot, George. 2012. "We were wrong on peak oil. There's enough to fry us all." The Guardian (July 2).

- Historical perspective and conceptual issues
George, Henry. 1912/1879. Progress and Poverty: An Inquiry into the Cause of Industrial Depressions and of Increase of Want with Increase of Wealth, The Remedy. Book II: Population and Subsistence. Chapter III: Inferences from Analogy.

Baumol, William J. and Sue Anne Batey Blackman. "Natural Resources," The Concise Encyclopedia of Economics.

Ausubel, Jesse. 1999/2000. "Resources are Elastic," Earth Matters (Winter): 46-47.

Will, George. 2012. "Why doom has not materialized." The Washington Post (August 17).

- On Peak Oil
Lynch, Michael. 2009. "‘Peak Oil’ Is a Waste of Energy." The New York Times, August 24.

Smil, Vaclav. 2007. "Peak performance." Tech Central Station, February 23

Smil, Vaclav. 2006. "Peak Oil: A Catastrophist Cult and Complex Realities." World Watch 19: 22-24.

Smil, Vaclav. 2005. "Peak Curiosity." Tech Central Station, December 2.

- Ehrlich-Simon Bet
McClintick, David, and Ross B. Emmett. 2005. "Betting on the Wealth of Nature. The Simon-Ehrlich Wager." PERC Report 23 (3) (Fall). 

Kedrosky, Paul. 2010. "Re-litigating the Simon/Ehrlich Bet." Infectious Greed (February 18). 

Perry, Mark. 2013. "Julian Simon: Still more right than lucky in 2013." Carpe Diem (AEIdeas) (January 12). 

- Latest trends
"What is Oil Shale?" Institute for Energy Research.

Bryce, Robert. 2013. "New Technology for Old Fuels. Innovation in Oil and Natural Gas Production Assures Future Supplies." Energy Policy & the Environment Report No. 12 (Manhattan Institute) (April) (Executive Summary).

Glover, Peter C. 2012. "Whatever happened to peak oil?" The Commentator (August 15).

Jaffe, Amy Myers. 2011. "The Americas, Not the Middle East, Will be the World Capital of Energy." Foreign Policy (September-October).

Lind, Michael. 2011. "Everything you've heard about fossil fuels may be wrong - War Room.", May 31.

- Latest News
Perry, Mark. J. (American Enterprise Institute)
- Year in review: America?s amazing energy revolution (March 27, 2013).
- Enegy fact of the day: US oil output is close to a 21-year high (April 10, 2013).
- Texas Oil Output has almost Doubled in just the Last 2 Years and Reached a 32-year High in June (August 30, 2013).

Sebastien, Simone. 2013. "2013 Oil Boom is Biggest Ever, Data Show." Fuel Fix (December 26).

Smil, Vaclav. 2013. "Memories of Peak Oil." The American Magazine (February 2).

Suggested readings & links

Lecture 10 (March 18): The Curse of Natural Resources

Mandatory Videos

We will watch two videos

- Productive Conversations: Dutch Disease Explained (Financial Post)
- The Devil's Footpath, written and presented by June Arunga. More background and a talk by the author on her documentary (Update on June Arunga).

Mandatory readings

General Statement
Palley, Thomas I. 2003. “Lifting the Natural Resource Curse.” Foreign Service Journal, December.

Resource Curse (Debate)
Ali, Saleem H. 2010. Beyond The Resource Curse: Minerals and Global Development. Pardee Center, Issues in Brief, No. 12.

Davies, Viv. 2012. "The Oil Curse: How Petroleum Wealth Shapes the Development of Nations." Vox (April 20) (audio and transcript).

Mitchell, Paul. 2003. “The ‘Resource Curse’ is Overstated (PDF document) .” Financial Times, Nov. 18.

Palda, Filip. 2003. "The High Price of Natural Wealth." Fraser Forum, January, 30-31.

Ryan, Kieron E. 2010. "Blood Diamonds Farce.", August 11.

Stevens, Paul J. 2002. "'Resource Curse' and Investment in Oil and Gas Projects: The New Challenge." Internet Journal (The Centre for Energy, Petroleum and Mineral Law and Policy) June. (later published as "Resource Impact: curse or blessing? A literature survey." Journal of Energy Literature Vol IX No 1 June 2003 Pp. 3-42)

van den Bremer, Ton Rick van der Ploeg. 2012. "Managing and Harnessing Volatile Oil Windfalls: Three Funds, Three Countries and Three Stories." Vox (December 14). 

Wall, Alan. 2013. "PEMEX's Throttling Mexico's Oil Resources." American Thinker (September 4).  

Resource Curse, Dutch Disease and the Canadian Economy
Bergevin, Philippe. 2006. "Energy Resources: Boon or Curse for the Canadian Economy?" Economics Division, Parliamentary Information and Research Service (PIRS) of the Library of Parliament  31 March.

Cross, Philip. 2013. Six Myths Surrounding the Development of Canada's Natural Resources. MacDonald-Laurier Institute, Executive Summary and pp. 12-14.

Cross, Philip. 2013. "Dutch Disease in Canada a myth." National Post (January 16).

Holden, Michael. 2012. "Is Canada suffering from Dutch Disease?" Canada West Foundation Blog (June 4).

Isfeld, Gordon. 2012. "Mark Carney dismisses Dutch Disease, says oil strength sign of success." Financial Post (September 7).

Kelly-Gagnon, Michel. 2012. "Dear Mr. Thomas Mulcair..." Toronto Star (June 25).

Nikiforuk, Andrew. 2013. "Oh Canada. How America's Friendly Northern Neighbor became a Rogue, Reckless Petrostate." Foreign Policy (June 24). 

Leach, Andrew. 2013. "Ottawa is no Caracas." Foreign Policy (September-October).

Odious Debt
Adams, Patricia. 2002. "The Doctrine of Odious Debts: Using the Law to Cancel Illegitimate Debts." Probe International, June 21.

Suggested readings & links

Lecture 11 (March 25): The Future of the Automobile

Mandatory Videos

We will watch “Nova: Car of the Future.” (The program can be watched online here)

Mandatory readings

Before the Car
"The Horse and the Urban Environment" on the Environmental Literacy Council's Webpage.

Avery, Dennis T. 2000. "Praising The Gas Engine On Earth Day." Center for Global Food Issue (Hudson Institute) (April 14).

Gordon, Peter. 2007 "Horse Manure." Peter Gordon's Blog, August 27.

• Historical Perspective and Overall Challenges
Bradley, Robert L and Richard W. Fulmer. Energy: The Master Resource, Kendall Hunt Publishing Company, 2004, Chapter 2: Using Energy, pp. 48-55.

Canadian Petroleum Products Institute. 2012. Fuels for Life. A Discussion on Canada's Energy Transportation Choices (Executive Summary).

Electric Car
--. 2013. "The Other Government Motors. Tesla by the Numbers: How Taxpayers made an Electric Car Company." Wall Street Journal (May 23).

Broder, John M. 2013. "Stalled on the E.V. Highway.", January 8.
Epstein, Alex. 2013.
- "With The Tesla Model S, Elon Musk Has Created A Nice Fossil Fuel Car." Forbes (August 21). 
- "Tesla Debate" Center for Industrial Progress (August 22).  

Kinney Bennett, Ralph. 2008. "Why Gasoline Is Still King." The American Magazine, December 17.

Kinney Bennett, Ralph. 2006. "Who Killed the Electric Car?" Tech Central Station, June 29.

Lane, Charles. 2010. "Unaffordable at Any Speed - President Obama's electric car subsidies are snobby and foolish." Slate, July 30.

Lomborg, Bjorn. 2013. "The case against electric cars." The National Post, April 13.

Lomborg, Bjorn. 2013. "Green Cars Have a Dirty Little Secret." The Wall Street Journal, March 11.

Michaels, Pat. 2013. "If Tesla Would Stop Selling Cars, We'd All Save Some Money." Forbes (May 28) on Tesla Motor.

Smil, Vaclav. 2012. "Far from Electrifying." The American Magazine, November, 26.

–, "Most Hybrid Vehicles Not as Cost-Effective as They Seem, Reports", June 1, 2005.

Booth, David. 2013. "Hybrid vs. diesel vs. gas: Which one saves you more money?" National Post, February 21.

Elton, Robert. 2004. "The Truth About Hybrids." The Truth about Cars. November 12.

Gantert, Tom. 2011. "Chevy Volt - Costing Taxpayers Up to $250K Per Vehicle." Michigan Capitol Confidential, December 21.

Green, Kenneth. 2011. "The Failed Chevy Volt That Just Won't Go Away." RealClearMarkets, November 30.

Bullis, Kevin. 2006. "The Methanol Economy." Technology Review, March 02.

Friedemann, Alice. 2005. "The Hydrogen Economy - Energy and Economic Black Hole." Energy Pulse, February 25.

Smil, Vaclav. 2003. "No Alternative to Reality," Tech Central Station, June 30.

Zubrin, Robert. "The Hydrogen Hoax." The New Atlantis, Number 15, Winter 2007, pp. 9-20.

Related topics
Biello, David. 2012. "Cheap Fracked Gas Could Help Americans Keep on Truckin'." Scientific American (April 23).

Omi, Koji. 2009. "Alternative Energy for Transportation." Issues in Science and Technology 25 (4), Summer.

Suggested readings & links

Lecture 12 (April 1): Ontario's Energy Dilemma

Mandatory readings

Guest lecture by Tom Adams, energy consultant. Mr Adams will discuss the following reading in some depth. Please familiarize yourself with it before class.

Environmental Defense. 2014. Your Home Electricity Bill: A Study on the Costs in Ontario.
Environmental Defense. 2014. Power Advisory Report: Components of an Ontario Residential Electricity Bill.

> Apologies all round for the delay in getting these notes up.

•Readings recommended by Tom Adams
"Cost Benefit Analysis: Replacing Ontario's Coal-Fired Electricity Generation," by DSS Management Consultants Inc. and RWDI Air Inc. (2005).

"Analytic Review of Cost-Benefit Analysis on Replacing Ontario's Coal-Fired Power Generators," by Ross McKitrick (2005).

"Behind the switch: pricing Ontario electricity options," by Tim Weis and P.J. Partington (2011).

"Ontario Electricity Price Increase Forecast, December 2011 to December 2016," by Bruce Sharp (2012).

Standard Mandatory Readings, GGR 333

•Statistics and History

Canadian Centre for Energy Information - Canada's Energy Map

"Energy Facts & Statistics Maps: Canada, Ontario." Centre for Energy™.

Independent Electricity System Operator (IESO)
- Supply Overview
- Wind Power in Ontario

Ontario Wind Performance
- Seasonal Performance (2010)

•Policy Framework
"Ontario Electricity Policy." Wikipedia. 

Ministry of Energy and Infrastructure (Ontario).
- Ontario's Green Energy Act
- "Ontario Makes it Easier, Faster to Grow Green Energy" Sept. 24, 2009.

Gallant, Parker. 2010. "Ontario’s Power Trip: Power without the people." Financial Post, August 17.

Green Energy Act Alliance

Pros Green Energy Act

Weis, Tim and P. J. Partington. 2011. Behind the Switch. Pricing Ontario's Electricity Options. Pembina Institute (Executive Summary).

Butler, Don. 2011. "Science doesn't back 'campaign of fear' on wind power, Sierra Club argues." Ottawa Citizen (June 9). (Not mandatory reading , but for full report see Sierra Club Canada. 2011. The Real Truth about Wind Power. A Literature Review on Wind Turbines in Ontario (Conclusion).

Environmental Defense and Ontario Sustainable Energy Association. 2011. Blowing Smoke. Correcting Anti-Wind Myths in Ontario.

Opponents to Green Energy Act
Adams, Tom. 2012. "Green zombie." National Post (October 31).

Corcoran, Terence. 2010. "Power failure." National Post, October 7 (Not mandatory reading, but for full report see Aegent Energy Advisors report "You're Approaching an Electricity Cost Iceberg - What Should You Do?" April 2010)

- (National Post Editorial Board). 2011, "McGuinty’s green energy disaster." National Post, December 7.

Green, Kenneth. 2013. "Ontario's Green Energy Act: Ill Wind All Around." Master Resource (May 9). 

Stinson, Scott. 2013. "Rural Communities Not Blown Away by Changes to Ontario's Green Energy Act." National Post (June 2). 

Steve. 2012. "Ontario nuclear performance in the recent heat wave." Canadian Energy Issues (July 10).

Wood, Joel. 2010. ""Feed-in" tariffs in Ontario: UnFIT energy policy." Fraser Forum, December 22.

Suggested readings & links

Final exam


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