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University of Toronto Mississauga • Department of Geography • WINTER 2016

GGR 333H5F Energy and Society


 Instructor: Pierre Desrochers


 Lectures: Tuesday, 3-5PM


 Phone: (905) 828-5206

 Office: Davis Building, room 3273


 Lecture room: CC 2130




GGR 333H5F - Primary Syllabus and Mandatory Readings

Primary Syllabus and Mandatory Readings

Suggested Readings' DIRECT LINKS

Lecture 1 (January 5): Introduction
> Lecture 2 (January 12): Concepts and the Big Picture
> Lecture 3 (January 19): Carbon-Fuelled Civilizations 1
> Lecture 4 (January 26): Carbon-Fuelled Civilizations 2
> Lecture 5 (February 2): Carbon-Fuelled Civilizations 3
> Lecture 6 (February 9): Term test - Questions
> Lecture 7 (February 23): Electricity (Hydro and Nuclear)
> Lecture 8 (March 1): Electricity (Alternatives) and Biomass
> Lecture 9 (March 8): The Perennial Energy Debate
> Lecture 10 (March 15): The Curse of Natural Resources
> Lecture 11 (March 22): The Future of the Automobile
> Lecture 12 (March 29): Guest Lecture: TBA


Lecture 1: Introduction

Suggested readings

General interest
"Can Technology Save the Planet?," The Economist, July 4th, 2002 (Part of the Survey of the Global Environment).

Cohen, Stephanie. "Energy Dreams and Energy Realities." The New Atlantis, Spring 2004.

Committee on America's Energy Future, National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering and National Research Council. 2009.
America's Energy Future: Technology and Transformation. National Academies Press (Summary Edition).

Glassman, James K. 2005. "Energetic Ignorance." Tech Central Station, April 20.

Holdren, John P. 2001. "Searching for a National Energy Policy," Issues in Science and Technology, 17 (3).
Followed in the next issue by a forum on energy policy.

Energy” on John McCarthy's Progress and Its Sustainability Website.

Kling, Arnold. 2008. "The Energy Future: Scenarios." Tech Central Station, March 6.

Lieberman. Ben. 2006. "Snake Oil Policy." Tech Central Station, September 12.

Pizer, William A. "Setting Energy Policy in the Modern Era: Tough Challenges Lie Ahead." Resources (Navigating Energy Choices in the 21st Century), Winter 2005, Issue 156, pp. 8-10.

Sibilla, Nick. 2012. "Free Markets Save the Planet." Reason - Hit & Run (January 27).

Vaclav Smil. "U.S. Energy Policy The Need for Radical Departures." Issues in Science and Technology, Summer 2009.

Boisvert, Will. 2014. "The Left vs the Climate." The Breakthrough (September 18).

Calvert, Kirby. Forthcoming. "From 'Energy Geography' to 'Energy Geographies.' Perspectives on a Fertile Academic Borderland." Progress in Human Geography.
Huber, Matthew. 2015. "Theorizing energy geographies." Geography Compass 9(6): 27-38.

Smil, Vaclav. 2014. The Arc of History. J. P. Morgan Chase.
Yatchew, Adonis. 2014. "Economics of Energy, Big Ideas for the Non-economist." Energy Research & Social Science (1): 74-82.

Topical interest
Energy Independence
Henderson, David R. 2008. "Lets Not Be Energy Independent." The Freeman: Ideas on Liberty, Vol. 58 No. 8 (October).

Parry, Ian W.H., and J.W. Anderson. "Petroleum: Energy independence is Unrealistic." Resources (Navigating Energy Choices in the 21st Century), Winter 2005, Issue 156, pp. 11-15.

Shurtleff, Sean. 2008. "Energy Independence in Brazil: Lessons for the United States." NCPA Brief Analysis (614), April 7.

–. 2004. "Improvement of the World Environment: The Skeptical Environmentalist," Economic Note, January, Institut Économique Molinari.

National Academy of Engineering. 2000. Greatest Engineering Achievements of the 20th Century.

Bhandari, Jayant. 2005. "The Polluting State." The Mises Institute. July 20.

Gillingham, Kenneth, Richard Newell and Karen Palmer. 2006. "Energy Efficiency Policies: A Retrospective Examination." Annual Review of Environment and Resources Vol. 31: 161-192 (November).

Grimes, William. 2008. "Heard the One About the Farmer’s Ethanol?" The New York Times, March 7.

Klein, Ralph, & Brian Tobin with Gerry Angevine. 2008. "Envisioning a continental energy strategy for North America." Fraser Forum, March, p. 6-9.

Mortished, Carl. 2006. "Coal Burns a Hole in the Carbon Crusade." Times OnLine, July 12.

Roberts, Paul. 2008. "The Seven Myths of Energy Independence." Mother Jones, May/June Issue.

Schulz, Nick. 2005. "The Great Escape." Tech Central Station, December 1st.

Sims Gallagher, Kelly, John P. Holdren, and Ambuj D. Sagar. 2006. "Energy-Technology Innovation." Annual Review of Environment and Resources Vol. 31: 193-237 (November).

Taylor, Jerry. 2005. "Republicans vs. Oil.", November 8.

Suggested links

A RFF video on "Taking Measure of U.S. Energy Policy: A Review of the Energy Policy Act of 2005."

Interview with Prof. Peter Odell, 2006 OPEC Award Recipient

Science and Technology - Power Hungry: The Myths of Green Energy and the Real Fuels of the Future

Lecture 2: Concepts and the Big Picture

Suggested readings

General Interest
"A Framework for Understanding Energy Resources." Resources Magazine (Please make sure to click on the magnifying class and browse over each item).

An OECD report “Energy the Next Fifty Years” (1999)

An IEA/OCDE report “Toward a Sustainable Energy Future” (2001)

What is Energy?” Energy Information Agency.

Energy.” Environmental Literacy Council.

Energy in Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia.
Potential and Kinetic Energy.”
Conversion and Conservation of Energy.”

“Survey of Energy Resources.” World Energy Council, 2007.
Abbreviations and Acronyms
Conversion Factors and Energy Equivalents

Leone, Robert A. "Energy," The Concise Encyclopedia of Economics.

Chapter 1 of Shepherd, W. and D.W. Shepherd. 2004. Energy Studies. World Scientific Publishing Co.

Nair, Indira, Sharon Jones, Sheila Flavin, Ashley Deal, and Diana Bajzek. Environmental Decision Making, Science and Technology. Carnegie Mellon University, pp.1-15; 29-34.

Smil, V. 2000. "Energy in the 20th Century: Resources, Conversions, Costs, Uses, and Consequences," Annual Review of Energy and the Environment 25: 21-51.

Smil, Vaclav. 2002. "Energy Resources and Uses: A Global Primer for the Twenty-First Century," Current History 101(653):126-132.

On Wikipedia
Energy (society)
Capacity factor
Power station

Energy Transitions and Related Topics
Ausubel, Jesse H. 2007. "The Future Environment for the Energy Business." APPEA Journal (Part 2): 487-495.

Ausubel, Jesse. 2002. "Does Energy Policy Matter?" Talk delivered at the George C. Marshall Institute, April 18.

Ausubel, Jesse. 1998. "Resources and Environment in the 21st Century: Seeing Past the Phantoms," World Energy Council Journal (July): 8-16.

Bradley, Robert L. 2002. "Energy for Sustainable Development." In Julian Morris (ed). Sustainable Development: Promoting Progress or Perpetuating Poverty? Profile Books, p. 159-171.

Doerell, Peter. 1999. “All Future Energy Will Have to be Clean.” Applied Energy 64 (1-4): 79-88.

Dincer, Ibrahim and Marc Rosen. 1999. “Energy, Environment and Sustainable Development.” Applied Energy 64(1-4): 427-440.

Friedmann, Julio S., and Homer-Dixon, Thomas, "Out of the Energy Box," Foreign Affairs (September/October 2004) pp. 72-83.

O'Connor, Peter A. 2010. "Energy Transitions." Pardee Papers #12 (November).

Smil, Vaclav. 2014. "The Long Slow Rise of Solar and Wind." Scientific American 282(1): 52-57.

Smil, V. 2001. "Geography of Energy Use." In J. Zumerchik, ed., Macmillan Encyclopedia of Energy Vol. 2, Macmillan, pp. 567-572.

Lecture 3-4-5: Carbon-Fuelled Civilizations I-II-III

Suggested readings


• Fire and Forests
> Historical Perspective

Enright, Neal J., and Ian Thomas. "Pre-European Fire Regimes in Australian Ecosystems." Geography Compass 2/4 (2008): 979–1011.

Goudsblom, Johan. 2004. "Fire: A Socioecological and Historical Survey." in C. Cleveland, Encyclopedia of Energy, Elsevier, pp. 669-681.

Griffin, Robert. "Feds, Forests, and Fire: A Century of Canadian Forestry Innovation (Transformation Series, 13). By Richard A. Rajala. Ottawa, Ontario: Canada Science and Technology Museum, 2005. xi+116 pp., illus., notes, bibl., index. $20 Canadian pb (ISBN 0-660-18720-5)." IA, The Journal of the Society for Industrial Archeology, Vol. 31, Issue 2.

Kay, Charles. 2000. "Native Burning in Western North America: Implications for Hardwood Forest Management," In Daniel Yaussy, ed., Proceedings: Workshops on Fire, People and the Central Hardwood Landscapes, United States Department of Agriculture, General Technical Report NE-274, pp.19-27.

McCrone, John. 2000. "Fired up." New Scientist 166 (2239): 30.

Williams, Gerald W. 2002. "Aboriginal Use of Fire: Are there any 'Natural' Plant Communities?" In Charles Kay and Randy Simmons, Wilderness & Political Ecology: Aboriginal Influences & the Original State of Nature, The University of Utah Press, pp. 179-214.

Williams, Gerald W. 2001. References on the American Indian Use of Fire in Ecosystems.

> Fire and Forest Management: Current Issues

Berry, Alison. "Forest Policy Up in Smoke: Fire Suppression in the United States." Paper presented to the International Society for New Institutional Economics in July 2007 at the University of Iceland in Reykjavik.

Bonnicksen, Thomas. 2006. "Dooming Woods and Wildlife." The Washington Times, September 17.

MacCleery, Doug. 2004. "Is There a Landscape Archaeologist in the House?" Eco-Watch, February 10.

Murray, Iain. 2008. "Treehuggers Against Trees.", May 1.

O'Toole, Randal. 2007. "U.S. Forest Service Has Money to Burn." Cato Institute, October 30.

Phillips, Lynne. 2006. "Food and Globalization." Annual Review of Anthropology Vol. 35: 37-57 (October).

Pyne, Stephen J. 2002. If I Ran the Zoo. A Survey of Wildland Fire in America.

Special Issue of Society and Natural Resources (17 (6), July 2004) on "Humans, Fire, and Forests: The Reemergence of Research on Human Dimensions."

> Forest, Wood Supply and Sustainability
Bailey, Ronald. 2006. "Biotech Forests Menace or Salvation for Wild Forests?" Reason Online, September 1st.

Forest and Wood Supply” and solar energy on John McCarthy’s Progress and its Sustainability Website.

Franklin, Jerry and K. Norman Johnson. 2004. "Forests Face New Threat: Global Market Changes." Issues in Science and Technology.

Huber, Peter, and Mark Mills. 1999. "How Non-Green Cities Are Rebuilding the American Forests." Los Angeles Times, December 29.

Mather, Alexander S. "Assessing the World’s Forests." Global Environmental Change 15 (2005) 267–280.

Minnemeyer, Susan, Matthew Hansen, Peter Potapov, & Kyle Pittman. 2007. "Painting the Global Picture of Tree Cover Change: Tree Cover Loss in the Humid Tropics." World Resources Institute, May.

Parviainen, Liisa. 2006. "UH: End of Deforestation in View? Experts Advance New Way to Size Up Global Forest Resources." University of Helsinki (University Communications), November 14th.

Kauppi, Pekka E., Jesse H. Ausubel, Jingyun Fang, Alexander S. Mather, Roger A. Sedjo and Paul E. Waggoner. 2006. "Returning Forests Analyzed with the Forest Identity." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 103 (46): 17574-17579.

Matson, Pamela and Peter Vitousek. 2006. "Agricultural Intensification: Will Land Spared from Farming be Land Spared for Nature?" Conservation Biology 20 (3): 709 - 710.

Rudel, Thomas K., Oliver T. Coomes, Emilio Moran, Frederic Achard, Arild Angelsen, Jianchu Xu and Eric Lambin. 2005. "Forest Transitions: Towards a Global Understanding of Land Use Change." Global Environmental Change 15 (1): 23-31.

"Survey of Energy Resources 2007 - Wood Fuels." World Energy Council.

Deforestation and Reforestation

Ausubel, Jesse H. "On Sparing Farmland and Spreading Forest." In Clark, T. and R. Staebler, eds., Forestry at the Great Divide: Proceedings of the Society of American Foresters 2001 Convention, Society of American Foresters, Bethesda MD, 2002, pp. 127-138.

Benjamin, Daniel K. 2003. "Use Them or Lose Them." PERC Reports, Volume 21, Number 3, September.

Benjamin, Daniel K. 1997. "Avoiding the Ax: The Truth about Deforestation." PERC Reports, Volume 15, Number 5, December.

Horgan, Gerard. "Wood Energy Economics." FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations).

Libecap, Gary. 2003. "Deforesting the Earth: From Prehistory to Global Crisis." Eh.Net, August.

C Michael Hogan PhD. 2010. "Deforestation." The Encyclopedia of Earth, June 1.

The Role of Wood in World History by K.J.W. Oosthoek.

Rudela, Thomas K., Oliver T. Coomes, Emilio Moran, Frederic Achard, Arild Angelsen, Jianchu Xu, and Eric Lambin. "Forest Transitions: Towards a Global Understanding of Land Use Change." Global Environmental Change 15 (2005) 23–31.

Runnels, Curtis N. 1995. "Environmental Degradation in Ancient Greece." Scientific American 272 (3) (March), p. 96-99.

Victor, David G., and Jesse H. Ausubel. 2000. "Restoring the Forests." Foreign Affairs, Vol 79, Number 6, November/December, pp. 127-144.

Williams, Michael. 2008. "A New Look at Global Forest Histories of Land Clearing." Annual Review of Environment and Resources, Vol. 33: 345-367.

Williams, Michael. "Dark Ages and Dark Areas: Global Deforestation in the Deep Past." Journal of Historical Geography, 26, 1 (2000) 28–46.

"Forests Cover 30% of the Total Land Area." FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations).

Tragedy of the Commons
Alchian, Armen A. "Property Rights," The Concise Encyclopedia of Economics.

Bailey, Ronald. 2006. "Pick Your Poissons - Economic and Ecological Diversity for Fisheries." Reason, August 25.

Borders, Max. 2006."The Stone Age Trinity." Tech Central Station, March 6.

Brubaker, Elizabeth. 1995. Property Rights in the Defence of Nature. Environment Probe and Earthscan. Chapter 13: The Gospel According to St. John.

Gissurarson, Hannes. 2000. Overfishing: the Icelandic Solution. London: Institute of Economic Affairs.

Hardin, Garrett. "The Tragedy of the Commons," The Concise Encyclopedia of Economics.

John Locke, The Works of John Locke, vol. 4 Economic Writings and Two Treatises of Government [1691]. CHAPTER V.: Of Property.

Mansfield, Becky. 2004. “Neoliberalism in the Oceans: “Rationalization,” Property Rights and the Commons Question.” Geoforum 35: 313-326.

Ostrom, Elinor. 1999. “Coping with Tragedies of the Commons.” Annual Review of Political Science 2: 493-535.

Ostrom, Elinor. 2000. "Private and Common Property Rights." In the Encyclopedia of Law and Economics. Edited by Boudewijn Bouckaert and Gerrit De Geest. Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar, p. 332-379.

Paul Kasriel. 2003. "The Whale Oil Crisis - How Did We Survive It Without Congressional Intervention?," The Northern Trust Company Daily Economic Comment, November 19.

Spurrell, Nick. 2003. "How Capitalism 'Out-Greens' The Greens." Ama-Gi 5(2).

Smil, Vaclav. 2004. "Garrett James Hardin (Dallas 1915-Santa Barbara 2003)," American Scientist, 92 (1): 8.

• History of Whaling
"History of whaling," Wikipedia

Applebome, Peter. "They Used to Say Whale Oil Was Indispensable, Too." The New York Times, August 3, 2008.

Bardi, Ugo. 2004. "Prices and Production over a complete Hubbert Cycle: the Case of the American Whale Fisheries in 19th Century." Energy Bulletin, November 24.

McNamara, Robert. 2010. "A Brief History of Whaling The 19th Century Whaling Industry Thrived for Decades."

Lemos, Charles. 2008. "The Whale Oil Peak Curve." By The Fault, May 14.

Hoare, Philip. 2015. "White Whale in the Big Smoke: How the Geography of London Inspired Moby-Dick." New Stateman (December 2).

Gorman, Martyn. 2002. The Slaughter of the Whales (University of Aberdeen).

McCollough, John and Henry F. Check, Jr. 2010. "The Baleen Whales' Saving Grace: The Introduction of Petroleum Based Products in the Market and Its Impact on the Whaling Industry." Sustainability 2 (10): 3142-3157

• Carbon-based Fuels
> General
Eh. Net Encyclopedia of Economic and Business History (various entries)

Cross, Philip. 2015. "In Praise of Fossil Fuels." C2C Journal (December 17). 

Contemporary Issues
Several detailed papers on fossil fuel policy issues are available in the Annual Review of Environment and Resources.

Bradley, Robert L and Richard W. Fulmer. Energy: The Master Resource, Kendall Hunt Publishing Company, 2004, Chapter 2: Using Energy, pp. 17-18, 21-25, 29-30, 32-33, 37-39.

Arscott, Lyn. 2004. “Sustainable Development in the Oil and Gas Industry.” Journal of Energy Resources Technology 126: 1-5.

Auerswald, Philip E. "The Myth of Energy Insecurity." Issues in Science and Technology, vol 22, no 4, Summer 2006.

Bailey, Ron. 2004. “Energy Independence: The Ever-Receding Mirage. 30 Years of Presidential Futility and Failure.” ReasonOnline, July 21.

Burnett, H. Sterling, and Christa Bieker. 2006. "Taxing Profits, Draining Energy." National Center for Policy Analysis, Brief Analysis No. 549, March 30.

Taylor, Jerry. 2004. "Energy Independence? Kerry's Dreaming." Cato Institute, August 24.

> Coal
Adams, Sean. 2003. "US Coal Industry in the Nineteenth Century." EH.Net Encyclopedia, January 24.

Contemporary Issues
Coal.” International Energy Agency
How Coal is Formed“ and “Coal Terms Glossary.” American Coal Foundation.
Survey of Energy Resources Interim Update 2009 - Coal.” World Energy Council.

–, 2004. "Clean Coal." Progressive Policy Institute (PPI), December 2.

"The Future of Coal." Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), March 14, 2007.

The Future Role of Coal.” International Energy Agency, 1999.

Anderson, J. W. "Coal: Dirty Cheap Energy." Resources (Navigating Energy Choices in the 21st Century), Winter 2005, Issue 156, pp. 31-34.

Bradsher, Keith. 2009. "China Outpaces US in Cleaner Coal-Fired Plants." New York Times (May 10).

Brown, Matthew. 2010. "Old-style coal plants expanding." The Associated Press, August 17.

Bryce, Robert. 2014. Not beyond Coal: How the Global Thirst for Low-Cost Electricity Continues Driving Coal Demand. Manhattan Institute (October 27). 

Bullis, Kevin. 2006. "Coal-Powered Jets - A New Process Using Jet Fuel Made From Coal Could Reduce Oil Dependence, and Improve Fuel Performance in Advanced Aircraft." Technology Review, March 31.

Kurtenbach, Elaine. 2007. "Coal Use Grows Despite Warming Worries.", October 28.

Lewin, David. 2008. "A Cleaner Future." Fraser Forum, March, p. 10-12.

Porter, Catherine. 2008. "Coal Mining Ravages Appalachia Mountains." Toronto Star, February 23.

Trisko, Eugene M. 2006. "Economic and Public Health Benefits of Coal-Based Energy." Brief Analysis 573, National Center for Policy Analysis, September 27.

Wald, Matthew L. 2008. "Mounting Costs Slow the Push for Clean Coal." The New York Times, May 30.

> Petroleum
Black, Brian. 2007. "Petroleum history, United States." Encyclopedia of Earth, December 18.

Cowen, Richard. Essays on Geology, History and People. (Under contract with Johns Hopkins University Press), Ch. 11, 13.

"Petroleum History." Environmental Literacy Council.

Journal of American History - Special issue on the history of US petroleum

Taylor, Alan. 2014. "The Urban Oil Fields of Los Angeles (24 Photos)." The Atlantic (August 26). 

An Interactive Story of Imperial Oil

Leduc #1 Energy Discovery Centre - Story of Leduc #1

First Oil Well in Western Canada - National Historic Site of Canada

(Ontario History)
"Crude Oil and Natural Gas Resources." Ministry of Natural Resources of the Government of Ontario.

Oil Museum of Canada (Lambton)
- Black Gold: Canada's Oil Heritage 

Gray, Earle
- 2005. The Great Canadian Oil Patch: The Petroleum Era from Birth to Peak, revised edition, June Warren Publishing 
- 2008. Ontario's Petroleum Legacy, Oil Museum of Canada Oil Springs 

Sweeny, Alastair. 2010. Black Bonanza: Canada's Oil Sands and the Race to Secure North America's Energy Future. Wiley. 

"The Village of Oil Springs - Canada's First Oil Town."

"Petrolia - Canada's Victorian Oil Town."

Contemporary Issues
Oil.” International Energy Agency.

Survey of Energy Resources Interim Update 2009 - Crude Oil and Natural Gas Liquids.” World Energy Council.

"Facts About Oil." American Petroleum Institute, 2002.

"Pricing Differences Among Various Types of Crude Oil." Energy Information Administration.

Bryce, Robert. 2008. "5 Myths About Breaking Our Foreign Oil Habit." The Washington Post, January 13.

Featherstone, Charles H. 2005. "Peak Oil?.", January 6.

Huber, Peter. 2006. "Crude Awakening." The Wall Street Journal, February 3.

Huber, Peter, & Mark Mills. 2005. "Oil, Oil, Everywhere..." The Wall Street Journal, January 27.

Green, Kenneth P., &  Steven F. Hayward. 2010. "The Dangers of Overreacting to the Deepwater Horizon Disaster." AEI Online (June).

Green, Kenneth P. 2006. "Bringing Down Gasoline and Oil Prices." Brief Analysis No. 557, National Center for Policy Analysis (June 8).

Johnson, Robert. 2012. "You've Never Seen Anything Like This North Dakota Oil Boomtown." Business Insider, March 7.

Moore, Adrian. 2005. "Katrina Reveals Gas Price Folly - Environmentalists, NIMBYs have blocked new oil refineries for 30 years." Orange County Register, September 1.

Murdock, Deroy. 2008. "Offshore Drilling: Cleaner Than Mother Nature," National Review Online, July 28.

Murphy, Robert P. 2008. "Politicians Eye the Oil Market." The Freeman: Ideas on Liberty, Vol. 58 No. 8 (October).

Reynolds, Alan. 2005. "Oil Prices: Cause and Effect." Cato Institute (June 27).

Schulz, Max. 2006. "America's Oil Weapon." Tech Central Station, April 6.

Taylor, Jerry, and Peter Van Doren. 2006. "Economic Amnesia: The Case against Oil Price Controls and Windfall Profit Taxes." Cato Institute, Policy Analysis no. 561, January 12.

Vargas Llosa, Alvaro. 2008. "Oil Prices—Who Are the Culprits?" The Independent Institute (June 11).

Zycher, Benjamin. "OPEC," The Concise Encyclopedia of Economics.

Alberta's Bituminous Sands
"CAPP Backgrounder: Oil Sands Economic Impacts Across Canada – CERI Report." Canadian Energy Research Institute, September 2005.

Hamilton, James. 2005. "Oil sands." Econbrowser, December 05.

Mintz, Jack. 2011. "Game Theory 101." National Post (November 23).

Vivian Krause. 2010. "US Foundations against the Oil Sands." Financial Post, October 14.

Samuelson, Robert J. 2011. "Say Yes to Canadian Oil Sands." Washington Post (August 28).

Timilsina, Govinda R., Nicole LeBlanc & Thorn Walden. 2005. "Economic Impacts of Alberta’s Oil Sands." Canadian Energy Research Institute, Volume I, Study No. 110, October.

Taylor, Jerry, and Peter Van Doren. 2011. "Keystone XL: Liberal Histrionics Answered With Conservative Histrionics." Forbes (December 19).

Technical Issues
Oilfield Glossary

US Department of Labor. OSHA Technical Manual 
" Section IV: Safety Hazards, Chapter 2: Petroleum Refining Processes

Mager Stellman, Jeanne (editor in chief). 2011. Encyclopedia of Occupational Health and Safety. International Labor Organization (ILO).
- Kraus, Richard S. 2011. "Storage and Transportation of Crude Oil, Natural Gases, Liquid Petroleum Products and Other Chemicals
- Kraus, Richard. 2011. "75 Exploration, Drilling and Production of Oil and Natural Gas
- Kraus, Richard S. 2011. "78. Oil and Natural Gas"

Current Debates and Controversies
Angevine, Gerry. 2013. The Canadian Oil Transport Conundrum. Fraser Institute (September).

Cross, Philip. 2013. Extracting the Most Value from Canada's Petroleum. MacDonald-Laurier Institute (October). 

Crawford, Todd. 2011. Canada's Petroleum Refining Sector: An Important Contributor Facing Global Challenges. Conference Board of Canada. 

Green, Kenneth P. and Diana Furchtgott-Roth. 2013. Intermodal Safety in the Transport of Oil. Fraser Institute (October 15).

McKenzie, Kenneth J. and Jack Mintz. 2011. "The Tricky Art of Measuring Fossil Fuel Subsidies: A Review of Existing Studies." The School of Public Policy, SPP Research Papers 4 (14). 

---. 2013. "Biggest Oil Man In The Bakken: Keystone Pipeline Is No Longer Needed." SayAnythingBlog (August 27).

> Manufactured (or town or coal), Natural and Shale Gas
Natural Gas.” Environmental Literacy Council.

Alex Epstein. "Energy at the Speed of Thought (Part 2: Individual Planning in the Pre-Petroleum Illumination Market)." Master Resource, December 21, 2010.

–, "Coal Tar." The City of Kingston's Website.

Castaneda, Christopher. 2001. "Manufactured and Natural Gas Industry." EH.Net Encyclopedia, September 4.

Manufactured Gas - The Genie's Legacy, Heritage Research Center Ltd

"What Is Natural Gas and History of Use." State the Essence!

Shale gas and Ontario
Aegent Energy Advisors "Moving Marcellus Gas into Ontario - A New Purchasing Opportunity" March 2010.

Bramley, Matthew. 2011. Is Natural Gas a Climate Change Solution for Canada. Pembina Institute and David Suzuki Foundation.

US Department of Energy. 2009. Modern Shale Gas in the United States

Contemporary Issues
"Economist Debates: Natural gas" The Economist.

Natural Gas.” International Energy Agency.

Survey of Energy Resources Interim Update 2009 - Natural Gas.” World Energy Council.

"The Future of Natural Gas: An Interdisciplinary MIT Study." MIT Study on the Future of Natural Gas, June 25, 2010.

-. 2011. "A Tale of Two Shale States: Pennsylvania's gain vs. New York's missed opportunity." The Wall Street Journal (July 26).

The Gasland Controversy - Full video
> Criticisms: "Debunking GasLand," "ICYMI – Longtime NYT Editor, Columnist on GasLand," "Fact and Fiction - No Hot Air," "Gasland director hides full facts," "Truthland," "Fracking The Movie(s)," "The Facts about Gasland" (; FrackNation.

Epstein, Alex. 2013. "Gasland II's Luddite Slander of Fracking is the Latest Technophobe Attack on Progress." Forbes (July 19).

Everley, Steve. 2013. "Debunking Gasland, Part II." Energy in Depth (April 25). 

McAleer, Phelim. 2013. "Ten Big Fat Lies about Fracking." Spiked! (August 22).

> Evidence: "Water OK in 'Gasland' fracking town, EPA says,", May 11, 2012.
Considine, Timothy J. Considine, Robert W. Watson and Nicholas Considine. 2011. The Economic Opportunities of Shale Energy Development. Energy Policy & the Environment Report No. 9. Manhattan Institute for Policy Research.

Driessen, Paul. 2012. "Fracking: An Existential Threat to Green Dogma.", March 28.

Editorial Dept. 2010. "The Potential of Natural Gas as a Future Energy Source." Oil, February 18.

Kopp, Raymond J. "Natural Gas: Supply Problems are Key." Resources (Navigating Energy Choices in the 21st Century), Winter 2005, Issue 156, pp. 16-19.

Krauss, Clifford. 2008. "Drilling Boom Revives Hopes for Natural Gas.", August 24.

Michaels, Robert J. "Natural Gas Regulation," The Concise Encyclopedia of Economics.

Márquez, Humberto. 2012. "Shale Gas Turns the Tables on Petroleum Powers." IPS News (January 3).

McCarthy, Shawn. 2010. "Canada not ready for shale gas boom." The Globe and Mail (October 14).

Myers Jaffe , Amy. 2010. "How Shale Gas Is Going to Rock the World." The Wall Street Journal (May 10).

Parfitt, Ben. 2010. "Fracture Lines: Will Canada’s Water be Protected in the Rush to Develop Shale Gas?" Munk School of Global Affairs at the University of Toronto, September 15.

Ridley, Matt. 2011. The Shale Gas Shock. Global Warming Policy Foundation, GWPF Report 2.

Schmitt, Gary J. "Natural Gas: The Next Energy Crisis?" Issues in Science and Technology, vol 22, no 4, Summer 2006.

Stevens, Paul. 2010. "The 'Shale Gas Revolution': Hype and Reality." Chatham House Report, September (Executive Summary).

Wang, Zhongmin and Alan J. Krupnick. 2013. "A Retrospective Review of Shale Gas Development in the United States: What Led to the Boom?" Resources for the Future, Discussion Paper 13-12. 

• Abiotic Theory
"Thomas Gold," Wikipedia.

Gold, Thomas. 1992. "The Deep, Hot Biosphere," Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 89: 6045-6049.

Bartlett, Bruce. 2004. “Discovering oil.”, June 10.

Green, Ken. 2008. "Oil Not a Fossil Fuel?" National Review Online, February 1st.

• Others

Spears, John. 2004. "Pinning Hopes on the Tar Sand." Toronto Star, July 25.

Suggested links

• Fire and Forests over Time
The Webpage of fire historian Stephen J. Pyne of Arizona State University.

The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations' Forestry Website

Eco-Economy Indicators: DATA - FOREST COVER - World Forest Cover - Industrial and Fuel Wood Use

An overview of Michael Williams / Deforestating the Earth: From Prehistory to Global Crisis (University of Chicago Press, 2003).

The Great Restoration: The Potentials for Forest Protection to 2050

• Tragedy of the Commons

Yandle on the Tragedy of the Commons and the Implications for Environmental Regulation

History - Carbon Fuels

Coal and coal (manufactured) gas
Allen Hatheway's Manufactured Gas Website

Drake Well

- General
Abraham Gesner (1897-1964)

Oil History Website by Samuel T. Pees

Petroleum History = Energy Education

Petroleum History Institute

Museum of the Earth - Oil History

- Regional
An Index to Early Petroleum History Sites by Blake Malkamaki

Canada's Oil Heritage District

Oil Museum of Canada (Oil Springs, Ontario)

Petroleum History Society - Preserving history of the petroleum industry in Canada

- Unconventional Oil
Museum of the Scottish Shale Oil Industry

Carbon Fuels - Technical, Economic and Policy Issues

Clean Coal Technology Roadmap - Links

Fossil fuels - Union of Concerned Scientists

Latest WEC Studies and Reports (World Energy Council)

Running on Empty: America's Energy Security, America Abroad Media.

William Kovarik and Matthew Hermes. "Fuel and Society.", Kennesaw State University.

A RFF policy briefing video on
"Clean Coal?"
"The Future of Natural Gas."
"The Future of Petroleum."

Natural Resources Canada on Energy

US Energy Information Administration
- Petroleum and other liquids

Natural Gas

Alberta's (Tar or Oil) Sands
> Positive Views
Environment Canada on Alberta's Oil Sands
Oil Sands Discovery Centre
Oil Sands Question & Response
Alberta Energy: Oil Sands
Alberta's Oil Sands - Government of Alberta
Canada's Oil Sands - Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers
Canada's Oil Sands Innovation Alliance (COSIA)
Ethical Oil website on Myths and Lies about the Oil Sands

> Negative Views
Tar Sands Watch
Oil Sands 101: Alberta’s Oil Sands
Oil Sand Truth
Journalist Andrew Nikiforuk on Alberta's tar sands

Your Alberta. 2010. Alberta Oil Sands: About

CBC. 2008. Tar Sands The Selling Of Alberta. CBC Doc Zone.

National Geographic Channel. 2004. "Megastructures Ultimate Oil Sands Mine."

Lecture 6: Term Test


Lecture 7: Electricity (Hydro and Nuclear)

Suggested readings

Alfred, Randy. 2008. "Oct. 21, 1879: Edison Gets the Bright Light Right." Wired, October 21.

Alfred, Randy. 2008. "Sept. 22, 1791: Faraday Enters a World He Will Change." Wired, September 22.

Gelly, Alain. "A Precipitous Decline, Steam as Motive Power in Montreal: A Case Study of the Lachine Canal Industries." IA, The Journal of the Society for Industrial Archeology, Vol. 29, Issue 1.

Krider, E. Philip. 2006. "Benjamin Franklin and Lightning Rods." Physics Today Online (January).

Lepore, Jill. 2008. "Our Own Devices - Does technology drive history?" The New Yorker, May 12.

Regulatory Framework
Munson, Richard. "Yes, in My Backyard: Distributed Electric Power." Issues in Science and Technology, vol 22, no 2, Winter 2006.

"Lights Out In 2009?" The NextGen Energy Council Management Information Services, Inc., September 2008.


"About Hydroelectric Energy." Natural Resources Canada.

"Hydropower and the World's Energy Future - The Role of Hydropower in Bringing Clean, Renewable, Energy to the World." International Hydropower Association Compton, West Sussex, United Kingdom, International Commission on Large Dams, Paris, France, Implementing Agreement on Hydropower Technologies and Programmes / International Energy Agency, Paris, France, Canadian Hydropower Association Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. November 2000.

"UK Nuclear Power: The Contenders." BBC News, July 10, 2006.

A Survey Article on "Nuclear Power - Overcoming Its Image Problem." Journal of Energy Literature 10 (1): 37-44. 2004.

Bailey, Ronald. 2005. "Nuclear Explosion at Montreal." Tech Central Station, December 9.

Deutsch, John and Ernest Monitz. 2003. The Future of Nuclear Power, MIT Interdicisplinary Studies.

Beck, Peter W. 1999. “Nuclear Energy in the Twenty-First Century: Examination of a Contentious Subject.” Annual Review of Energy and Environment 24: 113-137.

Huber, Peter W., and Mark P. Mills, Winter 2005. "Why the U.S. Needs More Nuclear Power." City Journal.

Gabbard, Alex. "Coal Combustion: Nuclear Resource or Danger." Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

Kazimi, Mujid S. and Neil E. Todreas. 1999. “Nuclear Power Economic Performance: Challenges and Opportunities.” Annual Review of Energy and Environment 24: 139-171.

Lester, Richard K. "New Nukes." Issues in Science and Technology, vol 22, no 4, Summer 2006.

Lorenzi, Paul. "A Second Look at Nuclear Power." Issues in Science and Technology, vol 21, no 3, Spring 2005.

MacFarlane, Allison. 2001. “Interim Storage of Spent Fuel in the United States.” Annual Review of Energy and the Environment 26: 201-235.

Frequently asked questions about nuclear energy” on John McCarthy's Progress and Its Sustainability Website.

Murphy, Francois. 2005. "Chernobyl radiation death toll 56 so far - U.N." Yahoo! News, September 5.

Nolan, Peter. 2005. "Energy in the UK." TCS Daily, December 19.

Peterson, Per F., William E. Kastenberg & Michael Corradini "Nuclear Waste and the Distant Future." Issues in Science and Technology, vol 22, no 4, Summer 2006.

Reynolds, Glenn Harlan. 2006. "No Nukes Is Good Nukes?" Tech Central Station, February 8.

Richel, Theo. 2005. "Deadly Assumptions: Radiation and Risk." Tech Central Station, September 28.

Rummery, T.E., and J.A. Macpherson. "Canada's Nuclear Achievement: Technical and Economic Perspectives."

Talbot, David. 2005. "Nuclear Powers Up.", September.

Taylor, Jerry, and Peter Van Doren. 2007. "Hooked on Subsidies." Forbes, November 26.

"Understanding Radiation." Nuclear Engineering, U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy, Science & Technology, DOE/NE-0074.

"The Chernobyl Catastrophe - Consequences on Human Health." Greenpeace, April 2006.

On Wikipedia
Electric potential energy
Power station
Base load power plant
Peaking power plant

Suggested links

International Energy Agency - Electricity


International Energy Agency - Hydro

“Survey of Energy Resources Interim Update 2009 - Hydropower.”  World Energy Council.

The World Commission on Dams

A special issue of Energy Policy (volume 30, issue 14, 2002) on "Hydropower - The Politics of Water and Energy." November 2002.

Great Resources About Dams and Hydropower

Large Dams Under Construction by Basin Watersheds of the World: Global Maps

International Energy Agency - Nuclear

“Survey of Energy Resources Interim Update 2009 - Nuclear.”  World Energy Council.

A RFF policy briefing video on "The Future of Nuclear Power."

The ABC's of nuclear science

The BBC's guide to nuclear power

Environmental Literacy Council Website.
California Energy Crisis.”
Enron and Energy Trading.” - A guide to radioactive waste resources on the Internet.

"Ghost Town: My Ride through Chernobyl Area," by Elena (family name unknown).

Special issue on nuclear power, Energy and Environment, volume 13, no. 2, May 2002.

UNSCEAR - United Nations Scientific Committee On The Effects Of Atomic Radiation

Nuclear Safety - Union of Concerned Scientists

The Interview: Patrick Moore

Fundamentals of Electricity

Natural Resources Canada on Energy


Lecture 8: Electricity (Alternatives) and Biomass

Suggested readings

Classic Works
Jevson, William Stanley. 1866/1865. The Coal Question; An Inquiry concerning the Progress of the Nation, and the Probable Exhaustion of our Coal-Mines. MacMillan and Co., Chapter 8: Of Supposed Substitutes for Coal.

Wayland, Francis. 1870/1838. Elements of Political Economy. Gould and Lincoln, Part II: The Modes by Which the Productiveness of Human Industry May be Increased, Section 1: On the Use of Natural Agents pp. 60-74.


Ball, Jeffrey. 2010. "Clean Energy Sources: Sun, Wind and Subsidies." The Wall Street Journal, January 8.

Bullis, Kevin. 2011. "Venture Capitalists Back Away from Clean Energy." Technology Review, August 11.

"Energy Fact Sheet - Appropriate Technology." State the Essence!

Forbes, Viv. 2013. "Parasitic Power Producers." American Thinker (August 19). 

Lomborg, Bjorn. 2013. "The Decline of Renewable Energy." Project Syndicate (August 14).  

Love, Shannon. 2010. "Why Alternative Power Is and Will Remain Useless." Chicago Boyz, February 28th.

Survey of Energy Resources 2007.” World Energy Council.
(Chapters on Peat, Bioenergy, Solar, Geothermal Energy, Wind Energy, Tidal Energy, and Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion)

United Nations Environment Programme. 2008. Green Jobs: Towards Decent Work in a Sustainable, Low-Carbon World. UNEP.

Sallie Baliunas on alternative energy sources (on Tech Central Station)
Renewable Realities.” April 23, 2002
Solar Delusions.” May 21, 2002
Let the Sun Shine In.” July 11, 2002
Gone with the Wind.” Sept. 25, 2002
Wind Magic.” Oct. 17, 2002
Hydrogen Hopes.” January 28, 2003

Anderson, Dennis. 1997. "Renewable Energy Technology and Policy for Development," Annual Review of Energy and the Environment 22: 187-215.

Anderson, William L. 2003. "Energy Bills and Central Planning,", December 16.

Ausubel, Jesse H. 2007. "Renewable and Nuclear Heresies." International Journal of Nuclear Governance, Economy and Ecology, Vol. 1, No.3.

Bradley. Robert L. 1997. "Renewable Energy: Not Cheap, Not 'Green'," Cato Policy Analysis No. 280

Bradley, Robert L and Richard W. Fulmer. Energy: The Master Resource, Kendall Hunt Publishing Company, 2004, Chapter 2: Using Energy, pp. 33-36, 39-43, 56-61.

Clougherty, Tom (Editor). 2007. "Positive Environmentalism - A Convenient Truth." Globalisation Institute.

Darmstadter, Joel and Karen Palmer. "Renewable Sources of Electricity: Safe Bet or Tilting at Windmills?" Resources (Navigating Energy Choices in the 21st Century), Winter 2005, Issue 156, pp. 24-27.

Delingpole, James. 2011. "Green Jobs? Wot Green Jobs (pt 242)." The Telegraph (September 2).

Driessen, Paul. 2004. "Power to the People?," Tech Central, March 25.

Hughes, Gordon. 2011. The Myth of Green Jobs. Global Warming PolicyFoundation.

Innis, Roy. 2007. "The Truth About 'Alternative Energy'.", December 5.

Katz, Diane. "Environmental Politics Distorts Renewable Energy Discussion." Fraser Forum, July/August 2007, p. 13-16.

Mandel, Charles. 2007. "U.S. Prof Says Canada Should Forget Renewable Energy.", July 27.

Mouawad, Jad. 2009. "Oil Giants Loath to Follow Obama’s Green Lead.", April 7.

McVeigh, James, Dallas Burtraw, Joel Darmstadter and Karen Palmer. 1999. "Winner, Loser, or Innocent Victim? Has Renewable Energy Performed As Expected?" Discussion Paper 99-28, Washington: Resources for the Future.

Metcalf, Gilbert E. 2008. "Using Tax Expenditures to Achieve Energy Policy Goals." NBER Working Paper No. 13753, January.

Mohiuddin, Shamarukh. 2004. "How America Lost Its Clean Technology Edge." Progressive Policy Institute, December 1st.

Michaels, Robert J. 2005. "An Ill Wind for Consumers: The Energy Bill." NCPA Brief Analysis No. 522, July 26.

Milloy, Steven. 2007. "A Green Sings the Renewable Energy Blues.", July 27.

Pearce, Fred. 2008. "The Great Green Electricity Con.", October 23.

Pfaffenberger, Wolfgang. 2006. "Case Study Paper #6: "Renewable Energies - Environmental Benefits, Economic Growth and Job Creation"." Green Roads to Growth Project, Danish Environmental Assessement Institute.

Pimentel, David, Megan Herz, Michelle Glickstein, Mathew Zimmerman, et al. 2002. "Renewable Energy: Current and Potential issues." Bioscience 52(12): 1111-1121.

Sayigh, Ali. 1999. “Renewable Energy – The Way Forward.” Applied Energy 64 (1-4): 15-30.

Schoen, John W. 2005. "Alternative energy slow to take hold - Weaning the world from petroleum will take decades." MSNBC, July 28.

Smil, Vaclav. "21St Century Energy - Some Sobering Thoughts." OECD Observer No. 258/59, December 2006.

Taylor, Jerry. 2006. "For Now, Gasoline Is Our Only Cheap Fuel." Cato Institute, May 12.

Tanton, Thomas. 2004. "A Whirlwind of Troubles - Environmental, Operational, and Financial Problems." PERC Reports, September.

Taylor, Jerry and Peter VanDoren. 2002. Evaluating the Case for Renewable Energy: Is Government Support Warranted? Policy Analysis No. 422. Washington: Cato Institute.  

Topical Pieces
> Historical Perspective

Laird, Frank. N. 2003. "Constructing the Future - Advocating Energy Technologies in the Cold War." Technology and Culture 44 (1): 27-49.

> Wind
Adams, Tom. 2007. "Blown over High - Wind-Power Production in Germany one Saturday Night Helped Extend a Blackout Across Europe." National Post, February 22.

Adams, Tom. 2006. "Review of Wind Power Results in Ontario: May to October 2006." Energy Probe, November 15.

Backman, Mikael. 2010. "Gas Fired Back-up Power - Back-up power for wind: Striking the right balance." Power-Gen Worldwide, February 1.

Booker, Christopher. 2010. "The Thanet wind farm will milk us of billions." The Telegraph, September 25.

Boone, Jon. 2010. "Power Hungry: The Myths of “Green” Energy and the Real Fuels of the Future—by Robert Bryce (nutrition for energy appetites)." MasterResource, April 27.

Bryce, Robert. 2010. "Wind Power Won't Cool Down the Planet." The Wall Street Journal, August 24.

Bryce, Robert. 2010. "IEA: Nuclear Power is Cheap, Wind Energy Is Expensive." Energy Tribune, March 25.

Bryce, Robert. 2009. "Windmills Are Killing Our Birds." The Wall Street Journal, September 7.

Bullis, Kevin. 2006. "Giant Wind Turbines: Floating Wind Farms Placed Far Offshore Could Lead to Affordable Electricity – Without Cluttering the View." Technology Review, May 9.

Cleveland, Cutler, Ida Kubiszewski and Peter K. Endres. 2006. "Energy Return on Investment (EROI) for Wind Energy." Encyclopedia of Earth. Eds. Peter Saundry. (Washington, D. C.: Environmental Information Coalition, National Council for Science and the Environment). [First published October 13, 2006; Last revised October 16, 2006; Retrieved October 27, 2006].

Clover, Charles. 2006. "Wind Farms 'are Failing to Generate the Predicted Amount of Electricity'.", December 10.

Cosh, Colby. 2006. "Windmills Aren't the Answer." National Post, November 21.

Courtney, Richard S. 2006. "Wind Farms Provide Negligible Useful Electricity." Center for Science and Public Policy, March.

–, "The Practicalities of Developing Renewable Energy In The UK – In The Light of Danich Experience." Incoteco (Denmark) ApS.

Fairley, Peter. 2006. "A Supergrid for Europe - A radical proposal for a high-tech power grid could make possible the continent's vast expansion of renewable energy sources." Technology Review, March 15.

Glover, Peter C. 2006. "Inherit the Wind?" Tech Central Station, July 7.

Hawkins, Kent. 2012. "'Recouping cost of wind turbine may take more than a lifetime' (Consumer Reports confirms micro-wind diseconomies)." MasterResource (August 14).

Hawkins, Kent. "Peeling Away the Onion of Denmark Wind" Parts I-IV, Master Resource, Oct. 26-29, 2010. Part I | Part II | Part III | Part IV

Horner, Chirstopher. "'Anti-Lobbyist' Obama Administration Recruited Left-Wing Lobbyists to Sell Bogus 'Green Jobs'." Pajamas Media, March 3.

Kats, Diane. 2010. "Windmills kill more birds." Financial Post, June 30.

Keller, James. 2006. "Wind Farm Noise Too Much for N.S. Family.", May 11.

Klem Jr., Daniel, Christopher J. Farmer, Nicole Delacretaz, Yigal Gelb, and Peter G. Saenger. "Architectural and Landscape Risk Factors Associated with Bird–glass Collisions in an Urban Environment." The Wilson Journal of Ornithology 121(1):126-134. 2009.

Linowes, Lisa. 2010. "Offshore Wind: DOE’s Reality Challenge." MasterResource, October 14.

Macrae, Fiona. 2010. " More than half of Britain's wind farms have been built where there is not enough wind." Mail Online, August 17.

Mason, Dr V.C. 2005. "Wind power in West Denmark. Lessons for the UK." Country Guardian (November).

McGowan, Jon G. and Stephen R. Connors. 2000. "Windpower: A Turn of the Century Review," Annual Review of Energy and the Environment 25: 147-197.

Payne, Henry. 2009. "Governor Moonbat." Planet Gore on National Review Online, February 04.

Potter, Mitch. 2008. "Embracing a Clean Green Dream." Toronto Star, March 29.

Roney, J. Matthew. 2010. "Wind Power Soared Past 150,000 Megawatts in 2009." Earth Policy Institute, March 30.

Sharman, Hugh. 2005. "Why UK Windpower should not exceed 10GW." Proceedings of the ICE - Civil Engineering (158): 161-169.

Sickinger, Ted. 2010. "Too much of a good thing: Growth in wind power makes life difficult for grid managers." The Oregonian, July 17.

Wald, Matthew L., and Tom Zeller Jr. 2010. "Green Power’s High Cost Scuttles Projects.", November 7.

Wasson, Matt. 2010. "Extreme Misinformation in the Washington Post: Actually, Wind Power has Reduced Denmark's CO2 Emissions a Lot." The Huffington Post, April 26.

"Wind Energy – The Case of Denmark" Executive summary, Center for Politiske Studier, September 2009.

Woollacott, Emma. 2010. "Wind farms could raise temperatures." TG Daily, March 12.

> Biomass
- Canadian public policy on biofuels
- "An Update on Renewable Diesel Infrastructure in Canada." Office of Energy Efficiency, Natural Resources Canada.
- "Evaluation of the Alternative Transportation Fuels Sub-Sub-Activity." Natural Resources Canada,

Alvaro Vargas Llosa. 2007. "Children of the Corn." Tech Central Station, July 24.

Anderson, Peter. 2005. "Ethanol and the Calculation Issue." Ludwig von Mises Institute, August 18.

Auld, Douglas. 2008. "The Ethanol Trap: Why Policies to Promote Ethanol as Fuel Need Rethinking." C.D. Howe Institute Commentary, No. 268, July.

Aziz, John. 2013. "It's Time for America to End Ethanol Subsidies." The Week (July 31). 

Bailey, Ronald. 2008. "The Biggest Green Mistake - Biofuels and the Global Food Crisis. " Reason Magazine, April 8.

Bailey, Ronald. 2007. "Bioethanol Boondoggle - Political Viability is More Important than Commercial Viability. " Reason Magazine, December 4.

Bailey, Ronald. 2006. "Alcohol Saves the Planet - The Future of Booze-Fueled Machines." Reason Online, February 3.

Bailey, Ronald. 2003. "Congress Gets Drunk on Ethanol: Corn + your tax dollars = a bad improvement." Reason Magazine, November 20.

Bast, Joseph L., Thomas Tanton, Jonathan Adler, Joel Schwartz, Roy Cordato, Fred L. Smith, Jr., David Hogberg, and Myron Ebell. "A Kernel of Support For Ethanol" Perc Reports.

Brabeck-Letmathe, Peter. 2008. "Another inconvenient truth." International Herald Tribune, October 5.

Brahic, Catherine. 2007. "Forget Biofuels - Burn Oil and Plant Forests Instead. " NewScientist Environment, 16 August.

Carney, Tim. 2006. "Ethanol's Dirty Little Secrets." Tech Central Station, July 12.

Chakrabortty, Aditya. 2008. "Secret Report: Biofuel Caused Food Crisis - Internal World Bank Study Delivers Blow to Plant Energy Drive." The Guardian, July 4.

Chavez, Linda. 2008. "A Government Engineered Food Crisis.", March 28.

Clayton, Mark. 2006. "Carbon Cloud Over a Green Fuel Byline." The Christian Science Monitor, March 23.

Corcoran, Terence. 2008. "Who Caused the World Food Crisis?" Financial Post, April 08.

"Editorial: Administration caves to Big Corn - EPA burns your money with ethanol." The Washington Times, October 18, 2010.

"Editorial: Stop 'Big Corn'." The Washington Times, April 5, 2010.

Gattuso, Dana Joel. 2007. "Corn Prices High as an Elephant's Eye.", November 29.

Gorrie, Peter. 2008. "Biofuels not 'Miracle' Cure, Studies Say." The Toronto Star, February 8.

Green, Kenneth P. 2010. "Score Another Win for Big Corn!" The Enterprise Blog, October 13.

Green, Kenneth P. 2008. "Ethanol and the Environment." American Enterprise Institute.

Grunwald, Michael. 2008. "The Clean Energy Scam." Time, March, 27.

Hamilton, James. 2007. "Ethanol Subsidies - Why do Americans Love Their Ethanol So Much?", Feb. 8.

Harrabin, Roger. 2007. "Biofuels Bonanza Facing 'Crash'." BBC News, November 15.

Hassett, Kevin. 2006. "Ethanol's a Big Scam, and Bush Has Fallen for It.", February 13.

Hausmann, Ricardo. 2007. "Biofuels Can Match Oil Production." The Financial Times, November 6.

Huber, Peter. 2006. "The Forest Killers." Forbes, April 10.

James A. Baker III Institute, "Fundamentals of a Sustainable U.S. Biofuels Policy." 2010.

James, Sallie. 2008. "Food Fight." Center for Trade Policy Studies, Free Trade Bulletin, No. 31, January 31.

Jordan, James & James Powell. 2006. "The False Hope of Biofuels." The Washington Post, July 2, p. B-07.

Kheshgi, Haroon S., Roger C Prince and Gregg Marland. 2000. "The Potential of Biomass Fuels in the Context of Global Climate Change: Focus on Transportation Fuels," Annual Review of Energy and the Environment 25: 199-244.

Kinver, Mark. 2007. "Biofuels Look to the Next Generation." BBC News, September 18.

Kiesling, Lynne. 2007. "Proprietary, Sweeter Tomates: Another Unintended Consequence of Ethanol Subsidies." Knowledge Problem, Oct. 2.

Lave, Lester B., & W. Michael Griffin. "Import Ethanol, Not Oil." Issues in Science and Technology, vol 22, no 3, Spring 2006.

Lehr, Jay. "Are The Ethanol Wars Over?" Perc Reports.

Lieberman, Ben. 2007. "The Ethanol Mandate Should Not Be Expanded." Backgrounder #2020, The Heritage Foundation, March 28.

Llosa, Alvaro Vargas. 2007. "The Ethanol Alliance." The Independent Institute, April 4.

Lovett, Richard A. 2005. "Turning corn into ethanol may not be worth it.", August 3.

Michaels, Patrick J. 2008. "Corn on the Mob." American Spectator (Online) on January 30.

Millikin, Mike. 2005. "Is Corn Ethanol A Good Energy Source?" FuturePundit, April 17.

Muse, Ben. 2006. "Get Rid of the Tariff on Ethanol." Ben Muse, May 11.

Naik, Gautam. 2008. "Biofuels May Hinder Antiglobal-Warming Efforts." The Wall Street Journal, February 8.

Parker, Randall. 2008. "Studies Find Most Biomass Energy Increases Carbon Dioxide Emissions." Future Pundit, Feb. 7.

Parker, Randall. 2006. "Brazil Gets 40 Percent Of Gas Vehicle Fuel From Ethanol.", August 20.

Pasour Jr., Ernest C., Randal R. Rucker. 2007. "Big Ethanol Push in U.S. Is Pork Barrel Boondoggle." The Independant Institute, July 14.

Purple, Matt. 2010. "Corny Capitalism." The American Spectator, August 27.

Rohrlich, Justin. 2009. " American's Crazed Corn Habit." Mises Institute, December 22.

Roger, Heather. 2009. "Why Biofuels Are the Rainforest's Worst Enemy." Mother Jones, March/April.

Rosenthal, Elisabeth. 2008. "Studies Deem Biofuels a Greenhouse Threat." The New York Times, February 8.

Rotman, David. 2008. "Technology Review: Part I: The Price of Biofuels." Technology Review, January-February.

Rotman, David. 2008. "Technology Review: Part II: The Price of Biofuels." Technology Review, January-February.

Rubin, Jeff. 2007. "Fueling Inflation." StrategEcon, October 22.

Runge, C. Ford, and Benjamin Senauer. 2008. "How Ethanol Fuels the Food Crisis." Foreign Affairs, May 28.

R. W. Howarth and S. Bringezu, editors. 2009. "Biofuels: Environmental Consequences and Interactions with Changing Land Use." Proceedings of the Scientific Committee on Problems of the Environment (SCOPE), International Biofuels Project Rapid Assessment, 22-25 September 2008 Gummersbach, Germany.

Shapouri, Dr. Hossein, & Dr. Michael Salassi. 2006. "The Economic Feasibility of Ethanol Production From Sugar in the United States." U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), July.

Staniford, Stuart. 2006. "Life in a Grass House." The Oil Drum, March 07.

Steil, Mark. 2005. "The Ethanol Equation." Minnesota Public Radio, March 21.

Stossel, John. 2007. "The Many Myths of Ethanol.", May 23.

Stossel, John. 2007. "Ethanol: The Wonder Fuel?" 20/20 In Touch Webcast, ABC News Video, May 4.

Surowiecki, James. 2006. "Deal Sweeteners." The New Yorker, November 27.

Svoboda, Elizabeth. 2005. "UC scientist says ethanol uses more energy than it makes - A lot of fossil fuels go into producing the gas substitute." San Francisco Chronicle, June 27.

Taylor, Jerry, & Peter Van Doren. 2007. "Wishful Thinking Is No Magical Energy Elixir." Cato Institute, February 26.

Taylor, Jerry, & Peter Van Doren. 2007. "Ethanol Makes Gasoline Costlier, Dirtier." Chicago Sun-Times, January 27.

Taylor, Jerry, and Peter Van Doren. "The Ethanol Boondoggle." The Milken Institute Review, First Quarter 2007.

Zubrin, Robert. 2008 "In Defense of Biofuels." The New Atlantis (Spring).

Zubrin, Robert. 2006 "An Energy Revolution." The American Enterprise, March.

"Henry Ford, Charles Kettering and the 'Fuel of the Future'"

"Quick guide: Biofuels." BBC News, 24 January 2007.

"The Ethanol Myth - Consumer Reports' E85 Tests Show That You’ll Get Cleaner Emissions but Poorer Fuel Economy... If You Can Find It.", October 2006.

Suggested links

- General
"Beyond Fossil Fuels" (New York Times article series, Fall 2010)

Renewable Energy Annual by the Energy Information Agency.

Renewable Energy Basics

Renewable Energy” on the International Energy Agency Website.

Renewable & Alternative Fuels - Energy Information Administration

Natural Resources Canada on Renewable Energy

The Danish Environmental Assessment Institute's Green Roads to Growth Project on "Renewable Energy"

The Fraud of Free Energy

Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy.” US Department of Energy.

Renewable Energy Policy Project

"Winning the Oil Endgame." A talk given by Amory Lovins, CEO, Rocky Mountain Institute, at Resources for the Future, September 21, 2004.

A RFF policy briefing video on
"The Future of Renewable Energy."
"The Future of Alternative Fuels."

- Biomass
"Bioenergy" on the International Food Policy Research Institute's Website.

Special issue of Journal of Agricultural and Food Industrial Organization, 5 (2), December 2007, on Explorations in Biofuels Economics, Policy, and History.

The (American) National Corn Growers Association on Ethanol

Global Development and Environment Institute (Tufts University). Food vs. Fuel - U.S. Biofuels and the Global Food Crisis

- Wind
Country Guardian's Website

Wind Power Facts

DART - dorset against rural turbines

Glebe Mountain Group - Vermont Ecologists opposed to windwills (including the song "Tilting at Windmills")
See especially their links to wind energy Websites

Views of Scotland - Wind Power, a flawed technology

Wind Power Resources

"Executive summary" of "Study of the effects on employment of public aid to renewable energy sources" by Gabriel Calzada Álvarez PhD., Raquel Merino Jara, Juan Ramón Rallo Julián Technical & José Ignacio García Bielsa. Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, March 2009.

Helmer MEP, Roger. 2012. "“Sustainable energy” just isn’t …. well, sustainable." (April 27).

Rose, Tony, and Michael J. Economides. 2010. "Wind Energy: The Truth Blows." Energy Tribune, Oct. 20, 2010.

- Solar
Tavares, Stephanie. 2010. "New wave of solar plants could worsen air quality." Las Vegas Sun, April 26.

Abbot, C. G. 1929. The Sun and the Welfare of Man. Smithsonian Institution Series (Chapter 9: Harnessing the Sun).

Lecture 9: The Perennial Energy Debate

Suggested videos


Royal Society (UK). 2012. People and the Planet Report. (Watch the John Sulton video). 

Sabin, Paul. 2013. The Bet. Paul Ehrlich, Julian Simon, and Our Gamble over Earth's Future. Yale University Press.

"Oil: The Next Revolution." Harvard - Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs (June 2012) Executive Summary (excerpts video).

Suggested readings

Adelman, Morris A. 1997. "My Education in Mineral (Especially Oil) Economics," Annual Review of Energy and the Environment 22: 13-46.

Auerback, Marshall. 2005. "Oil: Geologists vs. Economists.", September 13.

Bradley, Robert L and Richard W. Fulmer. Energy: The Master Resource, Kendall Hunt Publishing Company, 2004, Chapter 4: Will We Run Out of Energy?

Bradley, Robert L. and Richard W. Fulmer. Energy: The Master Resource, Kendall Hunt Publishing Company, 2004, Chapter 7: Energy for the Future.

Groshong, Kimm. 2004. "Debate centers on oil reserves." Pasadena Star-News, December 14.

Hamilton, James. 2006. "Is Peak Oil Irrelevant?", October 24.

Hamilton, James. 2006. "ExxonMobil and Peak Oil.", March 14.

Hamilton, James & Kash Mansori. 2006. "The Perils of Forecasting." The Wall Street Journal, January 26.

Hammes, David and Douglas Wills, "Black Gold: The End of Bretton Woods and the Oil-Price Shocks of the 1970s." The Independent Review 9 (Spring 2005): 501-11.

"Kenneth Deffeyes and Peter R. Odell on Counterpoint." Global Public Media.

Kratkraemer, Jeffrey A. 2005. "Economics of Natural Resource Scarcity: The State of the Debate." Resources for the Future, Discussion Paper 05-14.

Linden, Henry R. 1996. "The Evolution of an Energy Contrarian," Annual Review of Energy and the Environment 21: 31-67.

Peart, Sandra J., and David M. Levy, 2005. "Happiness, Progress and the 'Vanity of the Philosopher'." The Library of Economics and Liberty, June 6.

Rogner, H-H. 1997. "An Assessment of World Hydrocarbon Resources," Annual Review of Energy and the Environment 22: 217-262.

Seale, Avrel. 2005. "How Long Do We Have?" The Alcalde, July/August, p. 40-45.

Simpson, R. David, Michael A. Toman and Robert U. Ayres. 2004. "Scarcity and Growth in the New Millennium: Summary." Discussion Paper 04-01, Washington: Resources for the Future.

Smil, Vaclav. 2005. "Limits to Growth revisited: A review essay." Population and Development Review. 31: 157-164.

Smil, Vaclav. 1998. “Future of Oil: Trends and Surprises." OPEC Review 22 (4): 253-276.

Hotelling's Rule
"Hotelling's Rule." From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Cowen, Tyler. 2004. "Oil Prices and Time." Marginal Revolution, May 19.

Friedman, David. 2006. "Peak Oil?" Ideas, March 10.

Haab, Tim. 2005. "Oil prices: Hotelling's Rule, Futures and Options." Environmental Economics, July 7.

Roberts, Russell. 2004. "Why Oil (and Lots of Other Stuff) Gets Cheaper." Café Hayek, May 20.

Simon, Julian. 1990. "Hotelling's Law: Is it Useful or Wasteful?" September 6.


Chapter 15 “Synthesis – What it all amounts to?” in Campbell, C. 1997. The Coming Oil Crisis. Multi-Science Publishing Company & Petroconsultants.

Chapter 1 of Deffeyes, Kenneth S. 2003. Hubbert’s Peak: The Impending World Oil Shortage. Princeton University Press.

Collins, Donald A. "The Great Population Debate: An Opinion Paper." Volume 32, Number 1, Spring 2007.

Crawford, Dan. 2006. "Natural gas has eight years left." The Republic, no 131, February 2 to 14.

Hall, Charles A.S. 2004. “The Myth of Sustainable Development: Personal Reflections on Energy, its Relation to Neoclassical Economics, and Stanley Jevons.” Journal of Energy Resources Technology 126: 85-89.

Journal of Industrial Ecology 17 (3) (June 2013) "Depth and Nature of Giant Petroleum Discoveries Through Time as an Indicator of Resource Depletion."

Hirsch, Robert L., Roger H. Bezdek & Robert M. Wendling. "Peaking Oil Production: Sooner Rather Than Later?" Issues in Science and Technology, vol 21, no 3, Spring 2005.

Hubbert Peak” on Wikipedia.

Kirby, Alex. 2004. “When the Last Oil Well Runs Dry.” BBC News World Edition, April 19.

Kaufmann, Robert and James D. Hamilton. 2005. "Drilling for Broke? Experts Debate 'Peak Oil'." Wall Street Journal Online, August 3.

Laherrère, Jean. 2000. “Learn Strengths, Weaknesses to Understand Hubbert Curve,” Oil & Gas Journal 98 (16): 63-76.

Long Term World Oil Supply (A Resource Base/Production Path Analysis)” on the EIA Website.

Mieszkowski, Katharine. 2006. "The Oil is Going, The Oil is Going!", March 22.

Osborn, Fairfield, Our Plundered Planet, Osborn, Fairfield, Little, Brown, Boston : 1948

Pirages, Dennis. 2005. "From Limits to Growth to Ecological Security," Chapter 1 from From Resource Scarcity to Ecological Security - Exploring New Limits to Growth, Edited by Dennis Pirages and Ken Cousins, June, 280 pp.

Tucker, William. 2005. "A Cartel and Its Snakeoil - The Saudis claim to have huge oil reserves. Do they really?" Opinion Journal, June 28.

Whitty, Julia. "The Last Taboo." Mother Jones, May-June 2010 Issue.

-Political Peak Oil

Bailey, Ronald. 2009. "Peak Oil, Revisited." Reason Magazine, October.

Bailey, Ronald. 2009. "Peak Oil: The Threat of Resource Nationalism." Reason Magazine, August 20.

–, 2005. "Does 'Peak Oil' Spell Death for the Suburbs?" Vanishing Automobile Update #56, September 30.

–, 1948. "Eat Hearty." Time, November 8.

Adelman, M. A. 2004. "The Real Oil Problem." Regulation (Spring): 16-21.

Bailey, Ronald. 2004. "Are We Out of Gas Yet? The Continuing 'Oil Crisis' Crisis." ReasonOnline, March 18.

Bailey, Ronald. 2006. "Peak Oil Panic - Is The Planet Running Out of Gas? If It Is, What Should the Bush Administration Do About It?" Reason Online, May.

Bradley Jr, Robert. 2004. "Are We Running Out of Oil?" PERC Reports, September.

Brandly, Mark. 2004. “Will We Run Out of Energy?, May 19.

Bradley, Robert L. "Jr.'s Remarks Upon Receiving The Julian Simon Memorial Award," Competitive Enterprise Institute, May 22, 2002.

Brätland, John. 2008. "Resource Exhaustibility: A Myth Refuted by Entrepreneurial Capital Maintenance." The Independent Review, Volume 12, Number 3, Winter.

Corcoran, Terence. 2011. "The energy superpower that isn't." Financial Post Comment, November 4.

Corcoran, Terence. 2008. "The price of oil returns to 'normal'." Financial Post Comment, December 10.

Deming, David. 2003. “Are We Running Out of Oil?," National Center for Policy Analysis Background Paper 159.

Emmett, Ross B. 2006. "Malthus Reconsidered: Population, Natural Resources and Markets." PERC Policy Series #38.

Engels, Frederick. "Outlines of a Critique of Political Economy (excerpt)." October and November 1843.

Featherstone, Charles H. 2005. "A Challenge to Peak Oilers.", August 15.

Grewell, J. Bishop. "The Magic of Oil Prices". A Better

Hossein-Zadeh, Ismael. 2008. "A Powerful Trap. The Recurring Myth of Peak Oil." Counterpunch, October 1.

Kleit, Andrew N. 2002. "An Economic Theory of Shortage. Review of Kenneth S. Deffeyes' Hubbert's Peak: The Impending World Oil Shortage," Regulation (Fall): 69-70. (Scroll down to p. 5)

Lapin, Daniel. 2001. "Existential (Energy) Crisis - Because we are human, we are capable of infinite creativity and invention," National Review, June 11.

Lemieux, Pierre. 2005. "The Oil Price Mirage." Ludwig von Mises Institute, August, 23.

Lynch, Michael. 2006. "Crop Circles in the Desert: The Strange Controversy Over Saudi Oil Production." International Research Center for Energy and Economic Development, Occasional Papers: Number Forty.

Lynch, Michael. 2004. The New Pessimism about Petroleum Resources: Debunking the Hubbert Model (and Hubbert Modelers)

Lynch, Michael. 1999. “Oil Scarcity, Oil Crisis and Alternative Energies – Don’t Be Fooled Again!,” Applied Energy 64 (1-4): 31-53.

Lynch, Michael. 1998. “Crying Wolf: Warnings about oil supply." M.I.T., March.

ONeill, Brendan. 2009. "Too many people? No, too many Malthusians." Spiked Online, November 19.

Porter, Edward D. and Sally Brain Gentile. 1996. "Are We Running Out of Oil?," Heartland Institute.

Porter, Edward D. 1995. "Are We Running Out of Oil?," Discussion Paper #81, American Petroleum Institute, December 1995.

Press, Daryl G., and Eugene Gholz. 2007. "Energy Alarmism: The Myths That Make Americans Worry about Oil." Cato Institute, Policy Analysis no. 589, April 5.

Rozeff, Michael S. 2008. "The Coming Oil Price Decline.", January 16.

Schulz, Max. 2006. "Running Out of Oil? History, Technology and Abundance." Tech Central Station, March 13.

Schulz, Max. 2006. "Houston, Do We Have a Problem?" Tech Central Station, February 8.

Solomon, Lawrence. 2011. "Democratic jackpot." National Post, November 4.

Solomon, Lawrence. 2008. "Abundant Energy Will Power Future Growth." National Post, July 12.

Stroup, Richard. 2008. "Review of The Bottomless Well: The Twilight of Fuel, the Virtue of Waste, and Why We Will Never Run Out of Energy  by Peter W. Huber and Mark P. Mills." The Independent Review, Vol. 12, No 3 (Winter).

Are We Running Out of Oil?” Transcript of a talk by G. Campbell Watkins, May 27, 2004.

Yergin, Daniel. 2005. "It's Not the End of the Oil Age." The Washington Post, July 31.

The Simon-Ehrlich Bet
–, "Julian Lincoln Simon," Wikipedia.

–, "Overpopulation," Wikipedia.

–, "Thomas Malthus," Wikipedia.

–, "Paul R. Ehrlich," Wikipedia.

McClintick, David, and Ross B. Emmett. 2005. "Betting on The Wealth Of Nature." Perc Reports, September.

Regis, Ed. 1997. "The Doomslayer," Wired 5 (2) (February).

Perry, Mark J. 2008. "Would Julian Simon Have Won a Second Bet?" Carpe Diem, February 13.

The Lomborg Affair
A video debate between Bjorn Lomborg and Daniel Kammen of the Energy and Resources Group (UC Berkeley), originally aired on PBS's Uncommon Knowledge in 2002.

Bradley, Robert. 2003. The Heated Energy Debate: Assessing John Holdren's Attack on Bjorn Lomborg's The Skeptical Environmentalist. Competitive Enterprise Institute.

Frost, Caroline. 2002. “The Sceptical Environmentalist.” BBC Four, September 2.

–, "Bjørn Lomborg," Wikipedia.

Kysar, Douglas. 2003. "Some Realism about Environmental Skepticism." Ecological Law Quarterly 30: 223-279.

Lomborg, Bjørn. 2004. “The Skeptical Environmentalist.” In Anderson, Terry (ed.) You Have to Admit It’s Getting Better. Hoover Institution Press, p. 2-51.

Pope, Carl & Bjørn Lomborg. 2005. "The State of Nature: Our Roof Is Caving in / Let’s Try Priorities, not Propaganda." Foreign Policy, July/August.

Special issue of Environmental Science and Policy (Vol. 7, Issue 5, October 2004) on "The Politicization of Science: Learning from the Lomborg Affair."

The Jevons Paradox, a.k.a the "Rebound Effect"
Biography of William Stanley Jevons (1835-82), The Concise Encyclopedia of Economics.

William Stanley Jevons, 1835-1882

Jevons Paradox, from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Alcott, Blake, 2005. "Jevons Paradox." Ecological Economics 54 (1): 9-21.

Hertwich, Edgar G. 2005. "Consumption and the Rebound Effect: An Industrial Ecology Perspective." Journal of Industrial Ecology, Vol. 9, 1-2 (Special Issue on Consumption and Industrial Ecology - Winter-Spring) pp. 85-98.

Gottron, Frank. 2001. "RS20981: Energy Efficiency and the Rebound Effect: Does Increasing Efficiency Decrease Demand?" CRS Report for Congress, July 30.

A special issue of the journal Energy Policy, Volume 28, Numbers 6-7, 2000: "On the Rebound: The Interaction of Energy Efficiency, Energy Use and Economic Activity."

Sorrell, Steve. 2009. "Jevons' Paradox Revisited. The Evidence for Backfire from Improved Energy Efficiency." Energy Policy 37(4): 1456-1469.

William Stanley Jevons, The Coal Question; An Inquiry Concerning the Progress of the Nation, and the Probable Exhaustion of Our Coalmines (1865)

Ecological Footprint
Ecological Footprint.” Wikipedia.

Wackernagel, M. et al. “Ecological Footprints of Nations.” The Earth Council (date unknown).

Rees, William. “Revisiting Carrying Capacity: Area-Based Indicators of Sustainability.” (Revised version, date unknown)

Bailey, Ronald. 2002. "The End Is Nigh, Again," ReasonOnline, June 26.

Gordon, Peter and Harry Richardson. 1998. "Farmland Preservation and Ecological Footprints: A Critique," Planning and Markets 1 (1).

Jørgensen, A. et al. 2002. “Assessing the Ecological Footprint: A Look at the WWF’s Living Planet 2002 Report.” Environmental Assessment Institute.

Kinver, Mark. 2006. "Britain Now 'Eating the Planet'." BBC News, April 15.

Worstall, Tim. 2004. "Measuring Santa Monica's Feet." Tech Central Station, May 25.

Wackernagel, Mathis, Niels B. Schulz, Diana Deumling, Alejandro Callejas Linares, Martin Jenkins, Valerie Kapos, Chad Monfreda, Jonathan Loh, Norman Myers, Richard Norgaard, & Jørgen Randers. 2002. "Tracking the Ecological Overshoot of the Human Economy." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS), June 27.

Recent News
"World Energy Outlook 2012 (Released on 12 November 2012)"

"Review & Outlook: The Non-Green Jobs Boom." The Wall Street Journal, November 28.

Agence France-Presse. 2007. "Brazil Discovers Huge Oil Reserves.", November 09.

Bailey, Ronald. 2011. "What Energy Crisis? Natural Gas Supplies Could Last 250 Years." Reason, January 20, 2011.

Connor, Steve. 2008. "Oil Shortage a Myth, Says Industry Insider." The Independent, June 9.

Effinger, Anthony. 2008. "An elusive ocean of crude." - Houston Chronicle, June 6.

Forero, Juan. 2012. "Center of gravity in oil world shifts to Americas." The Washington Post (May 25).

Hargreaves, Steve. 2007. "Still Waiting to Cash in on Iraq's Oil.", November 9.

Krauss, Clifford. 2010. "There Will Be Fuel.", November 16.

Maykuth, Andrew. 2011. "U.S. revises amount of Marcellus gas higher, much higher." (August 24).

Mouawad, Jad. 2007. "Oil Innovations Pump New Life Into Old Wells." The New York Times, March 5.

Solomon, Lawrence. 2012. "A world awash in oil." National Post (March 30).

Utley, Jon Basil. 2008. "The Coming Energy Abundance - How new technology can lower prices and reshape the global economy." Reason Magazine, September 22.

"Oil in America - Energy to spare - America is on track to produce all the energy it needs at home." The Economist (Nov 17th 2012)

Farnham, Alan. 2012. "An American Oil Find That Holds More Oil Than All of OPEC." ABC News (November 13).

Foster, Peter. 2012. "Anti-markets drivel." National Post (November 13).

Nguyen, Lananh. 2012. "U.S. Oil Output to Overtake Saudi Arabia’s by 2020." Bloomberg (November 12).

Pearlman, Jonathan. 2013. "Trillions of dollars worth of oil found in Australian outback." The Telegraph (January 24).

"World's top oil producer projected to be U. S. by 2020." CBC News (November 12, 2012).

Webb, Tim. 2012. "It's Humongous: UK Shale Gas Deposit 50% Bigger than Thought." The Times (London).

Suggested links

US Department of the Interior (US Geological Survey)

A talk by economist James Hamilton on the "Peak Oil" controversy

The Abiotic Oil Debate and "Peak Oil"

The Interview: Thomas Homer-Dixon

Association for the Study of Peak Oil & Gas

Club of Rome

Energy Bulletin


The Oil Depletion Analysis Centre (ODAC)

The Oil Drum - Discussions About Energy and Our Future

The End of Fossil Fuels” on Die Off

The Global Oil Crisis Website

UK Energy Research Centre

Remembering Julian Simon. Freedom Network and the Heartland Institute.

Bjørn Lomborg's (The Skeptical Environmentalist) Website

Peak Oil Debunked


Lecture 10: The Curse of Natural Resources

Suggested readings

Bailey, Ronald. 2007. "Political Peak Oil - One Thing Stands in the Way of Secure and Abundant Supplies of Oil: Government. " ReasonOnline, January 5.

Bannon, Ian and Paul Collier, eds. "Natural Resources and Violent Conflict." The World Bank, 2003.

Beinea, Michel, Charles S. Bosb & Serge Coulombec. "Does the Canadian economy suffer from Dutch disease?" Resource and Energy Economics, Volume 34, Issue 4, November 2012, Pages 468-492.

Birdsall, Nancy and Arvind Subramanian. 2004. "Saving Iraq from its Oil," Foreign Affairs, July, pp. 77-89.

Boianovsky, Mauro. 2013. "Humboldt and the economists on natural resources, institutions and underdevelopment (1752 to 1859)." The European Journal of the History of Economic Thought 20 (1): 58-88.

Boschini, A.D. et al. 2003. "Resource Curse or Not : A Question of Appropriability." Department of Economics, Stockholm University.

Challender, Chloe, Annie Heaton, Fiona King, Vanessa Herringshaw and Bill Bell. "Lifting the Resource Curse - Extractive Industry, Children and Governance." Briefing Report, Save the Children, 2003.

Conca, Ken. 2012. "Decoupling Water and Violent Conflict." Issues in Science and Technology 29 (Fall). 

Coronel, Gustavo. 2006. "Corruption, Mismanagement, and Abuse of Power in Hugo Chávez's Venezuela." Development Policy Analysis no. 2, Cato Institute, November 27.

Cross, Philip. 2013. "Dutch Disease, Canadian Cure: How Manufacturers Adapted to the Higher Dollar." A Macdonald-Laurier Institute Publication (January).

Crowley, Brian Lee. 2006. "The Meaning of Ralph." AIMS In the Media, April 18.

Crowley, Brian Lee. 2005. "The Mixed Blessing of Natural Resources." Dialogues, Fall.

Davis, Graham A. and John E. Tilton. "The Resource Curse." Natural Resources Forum, Volume 29 Issue 3, p. 233 - August 2005.

Davis, Graham A. and John E. Tilton. “Should Developing Countries Renounce Mining? A Perspective on the Debate” International Council on Mining and Metals. (date unknown)

DiJohn, Jonathan, "Mineral Resource Abundance and Violent Political Conflict: A Critical Assessment of the Rentier State Model," LSE Crisis States Programme, Working Paper No. 20, December 2002.

Do Natural Resources Limit Economic Development?” Lancaster University, Department of Geography (Human Geography: Poster 3).

Edvardsen, Espen. 2006-2007. North Sea Saga - The Oil Age In Norway, Horn Forlag.

Eviatar, Daphne. 2003. “Striking It Poor: Oil as Curse.” New York Times, June 7.

Ghazvinian, John. 2007. "The Curse of Oil." Virginia Quarterly Review, Volume 83, Number 1.

Ghersi, Enrique. 2006. "Peru's Mining Crisis." The Independent Institute, September 15.

Harford, Tim, and Michael Klein. 2005. "Aid and the Resource Curse - How Can Aid Be Designed to Preserve Institutions?" Public Policy for the Private Sector 291 (April).

Jones Luong, Pauline, and Erika Weinthal. 2006. "Rethinking The Resource Curse: Ownership Structure, Institutional Capacity, and Domestic Constraints." Annual Review of Political Science Vol. 9: 241-263 (June).

Kheiriddin, Tasha. 2012. "The Time is Ripe for First Nations Land Reform in Canada." National Post (August 9).

Le Billon, Philippe, "The political ecology of war: Natural resources and armed conflict," Political Geography 20 (2001), pp. 561-584.

Martinez, Ibsen. 2006. "Reflections from Latin America - OPEC: A Texan Idea Twice Thought In Venezuela." Library of Economics and Liberty, August 7.

Mbachu, Dulue. 2006. "Nigeria Boosting Protection for Pipelines.", May 13.

"Meeting the Challenge of the Resource Curse - International Experiences in Managing the Risks and Realising the Opportunities of Non-Renewable Natural Resource Revenue Management." Prepared for Bureau for Resources and Strategic Partnerships, United Nations Development Programme, January 2006.

Moreen, Amber Linea. 2006. "Overcoming the 'Resource Curse' - Prioritizing Policy Interventions in Countries with Large Extractive Industries." RAND Corporation, October.

Papyrakis, Elissaios and Reyer Gerlagh. 2004. "The Resource Curse Hypothesis and its Transmission Channels." Journal of Comparative Economics 32 (1): 181-193.

Patrick, Roland. 2006. "Thanks Hugo... Hoser - Canada Benefits From Venezuela's Export of Petroleum Engineers." Let's Fly Under the Bridge, April 3.

Pendleton, Christian et al. 2003. ”Fueling Poverty: Oil, War and Corruption.” Christian Aid.

Ross, Michael L. 2013. The Oil Curse: How Petroleum Wealth Shapes the Development of Nations. Princeton University Press. 

Ross, Michael. 2006. "A Closer Look at Oil, Diamonds, and Civil War." Annual Review of Political Science Vol. 9: 265-300 (June).

Ross, Michael, "Oil, Drugs, and Diamonds: How Do Natural Resources Vary in their Impact on Civil War?" Working paper: UCLA University Press, 2002.

Skidelsky, Robert. 2004. “Can Russia Escape the ‘Resource’ Curse?Wall Street Journal, July 6.

Stevens, Paul J. 2006. "Resource Curse and How to Avoid It?" Journal of Energy and Development 31 (1): 1-20.

Stevens, Paul. 2003. “Resource Impact: A Curse or a Blessing?” Centre for Energy, Petroleum and Mineral Law and Policy, University of Dundee, Draft Working Paper, April 22.

Tupy, Marian L. 2006. "Sir John Cowperthwaite: A Personal Tribute." The Cato Institute, February 3.

Van der Ploeg, Frederick and Anthony J. Venables. 2012. "Natural Resource Wealth: The Challenge of Managing a Windfall." Annual Review of Economics 4: 315?337.

Van der Ploeg, Frederick. 2011. "Natural Resources: Curse or Blessing?" Journal of Economic Literature 49 (2): 366-420.

Weinthal, Erika, and Pauline Jones Luong. 2006. "Combating the Resource Curse: An Alternative Solution to Managing Mineral Wealth." Perspectives on Politics 4(1): 35-53.

The Curse of Resources.” Bastard Sword (Blog), January 26, 2004.

"Resource curse." Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

"Rent seeking." Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Suggested links

A National Public Radio series (originally aired in August 2005) on "Oil Money Divides Nigeria."

The Dark Side of Natural Resources" and “Oil and Natural Gas” on the Global Policy Forum.

The second installment (“The Oil Curse”) of the 3 part CBC series “Oil: The World Over a Barrel.”

Odious Debt

Exorcizing the Resource Curse: Minerals as a Knowledge Industry, Past and Present

Mehlum, Halvor, Karl Moene and Ragnar Torvik. 2006. "Institutions and the Resource Curse." The Economic Journal, 116 (January), 1–20. Royal Economic Society (earlier non-gated version available here).

Brunnschweiler, Christa N., Erwin H. Bulte. "The Resource Curse Revisited and Revised: A Tale of Paradoxes and Red Herrings." Working Paper 06/61, Economics Working Paper Series, December 2006.

The Curse of Oil. Jean-Pierre Beaurenaud, Les Films du Village, France 5, Zarafa Films.

Lecture 11: The Future of the Automobile

Suggested readings

Bradley, Robert L and Richard W. Fulmer. Energy: The Master Resource, Kendall Hunt Publishing Company, 2004, Chapter 2: Using Energy, pp. 48-55.

Brain, Marshall. "How Car Engines Work." Howstuffworks.

Schulz, Max. 2007. "The CAFE Paradox." Tech Central Station, June 28.

"Alternative Fuel Cars." Collingwood School, Springfield Road, Wallington, Surrey.

The American Dream Coalition on Cars
- Automobiles & the American Dream
- Automobiles and Low Income Families
- Automobile Myths
- Congestion and the American Dream
- Automobility References and Experts

–, "Change the Name to Anti-Business Week." The Antiplanner, February 19, 2008.

National Research Council. 2013. Transitions to Alternative Vehicles and Fuels. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

> Before the Car
Urban Pollution - Many long years ago - Carriage Horse History - Coalition for New York City Animals

Davies, Stephen. 2004. "Our Economic Past ~ The Great Horse-Manure Crisis of 1894." The Freeman - Ideas On Liberty, September 1st.

"How Equine Flu Brought the US to a Standstill." Horsetalk, September 26, 2007.

Lee, Dwight R. 2007. "Thank You, Internal-Combustion Engine, for Cleaning up the Environment - Widespread Pollution from Horse Manure Caused Diseases and Produced Methane Gas." The Freeman - Ideas On Liberty (October - Volume 57 - Issue 8).

Morris, Eric. (2007). "From horse power to horsepower." Access, vol. 30, pp. 2-9.

Smil, Vaclav. 2000. "Horse Power," Nature 405: 125.

Teicher, Jordan G. 2014. The Glories of 19th Century Paris (Photos), Slate (February 24).

> Tractors
White, William J. 2008 "Economic History of Tractors in the United States." Eh.Net Encyclopedia of Economic and Business History.

James Pethokoukis. 2012. "What if the Tractor Had Never Been Invented" The Enterprise Blog (March 8)

National Academy of Engineering. Greatest Achievements of the 20th Century - Agricultural Mechanization - Tractor Development

• Historical Perspective
Kinney Bennett, Ralph. 2006. "Bertha’s Muscle Car." Tech Central Station, January 31.

Reynold, Alan. 2004. “Energy Disinformation.” Washington Times, June 27.

Biomass Fuels
Several links dealing with biomass fuels are provided in lecture 8.

Electric Car
"History of Electric Vehicles The Early Years (1890-1930)." U.S. Department of Energy, July 11, 2005.

Carl Sulzberger, Carl. "100 Miles On One Charge - The remarkable Fritchle electric car." IEEE Power Engineering Society.

Fienberg, Daniel. 2006. "Who Killed the Electric Car?", June 30.

Foster, Peter. 2010. "The Voltswagen: The people's car the people pay for." Financial Post, July 28.

Freese, Duane D. 2006. "Technology and Politics as Metaphor." Tech Central Station, June 30.

Jenkins, Holman W. 2008. "What Is GM Thinking?" The Wall Street Journal, July 2.

Moran, Rick. 2012. "GM loses $49,000 on each Chevy Volt it sells." American Thinker (September 10).

Rauch, Jonathan. 2008. "Electro-Shock Therapy." The Atlantic Monthly, July-August.

Vaughan, Adam. 2010. "Figures show massive slump in UK sales of new electric cars." The Guardian, October 21.

Voelcker, John. 2007. "Can Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles Keep the Electric Grid Stable?" IEEE Spectrum, October.

Webster, Ben. 2011. "Electric cars may not be so green after all, says British study." The Times, June 10.

Wickstrom, Doug. 2006. "Who Killed the Electric Car?" rec.arts.sf.fandom Google Group, July 14.


–, "Toyota Prius proves a gas guzzler in a race with the BMW 520d." The Sunday Times, March 16, 2008.

Baukus Mello, Tara. 2004. "The Real Costs of Owning a Hybrid.", November 18.

Demorro, Chris. 2007. "Prius Outdoes Hummer in Environmental Damage." The Recorder, March 7.

Fingarson, Ashley and Jane S. Shaw. 2005. "Hybrids: Made In The USA? - A Little-Known Government Program That Fizzled." PERC Reports, March.

Friedman, Sasha. 2009. "High Voltage Danger: Emergency Responders and Hybrid Cars." Hybrid-electric EVs, January 25.

Koerner, Brendan I. 2008. "Tank vs. Hybrid - Is it possible that a Hummer's better for the environment than a Prius is?", March 18.

Leblanc, John. 2008. "The Higher Cost of Hybrids." (The Toronto Star), April 4.

Murray, Iain. 2004. “Rude Awakening for Hybrid Dreamers.” Tech Central Station, May 18.

Shields, Michael. 2006. "Carmakers Say Combustion Engines Here For Years." Planet Ark, June 8.

Smith, Lewis. 2008. "Eco-friendly Claims for ‘Hybrid’ Cars Dismissed as Gimmickry." Times Online, May 19.

Smith, Rebecca. 2008. "Utilities, Plug-In Cars: Near Collision? Electric Firms Say Daytime Charges May Raise Costs." The Wall Street Journal, May 2.

Wald, Matthew L. 2005. "Hybrid Cars Burning Gas in the Drive for Power." The New York Times, July 17.

Williams-Derry, Clark. 2005 "To Hybrid, or Not to Hybrid." Canstats Bulletins, January 31.

Yates, Brock. 2004. “Engines for Today, Engines for the Future.” Tech Central Station, July 22.

Yates, Brock. 2004. “A Hybrid Shock?Tech Central Station, July 8.

"CNW's 'Dust to Dust' Automotive Energy Report." ("Why 100,000 Miles for Prius?," "Hidden Cost of Driving a Prius Commentary," etc.)

Brain, Marshall. "How Diesel Engines Work (Introduction)." Howstuffworks.

Brain, Marshall. "How Diesel Engines Work (Diesel Engines vs. Gasoline Engines)." Howstuffworks.

Ciulla, Vincent. "The Diesel Engine."

Anthrop, Donald. 2004. "Hydrogen’s Empty Environmental Promise", Cato Institute Briefing Papers no. 90, December 7.

Bailey, Ronald. 2003. "Where are the Hydrogen Mines?," Tech Central Station, December 10.

Coninx, Paul. 2004. "The Hydrogen Balloon." Fraser Forum, August, pp. 29-30

Hoffmann, Peter, and Robert Rose. 2003. "Toward Tomorrow's Energy: Speeding the Commercial Use of Fuel Cells and Hydrogen." Progressive Policy Institute (PPI), January 22.

Economist Lynn Kiesling suggests that we Let the Hydrogen Economy Evolve
on the Reason Public Policy Institute Website:
"The Science of Hydrogen Fuel Cells." Part 1 of a five-part series, March 24, 2003.
"The Economics of Hydrogen: Innovation in Mature and New Technologies." Part 2 of a five-part series, March 25, 2003.
"Are Hydrogen Fueling Station Subsidies Necessary?" Part 3 of a five-part series, March 26, 2003.
"Hydrogen-Powered Buildings." Part 4 of a five-part series, March 27, 2003.
"Can the Government Pick Technology Winners? Can Anyone?" Part 5 of a five-part series, March 28, 2003.

Korchinski, William J. 2004. Fueling America: How Hydrogen Cars Affect the Environment. Reason Public Policy Institute Policy Study No. 322. Full Study - Study Summary

National Academy of Engineering, Board on Energy and Environmental Systems. 2004. The Hydrogen Economy: Opportunities,Costs, Barriers, and R&D Needs. National Academies Press.
(see the columns on this report by Ronald Bailey and Ken Silverstein)

Newel, Richard G. "The Hydrogen Economy: Laying out the Groundwork." Resources (Navigating Energy Choices in the 21st Century), Winter 2005, Issue 156, pp. 20-23.

Romm, Joseph. 2004. "The Hype about Hydrogen." Issues in Science and Technology.

Shekhar, Chandra. 2006. "Methanol: The New Hydrogen Advances in Methanol Synthesis, Coupled With Improved Fuel Cell Technology, Could Make it a Viable Alternative to Gasoline." Technology Review, March 27.

Shinnar, Reuel, 2003. “The Hydrogen Economy, Fuel Cells and Electric Cars.” Technology in Society 25 (4): 455-476.

Sperling, Daniel and Joan Ogden. 2004. "Hydrogen Hope." Issues in Science and Technology.

Sperling, Daniel. 2003. "FreedomCAR and Fuel Cells: Toward the Hydrogen Economy?" Progressive Policy Institute (PPI), January 22.

Talbot, David. 2006. "Cheap Hydrogen Fuel - GE says its new machine could make the hydrogen economy affordable, by slashing the cost of water-splitting technology." Technology Review, March 09.

Zubrin, Robert. "The Methanol Alternative." The New Atlantis, Number 13, Summer 2006, pp. 85-88.

Related topics
Baden John. 2008. "Third World's Realities." Tech Central Station, February 6.

Taylor, Jerry, and Peter Van Doren. 2007. "Don't Raise CAFE Standards." CATO Institute, August 2.

Trent, Dan. 2008. "Top 10: Europe’s best selling cars." MSN Cars UK, January 29.

"Mazda Develops New Catalyst Material Structure for Autos That Reduces Precious Metal Requirements." Green Car Congress, October 1st, 2007.

Suggested links

"Alan Alda Scientific American Frontier: Future Car." (a video that can be seen on the PBS Website.)

Vehicle Technologies Program: Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity

Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity: Overview

Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity: Related Links

Eric Peters Autos

Before the Car

Running Like Wildfire - A Study of the Most Destructive Recorded Episode of Equine Influenza in History

Historical Perspective

History of the Automobile” on

Cité de l'Automobile - Car Museum, Alsace France

Car News and Debate
The Detroit News Auto Talk

The various editorials of "The Truth about Cars"

Diesel Vs Gasoline

Comparing Gas and Diesel Engines

Diesel Technology Forum

Hybrid and Electric Cars

Who Killed the Electric Car? (Sony Pictures Classics)

Rauch, Jonathan. 2008. "Rauch on the Volt, Risk, and Corporate Culture." EconTalk, September 01. 

Future Car


Green Car Congress

Horisly's Space: World's First Air-Powered Cars by Toyota [Videos]

The International Journal of Hydrogen Energy

The Interview: David Sanborn Scott

Lecture 12: Guest Lecture: TBA

Ontario energy history and policy framework
Special Issue: Energy and Society in Canada.” 2014. Scientia Canadensis: Canadian Journal of the History of Science, Technology and Medicine 37 (1-2): 1-221.


Final exam: TBA


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