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University of Toronto Mississauga • Department of Geography • WINTER 2019

GGR 333H5F Energy and Society


 Instructor: Pierre Desrochers


 Lectures: Tuesday, 7-9 PM


 Phone: (905) 828-5206

 Office: Davis Building, room 3273


 Lecture room: CC 2130




GGR 333H5F - Primary Syllabus and Mandatory Readings

Primary Syllabus and Mandatory Readings

Suggested Readings' DIRECT LINKS

Lecture 1 (January 8): Introduction
> Lecture 2 (January 15): Concepts and the Big Picture
> Lecture 3 (January 22): Carbon-Fuelled Civilizations 1
> Lecture 4 (January 29): Carbon-Fuelled Civilizations 2
> Lecture 5 (February 5): Carbon-Fuelled Civilizations 3
> Lecture 6 (February 12): Term test - Questions
> Week 7 (February 19): Reading Week
> Lecture 8 (February 26): Electricity (Hydro and Nuclear)
> Lecture 9 (March 5): Electricity (Alternatives) and Biomass
> Lecture 10 (March 12): The Perennial Energy Debate
> Lecture 11 (March 19): The Curse of Natural Resources
> Lecture 12 (March 26): The Future of the Automobile
> Lecture 13 (April 2): Guest Lecture: TBA


Lecture 1: Introduction

Suggested readings

General interest
"Can Technology Save the Planet?," The Economist, July 4th, 2002 (Part of the Survey of the Global Environment).

Cohen, Stephanie. "Energy Dreams and Energy Realities." The New Atlantis, Spring 2004.

Committee on America's Energy Future, National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering and National Research Council. 2009.
America's Energy Future: Technology and Transformation. National Academies Press (Summary Edition).

Glassman, James K. 2005. "Energetic Ignorance." Tech Central Station, April 20.

Holdren, John P. 2001. "Searching for a National Energy Policy," Issues in Science and Technology, 17 (3).
Followed in the next issue by a forum on energy policy.

Energy” on John McCarthy's Progress and Its Sustainability Website.

Kling, Arnold. 2008. "The Energy Future: Scenarios." Tech Central Station, March 6.

Lieberman. Ben. 2006. "Snake Oil Policy." Tech Central Station, September 12.

Pizer, William A. "Setting Energy Policy in the Modern Era: Tough Challenges Lie Ahead." Resources (Navigating Energy Choices in the 21st Century), Winter 2005, Issue 156, pp. 8-10.

Sibilla, Nick. 2012. "Free Markets Save the Planet." Reason - Hit & Run (January 27).

Vaclav Smil. "U.S. Energy Policy The Need for Radical Departures." Issues in Science and Technology, Summer 2009.

Boisvert, Will. 2014. "The Left vs the Climate." The Breakthrough (September 18).

Calvert, Kirby. Forthcoming. "From 'Energy Geography' to 'Energy Geographies.' Perspectives on a Fertile Academic Borderland." Progress in Human Geography.
Huber, Matthew. 2015. "Theorizing energy geographies." Geography Compass 9(6): 27-38.

Smil, Vaclav. 2014. The Arc of History. J. P. Morgan Chase.
Yatchew, Adonis. 2014. "Economics of Energy, Big Ideas for the Non-economist." Energy Research & Social Science (1): 74-82.

Topical interest
Energy Independence
Henderson, David R. 2008. "Lets Not Be Energy Independent." The Freeman: Ideas on Liberty, Vol. 58 No. 8 (October).

Parry, Ian W.H., and J.W. Anderson. "Petroleum: Energy independence is Unrealistic." Resources (Navigating Energy Choices in the 21st Century), Winter 2005, Issue 156, pp. 11-15.

Shurtleff, Sean. 2008. "Energy Independence in Brazil: Lessons for the United States." NCPA Brief Analysis (614), April 7.

–. 2004. "Improvement of the World Environment: The Skeptical Environmentalist," Economic Note, January, Institut Économique Molinari.

National Academy of Engineering. 2000. Greatest Engineering Achievements of the 20th Century.

Bhandari, Jayant. 2005. "The Polluting State." The Mises Institute. July 20.

Gillingham, Kenneth, Richard Newell and Karen Palmer. 2006. "Energy Efficiency Policies: A Retrospective Examination." Annual Review of Environment and Resources Vol. 31: 161-192 (November).

Grimes, William. 2008. "Heard the One About the Farmer’s Ethanol?" The New York Times, March 7.

Klein, Ralph, & Brian Tobin with Gerry Angevine. 2008. "Envisioning a continental energy strategy for North America." Fraser Forum, March, p. 6-9.

Mortished, Carl. 2006. "Coal Burns a Hole in the Carbon Crusade." Times OnLine, July 12.

Roberts, Paul. 2008. "The Seven Myths of Energy Independence." Mother Jones, May/June Issue.

Schulz, Nick. 2005. "The Great Escape." Tech Central Station, December 1st.

Sims Gallagher, Kelly, John P. Holdren, and Ambuj D. Sagar. 2006. "Energy-Technology Innovation." Annual Review of Environment and Resources Vol. 31: 193-237 (November).

Taylor, Jerry. 2005. "Republicans vs. Oil.", November 8.

International Energy Agency. 2015. World Energy Outlook 2015
- Press material

US Energy Information Administration (EIA). 2015. Annual Energy Outlook 2015
- Executive Summary

BP. 2015. Energy Outlook 2035
- Outlook in Brief 

ExxonMobil. 2015. The Outlook for Energy: A view to 2040, page 1

Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC). 2015. World Oil Outlook 2015
- Executive Summary

Forecasting in retrospect
Bailey, Ronald. 2009. "How Green Is Your Crystal Ball? The National Academy of Sciences tries to predict America's energy future. Again.", August 4.

Suggested links

A RFF video on "Taking Measure of U.S. Energy Policy: A Review of the Energy Policy Act of 2005."

Interview with Prof. Peter Odell, 2006 OPEC Award Recipient

Science and Technology - Power Hungry: The Myths of Green Energy and the Real Fuels of the Future

Lecture 2: Concepts and the Big Picture

Suggested readings

Big Picture and Basic Concepts
"A Framework for Understanding Energy Resources." Resources Magazine (Please make sure to click on the magnifying class and browse over each item).

An OECD report “Energy the Next Fifty Years” (1999)

An IEA/OCDE report “Toward a Sustainable Energy Future” (2001)

What is Energy?” Energy Information Agency.

Energy.” Environmental Literacy Council.

Energy in Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia.
Potential and Kinetic Energy.”
Conversion and Conservation of Energy.”

“Survey of Energy Resources.” World Energy Council, 2007.
Abbreviations and Acronyms
Conversion Factors and Energy Equivalents

Leone, Robert A. "Energy," The Concise Encyclopedia of Economics.

Chapter 1 of Shepherd, W. and D.W. Shepherd. 2004. Energy Studies. World Scientific Publishing Co.

Nair, Indira, Sharon Jones, Sheila Flavin, Ashley Deal, and Diana Bajzek. Environmental Decision Making, Science and Technology. Carnegie Mellon University, pp.1-15; 29-34.

Smil, V. 2000. "Energy in the 20th Century: Resources, Conversions, Costs, Uses, and Consequences," Annual Review of Energy and the Environment 25: 21-51.

Smil, Vaclav. 2002. "Energy Resources and Uses: A Global Primer for the Twenty-First Century," Current History 101(653):126-132.

On Wikipedia
Energy (society)
Capacity factor
Power station

Energy Transitions and Related Topics
Ausubel, Jesse H. 2007. "The Future Environment for the Energy Business." APPEA Journal (Part 2): 487-495.

Ausubel, Jesse. 2002. "Does Energy Policy Matter?" Talk delivered at the George C. Marshall Institute, April 18.

Ausubel, Jesse. 1998. "Resources and Environment in the 21st Century: Seeing Past the Phantoms," World Energy Council Journal (July): 8-16.

Bradley, Robert L. 2002. "Energy for Sustainable Development." In Julian Morris (ed). Sustainable Development: Promoting Progress or Perpetuating Poverty? Profile Books, p. 159-171.

Cleveland, Cutler J. 2012. "Energy Transitions: Past and Future." Encyclopedia of the Earth.

Doerell, Peter. 1999. “All Future Energy Will Have to be Clean.” Applied Energy 64 (1-4): 79-88.

Dincer, Ibrahim and Marc Rosen. 1999. “Energy, Environment and Sustainable Development.” Applied Energy 64(1-4): 427-440.

Friedmann, Julio S., and Homer-Dixon, Thomas, "Out of the Energy Box," Foreign Affairs (September/October 2004) pp. 72-83.

Grubler, Arnulf. 2013. "Energy Transitions." Encyclopedia of the Earth.

O'Connor, Peter A. 2010. "Energy Transitions." Pardee Papers #12 (November).

Smil, Vaclav. 2016. "Gradual Greening: Power Density and the Hydrocarbon Habit." CLSA U Blue Books. 

Smil, Vaclav. 2014. "The Long Slow Rise of Solar and Wind." Scientific American 282(1): 52-57.

Smil, V. 2001. "Geography of Energy Use." In J. Zumerchik, ed., Macmillan Encyclopedia of Energy Vol. 2, Macmillan, pp. 567-572.

Add Lyman, Robert. 2019. Transition to Reality: The prospects for rapid global decarbonization. Global Warming Policy Foundation Essay 8 (February). 

Suggested links

International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis - Energy Primer; excerpts (pdf).

Lecture 3-4-5: Carbon-Fuelled Civilizations I-II-III

Suggested readings


• Fire and Forests
> Historical Perspective

Enright, Neal J., and Ian Thomas. "Pre-European Fire Regimes in Australian Ecosystems." Geography Compass 2/4 (2008): 979–1011.

Goudsblom, Johan. 2004. "Fire: A Socioecological and Historical Survey." in C. Cleveland, Encyclopedia of Energy, Elsevier, pp. 669-681.

Griffin, Robert. "Feds, Forests, and Fire: A Century of Canadian Forestry Innovation (Transformation Series, 13). By Richard A. Rajala. Ottawa, Ontario: Canada Science and Technology Museum, 2005. xi+116 pp., illus., notes, bibl., index. $20 Canadian pb (ISBN 0-660-18720-5)." IA, The Journal of the Society for Industrial Archeology, Vol. 31, Issue 2.

Kay, Charles. 2000. "Native Burning in Western North America: Implications for Hardwood Forest Management," In Daniel Yaussy, ed., Proceedings: Workshops on Fire, People and the Central Hardwood Landscapes, United States Department of Agriculture, General Technical Report NE-274, pp.19-27.

McCrone, John. 2000. "Fired up." New Scientist 166 (2239): 30.

Williams, Gerald W. 2002. "Aboriginal Use of Fire: Are there any 'Natural' Plant Communities?" In Charles Kay and Randy Simmons, Wilderness & Political Ecology: Aboriginal Influences & the Original State of Nature, The University of Utah Press, pp. 179-214.

Williams, Gerald W. 2001. References on the American Indian Use of Fire in Ecosystems.

Kusmer, Anna. 2018. "New England Is Crisscrossed With Thousands of Miles of Stone Walls. That's enough to circle the globe-four times." Atlas Obscura (May 4).

(Note: For additional readings on the subject, look up Week 5 (Forests through Time) lecture of my course GGR 489 Special Topics in Human Geography: Cities, Industry and the Environment.)

> Fire and Forest Management: Current Issues

Berry, Alison. "Forest Policy Up in Smoke: Fire Suppression in the United States." Paper presented to the International Society for New Institutional Economics in July 2007 at the University of Iceland in Reykjavik.

Bonnicksen, Thomas. 2006. "Dooming Woods and Wildlife." The Washington Times, September 17.

MacCleery, Doug. 2004. "Is There a Landscape Archaeologist in the House?" Eco-Watch, February 10.

Murray, Iain. 2008. "Treehuggers Against Trees.", May 1.

O'Toole, Randal. 2007. "U.S. Forest Service Has Money to Burn." Cato Institute, October 30.

Phillips, Lynne. 2006. "Food and Globalization." Annual Review of Anthropology Vol. 35: 37-57 (October).

Pyne, Stephen J. 2002. If I Ran the Zoo. A Survey of Wildland Fire in America.

Special Issue of Society and Natural Resources (17 (6), July 2004) on "Humans, Fire, and Forests: The Reemergence of Research on Human Dimensions."

Bailey, Ronald. 2006. "Biotech Forests Menace or Salvation for Wild Forests?" Reason Online, September 1st.

Forest and Wood Supply” and solar energy on John McCarthy’s Progress and its Sustainability Website.

Franklin, Jerry and K. Norman Johnson. 2004. "Forests Face New Threat: Global Market Changes." Issues in Science and Technology.

Huber, Peter, and Mark Mills. 1999. "How Non-Green Cities Are Rebuilding the American Forests." Los Angeles Times, December 29.

Mather, Alexander S. "Assessing the World’s Forests." Global Environmental Change 15 (2005) 267–280.

Minnemeyer, Susan, Matthew Hansen, Peter Potapov, & Kyle Pittman. 2007. "Painting the Global Picture of Tree Cover Change: Tree Cover Loss in the Humid Tropics." World Resources Institute, May.

Parviainen, Liisa. 2006. "UH: End of Deforestation in View? Experts Advance New Way to Size Up Global Forest Resources." University of Helsinki (University Communications), November 14th.

Kauppi, Pekka E., Jesse H. Ausubel, Jingyun Fang, Alexander S. Mather, Roger A. Sedjo and Paul E. Waggoner. 2006. "Returning Forests Analyzed with the Forest Identity." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 103 (46): 17574-17579.

Matson, Pamela and Peter Vitousek. 2006. "Agricultural Intensification: Will Land Spared from Farming be Land Spared for Nature?" Conservation Biology 20 (3): 709 - 710.

Rudel, Thomas K., Oliver T. Coomes, Emilio Moran, Frederic Achard, Arild Angelsen, Jianchu Xu and Eric Lambin. 2005. "Forest Transitions: Towards a Global Understanding of Land Use Change." Global Environmental Change 15 (1): 23-31.

"Survey of Energy Resources 2007 - Wood Fuels." World Energy Council.

For additional readings, see GGR 489 - Cities, Industries and the Environment, Week 5 mandatory and suggested readings.

Deforestation and Reforestation

Ausubel, Jesse H. "On Sparing Farmland and Spreading Forest." In Clark, T. and R. Staebler, eds., Forestry at the Great Divide: Proceedings of the Society of American Foresters 2001 Convention, Society of American Foresters, Bethesda MD, 2002, pp. 127-138.

Benjamin, Daniel K. 2003. "Use Them or Lose Them." PERC Reports, Volume 21, Number 3, September.

Benjamin, Daniel K. 1997. "Avoiding the Ax: The Truth about Deforestation." PERC Reports, Volume 15, Number 5, December.

Horgan, Gerard. "Wood Energy Economics." FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations).

Libecap, Gary. 2003. "Deforesting the Earth: From Prehistory to Global Crisis." Eh.Net, August.

C Michael Hogan PhD. 2010. "Deforestation." The Encyclopedia of Earth, June 1.

The Role of Wood in World History by K.J.W. Oosthoek.

Rudela, Thomas K., Oliver T. Coomes, Emilio Moran, Frederic Achard, Arild Angelsen, Jianchu Xu, and Eric Lambin. "Forest Transitions: Towards a Global Understanding of Land Use Change." Global Environmental Change 15 (2005) 23–31.

Runnels, Curtis N. 1995. "Environmental Degradation in Ancient Greece." Scientific American 272 (3) (March), p. 96-99.

Victor, David G., and Jesse H. Ausubel. 2000. "Restoring the Forests." Foreign Affairs, Vol 79, Number 6, November/December, pp. 127-144.

Williams, Michael. 2008. "A New Look at Global Forest Histories of Land Clearing." Annual Review of Environment and Resources, Vol. 33: 345-367.

Williams, Michael. "Dark Ages and Dark Areas: Global Deforestation in the Deep Past." Journal of Historical Geography, 26, 1 (2000) 28–46.

"Forests Cover 30% of the Total Land Area." FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations).

Tragedy of the Commons
Alchian, Armen A. "Property Rights," The Concise Encyclopedia of Economics.

Bailey, Ronald. 2006. "Pick Your Poissons - Economic and Ecological Diversity for Fisheries." Reason, August 25.

Bailey, Ronald. 2012. "Property Rights Are the Way to Save the World's Depleting Fisheries, Reports Science." Reason (September 28).

Borders, Max. 2006."The Stone Age Trinity." Tech Central Station, March 6.

Brubaker, Elizabeth. 1995. Property Rights in the Defence of Nature. Environment Probe and Earthscan. Chapter 13: The Gospel According to St. John.

Gissurarson, Hannes. 2000. Overfishing: the Icelandic Solution. London: Institute of Economic Affairs.

Hardin, Garrett. "The Tragedy of the Commons," The Concise Encyclopedia of Economics.

John Locke, The Works of John Locke, vol. 4 Economic Writings and Two Treatises of Government [1691]. CHAPTER V.: Of Property.

Mansfield, Becky. 2004. “Neoliberalism in the Oceans: “Rationalization,” Property Rights and the Commons Question.” Geoforum 35: 313-326.

Meany, Paul. 2018. "Aristotle's Defense of Private Property: 4 Reasons Communal Property Is Inferior." (July 11).

Ostrom, Elinor. 1999. “Coping with Tragedies of the Commons.” Annual Review of Political Science 2: 493-535.

Ostrom, Elinor. 2000. "Private and Common Property Rights." In the Encyclopedia of Law and Economics. Edited by Boudewijn Bouckaert and Gerrit De Geest. Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar, p. 332-379.

Paul Kasriel. 2003. "The Whale Oil Crisis - How Did We Survive It Without Congressional Intervention?," The Northern Trust Company Daily Economic Comment, November 19.

Spurrell, Nick. 2003. "How Capitalism 'Out-Greens' The Greens." Ama-Gi 5(2).

Smil, Vaclav. 2004. "Garrett James Hardin (Dallas 1915-Santa Barbara 2003)," American Scientist, 92 (1): 8.

• History of Whaling
"History of whaling," Wikipedia

Applebome, Peter. "They Used to Say Whale Oil Was Indispensable, Too." The New York Times, August 3, 2008.

Bardi, Ugo. 2004. "Prices and Production over a complete Hubbert Cycle: the Case of the American Whale Fisheries in 19th Century." Energy Bulletin, November 24.

McNamara, Robert. 2010. "A Brief History of Whaling The 19th Century Whaling Industry Thrived for Decades."

Lemos, Charles. 2008. "The Whale Oil Peak Curve." By The Fault, May 14.

Hoare, Philip. 2015. "White Whale in the Big Smoke: How the Geography of London Inspired Moby-Dick." New Stateman (December 2).

Gorman, Martyn. 2002. The Slaughter of the Whales (University of Aberdeen).

McCollough, John and Henry F. Check, Jr. 2010. "The Baleen Whales' Saving Grace: The Introduction of Petroleum Based Products in the Market and Its Impact on the Whaling Industry." Sustainability 2 (10): 3142-3157

• Carbon-based Fuels
> General
Eh. Net Encyclopedia of Economic and Business History (various entries)

Cross, Philip. 2015. "In Praise of Fossil Fuels." C2C Journal (December 17). Oil production history (USA).

Contemporary Issues
Several detailed papers on fossil fuel policy issues are available in the Annual Review of Environment and Resources.

Bradley, Robert L and Richard W. Fulmer. Energy: The Master Resource, Kendall Hunt Publishing Company, 2004, Chapter 2: Using Energy, pp. 17-18, 21-25, 29-30, 32-33, 37-39.

Arscott, Lyn. 2004. “Sustainable Development in the Oil and Gas Industry.” Journal of Energy Resources Technology 126: 1-5.

Auerswald, Philip E. "The Myth of Energy Insecurity." Issues in Science and Technology, vol 22, no 4, Summer 2006.

Bailey, Ron. 2004. “Energy Independence: The Ever-Receding Mirage. 30 Years of Presidential Futility and Failure.” ReasonOnline, July 21.

Bast, Joseph and Peter Ferrara. 2018. The Social Benefits of Fossil Fuels. Heartland Institute.

Burnett, H. Sterling, and Christa Bieker. 2006. "Taxing Profits, Draining Energy." National Center for Policy Analysis, Brief Analysis No. 549, March 30.

Taylor, Jerry. 2004. "Energy Independence? Kerry's Dreaming." Cato Institute, August 24.

AAAS (American Association for the Advancement of Science) and American Petroleum Institute. Science Net Links: Technology and Oil
- Adventures in Energy (browse)

Goklany, Indur. 2012. "Humanity Unbound: How Fossil Fuels Saved Humanity from Nature and Nature from Humanity." Cato Policy Analysis No. 715 (Executive Summary).

> Coal
Adams, Sean. 2003. "US Coal Industry in the Nineteenth Century." EH.Net Encyclopedia, January 24.

Desrochers, Pierre and Joanna Szurmak. 2018. "How Julian Simon and Dionysius Lardner Proved the Doomsday Alarmists Wrong." (March 24). 

Contemporary Issues

Coal.” International Energy Agency
How Coal is Formed“ and “Coal Terms Glossary.” American Coal Foundation.
Survey of Energy Resources Interim Update 2009 - Coal.” World Energy Council.

–, 2004. "Clean Coal." Progressive Policy Institute (PPI), December 2.

"The Future of Coal." Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), March 14, 2007.

The Future Role of Coal.” International Energy Agency, 1999.

Anderson, J. W. "Coal: Dirty Cheap Energy." Resources (Navigating Energy Choices in the 21st Century), Winter 2005, Issue 156, pp. 31-34.

Bradsher, Keith. 2009. "China Outpaces US in Cleaner Coal-Fired Plants." New York Times (May 10).

Brown, Matthew. 2010. "Old-style coal plants expanding." The Associated Press, August 17.

Bryce, Robert. 2014. Not beyond Coal: How the Global Thirst for Low-Cost Electricity Continues Driving Coal Demand. Manhattan Institute (October 27). 

Bullis, Kevin. 2006. "Coal-Powered Jets - A New Process Using Jet Fuel Made From Coal Could Reduce Oil Dependence, and Improve Fuel Performance in Advanced Aircraft." Technology Review, March 31.

Kurtenbach, Elaine. 2007. "Coal Use Grows Despite Warming Worries.", October 28.

Lewin, David. 2008. "A Cleaner Future." Fraser Forum, March, p. 10-12.

Porter, Catherine. 2008. "Coal Mining Ravages Appalachia Mountains." Toronto Star, February 23.

Trisko, Eugene M. 2006. "Economic and Public Health Benefits of Coal-Based Energy." Brief Analysis 573, National Center for Policy Analysis, September 27.

Umbach, Frank and Ka-ho Yu. 2016. China's Expanding Overseas Coal Power Industry: New Strategic Opportunities, Commercial Risks, Climate Challenges and Geopolitical Implications. EUCERS Strategy Paper 11.

Wald, Matthew L. 2008. "Mounting Costs Slow the Push for Clean Coal." The New York Times, May 30.

> Petroleum
Black, Brian. 2007. "Petroleum history, United States." Encyclopedia of Earth, December 18.

Cowen, Richard. Essays on Geology, History and People. (Under contract with Johns Hopkins University Press), Ch. 11, 13.

"Petroleum History." Environmental Literacy Council.

Journal of American History - Special issue on the history of US petroleum

Taylor, Alan. 2014. "The Urban Oil Fields of Los Angeles (24 Photos)." The Atlantic (August 26). 

An Interactive Story of Imperial Oil

Leduc #1 Energy Discovery Centre - Story of Leduc #1

First Oil Well in Western Canada - National Historic Site of Canada

(Ontario History)
"Crude Oil and Natural Gas Resources." Ministry of Natural Resources of the Government of Ontario.

Oil Museum of Canada (Lambton)
- Black Gold: Canada's Oil Heritage 

Gray, Earle
- 2005. The Great Canadian Oil Patch: The Petroleum Era from Birth to Peak, revised edition, June Warren Publishing 
- 2008. Ontario's Petroleum Legacy, Oil Museum of Canada Oil Springs 

Sweeny, Alastair. 2010. Black Bonanza: Canada's Oil Sands and the Race to Secure North America's Energy Future. Wiley. 

"The Village of Oil Springs - Canada's First Oil Town."

"Petrolia - Canada's Victorian Oil Town."

Contemporary Issues
Oil.” International Energy Agency.

Survey of Energy Resources Interim Update 2009 - Crude Oil and Natural Gas Liquids.” World Energy Council.

"Facts About Oil." American Petroleum Institute, 2002.

"Pricing Differences Among Various Types of Crude Oil." Energy Information Administration.

Bryce, Robert. 2008. "5 Myths About Breaking Our Foreign Oil Habit." The Washington Post, January 13.

Featherstone, Charles H. 2005. "Peak Oil?.", January 6.

Hackett, D. et al. 2013. Pacific Basin Heavy Oil Refining Capacity. SPP Research Papers 6 (8).

Huber, Peter. 2006. "Crude Awakening." The Wall Street Journal, February 3.

Huber, Peter, & Mark Mills. 2005. "Oil, Oil, Everywhere..." The Wall Street Journal, January 27.

Green, Kenneth P., &  Steven F. Hayward. 2010. "The Dangers of Overreacting to the Deepwater Horizon Disaster." AEI Online (June).

Green, Kenneth P. 2006. "Bringing Down Gasoline and Oil Prices." Brief Analysis No. 557, National Center for Policy Analysis (June 8).

Green, Kenneth P. 2013. "Canada Should Take to Oil Pipeline Safety." Huffington Post Canada (October 31).

Green, Kenneth P. 2014. "Flash Point: New Oil-by-Rail Rules." The American (August 20). 

Johnson, Robert. 2012. "You've Never Seen Anything Like This North Dakota Oil Boomtown." Business Insider, March 7.

Moore, Adrian. 2005. "Katrina Reveals Gas Price Folly - Environmentalists, NIMBYs have blocked new oil refineries for 30 years." Orange County Register, September 1.

Murdock, Deroy. 2008. "Offshore Drilling: Cleaner Than Mother Nature," National Review Online, July 28.

Murphy, Robert P. 2008. "Politicians Eye the Oil Market." The Freeman: Ideas on Liberty, Vol. 58 No. 8 (October).

Reynolds, Alan. 2005. "Oil Prices: Cause and Effect." Cato Institute (June 27).

Schulz, Max. 2006. "America's Oil Weapon." Tech Central Station, April 6.

Taylor, Jerry, and Peter Van Doren. 2006. "Economic Amnesia: The Case against Oil Price Controls and Windfall Profit Taxes." Cato Institute, Policy Analysis no. 561, January 12.

Vargas Llosa, Alvaro. 2008. "Oil Prices—Who Are the Culprits?" The Independent Institute (June 11).

Zycher, Benjamin. "OPEC," The Concise Encyclopedia of Economics.

Fracking controversy
Airhard, Marc. 2013. "Natural Gas Saves Water and Reduces Drought Vulnerability, Even When Factoring in Water Lost to Hydraulic Fracturing." Geology Foundation, Jackson School of Geosciences (University of Texas - Austin), December 19.

Biello, David. 2010. "What the Frack? Natural Gas from Subterranean Shale Promises U.S. Energy Independence - With Environmental Costs." Scientific American (March 30).

Bullis, Kevin. 2013. "Shale Gas Will Fuel a U.S. Manufacturing Boom." MIT Technology Review (January 9).

Harper, Christopher. 2014. "A Fracking Good Story Missed by the Media." Washington Times (January 29).

Helman, Christopher. 2012. "EPA Doubts Its Own Anti-Fracking Study, While Ohio Determines Fracking Did Not Spawn Earthquake Swarm." Forbes (March 12).

Krauss, Clifford & Eric Lipton, "After the Boom in Natural Gas." The New York Times (October 20).

McGrath, Matt. 2013. "Report Suggests 'Permanent Slowdown' in CO2 Emissions." BBC News (October 31).

Rotman, David. 2012. "King Natural Gas." MIT Technology Review (August 21).

Davids Hinton, Diana. 2012. "The Seventeen-Year Overnight Wonder: George Mitchell and Unlocking the Barnett Shale." Journal of American History 99 (1): 229-235.

Alberta's Bituminous Sands
"CAPP Backgrounder: Oil Sands Economic Impacts Across Canada – CERI Report." Canadian Energy Research Institute, September 2005.

Hamilton, James. 2005. "Oil sands." Econbrowser, December 05.

Mintz, Jack. 2011. "Game Theory 101." National Post (November 23).

Vivian Krause. 2010. "US Foundations against the Oil Sands." Financial Post, October 14.

Samuelson, Robert J. 2011. "Say Yes to Canadian Oil Sands." Washington Post (August 28).

Timilsina, Govinda R., Nicole LeBlanc & Thorn Walden. 2005. "Economic Impacts of Alberta’s Oil Sands." Canadian Energy Research Institute, Volume I, Study No. 110, October.

Taylor, Jerry, and Peter Van Doren. 2011. "Keystone XL: Liberal Histrionics Answered With Conservative Histrionics." Forbes (December 19).

Technical Issues
Oilfield Glossary

US Department of Labor. OSHA Technical Manual 
" Section IV: Safety Hazards, Chapter 2: Petroleum Refining Processes

Mager Stellman, Jeanne (editor in chief). 2011. Encyclopedia of Occupational Health and Safety. International Labor Organization (ILO).
- Kraus, Richard S. 2011. "Storage and Transportation of Crude Oil, Natural Gases, Liquid Petroleum Products and Other Chemicals
- Kraus, Richard. 2011. "75 Exploration, Drilling and Production of Oil and Natural Gas
- Kraus, Richard S. 2011. "78. Oil and Natural Gas"

Current Debates and Controversies
Angevine, Gerry. 2013. The Canadian Oil Transport Conundrum. Fraser Institute (September).

Cross, Philip. 2013. Extracting the Most Value from Canada's Petroleum. MacDonald-Laurier Institute (October). 

Crawford, Todd. 2011. Canada's Petroleum Refining Sector: An Important Contributor Facing Global Challenges. Conference Board of Canada. 

Green, Kenneth P. and Diana Furchtgott-Roth. 2013. Intermodal Safety in the Transport of Oil. Fraser Institute (October 15).

McKenzie, Kenneth J. and Jack Mintz. 2011. "The Tricky Art of Measuring Fossil Fuel Subsidies: A Review of Existing Studies." The School of Public Policy, SPP Research Papers 4 (14). 

---. 2013. "Biggest Oil Man In The Bakken: Keystone Pipeline Is No Longer Needed." SayAnythingBlog (August 27).

Oil Change International. 2017. Talk is Cheap. How G20 Governments are Financing a Climate Disaster

Overseas Development Institute and Oil Change International. 2015. Empty promises - G20 subsidies to oil, gas and coal production.

Pipeline Politics and Economics
Greenpeace Canada. "Oil."

Let's Talk Royalties. Undated. "Not all Oil is Equal: Explaining Price Differences." 

Tombe, Trevor. 2016. The Taming of the Skew: Facts on Canada's Energy Trade. University of Calgary SPP Research Papers 7 (9) (March).

Kane, Laura. 2016. "How social licence came to dominate the pipeline debate in Canada." Canada's National Observer (May 21st). 

Grenier, Éric. 2016. "Canadians' views on pipelines divided, but 'social licence' gives opening to Liberals British Columbians have been the most opposed to new pipeline proposals." CBC News (November 30). 

Morgan, Gwyn, 2017. "Gwyn Morgan: If they kill Trans Mountain, Canada's rule of law is broken." Financial Post (July 13). 

McConaghy, Dennis. 2017. "I Helped Plan Energy East, and I Know the Government's Excuses are Bunk." Financial Post (October 12).

Madsen, Ian. 2017. "Pipeline Opponents Ignore Risk of Rail Fatalities, Contamination." FCPP (October 4). 

Hislop, Markam. 2017. "Why did TransCanada Cancel $12 Billion Energy East Pipeline Project?" North American Energy News (October 6) . 

Driessen, Paul. 2017. "Now It's a War On Pipelines." FCPP (October 20).

Boag, Peter. 2018. "Energy Infrastructure Needs Should Underpin Any Debate About Reconciling our Economic and Environmental Aspirations." CFA Commentary (April).

Green, Kenneth et al. 2018. Understanding the significance of the Kinder Morgan decision to suspend the Trans Mountain pipeline (April 10). 

Britten, Liam. 2018. "Canada cannot profess to be a climate leader if it's buying pipelines, say environmentalists. Canadians must ask tough questions of government's climate change ambitions, says former UN official." CBC News (May 30). 

Markus Hecker, Marcus and Jackie Dawson. 2018. "Canada's Paris-pipeline Paradox." The Conversation (June 4). 

Pardy, Bruce. 2018. "The Liberals Take a Bad Environmental Assessment Process and Make it Worse." Financial Post (June 29).

Quarmby, Lynne. 2018. "Eleven reasons to oppose the Trans Mountain pipeline expansion." Canada's National Observer (July 31). 

Penner, Derrick. 2018. "A Bump in Petroleum Imports Helps Fuel Port of Vancouver Cargo Record." Vancouver Sun (August 17) .

Green, Kenneth. 2018. "Opinion: Let's revisit Energy East and get Canada off Saudi oil - Our limited capacity to move oil to the east and west coasts is costing us billions, and transferring large chunks of that cash to despots." Montreal Gazette (August 22).

Harding, Lee. 2018. "Trans Mountain Caught in Never-ending Trance." FCPP Commentary (August 31). 

Editorial. 2018. "Only New Pipelines can Close Canada's Yawning Oil-price Gap." The Globe & Mail (November 16).

> Manufactured (or town or coal), Natural and Shale Gas
Natural Gas.” Environmental Literacy Council.

Alex Epstein. "Energy at the Speed of Thought (Part 2: Individual Planning in the Pre-Petroleum Illumination Market)." Master Resource, December 21, 2010.

–, "Coal Tar." The City of Kingston's Website.

Castaneda, Christopher. 2001. "Manufactured and Natural Gas Industry." EH.Net Encyclopedia, September 4.

Manufactured Gas - The Genie's Legacy, Heritage Research Center Ltd

"What Is Natural Gas and History of Use." State the Essence!

Shale gas (including Ontario)
Aegent Energy Advisors "Moving Marcellus Gas into Ontario - A New Purchasing Opportunity" March 2010.

Bramley, Matthew. 2011. Is Natural Gas a Climate Change Solution for Canada. Pembina Institute and David Suzuki Foundation.

US Department of Energy. 2009. Modern Shale Gas in the United States

Mason, Charles F., Lucija A. Muehlenbachs, Sheila M. Olmstead. 2015. "The Economics of Shale Gas Development." Annual Review of Resource Economics 7: 269-289. 

Jackson, Robert B., Avner Vengosh, J. William Carey, Richard J. Davies, Thomas H. Darrah, Francis O'Sullivan, Gabrielle Pétron. 2014. "The Environmental Costs and Benefits of Fracking." Annual Review of Environment and Resources 39: 327-362.

Contemporary Issues
"Economist Debates: Natural gas" The Economist.

Natural Gas.” International Energy Agency.

Survey of Energy Resources Interim Update 2009 - Natural Gas.” World Energy Council.

"The Future of Natural Gas: An Interdisciplinary MIT Study." MIT Study on the Future of Natural Gas, June 25, 2010.

-. 2011. "A Tale of Two Shale States: Pennsylvania's gain vs. New York's missed opportunity." The Wall Street Journal (July 26).

Driessen, Paul. 2012. "Fracking: An Existential Threat to Green Dogma.", March 28.

Editorial Dept. 2010. "The Potential of Natural Gas as a Future Energy Source." Oil, February 18.

Kopp, Raymond J. "Natural Gas: Supply Problems are Key." Resources (Navigating Energy Choices in the 21st Century), Winter 2005, Issue 156, pp. 16-19.

Krauss, Clifford. 2008. "Drilling Boom Revives Hopes for Natural Gas.", August 24.

Michaels, Robert J. "Natural Gas Regulation," The Concise Encyclopedia of Economics.

Márquez, Humberto. 2012. "Shale Gas Turns the Tables on Petroleum Powers." IPS News (January 3).

McCarthy, Shawn. 2010. "Canada not ready for shale gas boom." The Globe and Mail (October 14).

Myers Jaffe , Amy. 2010. "How Shale Gas Is Going to Rock the World." The Wall Street Journal (May 10).

Parfitt, Ben. 2010. "Fracture Lines: Will Canada’s Water be Protected in the Rush to Develop Shale Gas?" Munk School of Global Affairs at the University of Toronto, September 15.

Ridley, Matt. 2011. The Shale Gas Shock. Global Warming Policy Foundation, GWPF Report 2.

Schmitt, Gary J. "Natural Gas: The Next Energy Crisis?" Issues in Science and Technology, vol 22, no 4, Summer 2006.

Stevens, Paul. 2010. "The 'Shale Gas Revolution': Hype and Reality." Chatham House Report, September (Executive Summary).

Wang, Zhongmin and Alan J. Krupnick. 2013. "A Retrospective Review of Shale Gas Development in the United States: What Led to the Boom?" Resources for the Future, Discussion Paper 13-12. 

Congressional Research Service. 2018. Natural Gas Liquids: The Unknown Hydrocarbons (R45398). 

• Abiotic Theory
"Thomas Gold," Wikipedia.

Gold, Thomas. 1992. "The Deep, Hot Biosphere," Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 89: 6045-6049.

Bartlett, Bruce. 2004. “Discovering oil.”, June 10.

Green, Ken. 2008. "Oil Not a Fossil Fuel?" National Review Online, February 1st.

• Others

Spears, John. 2004. "Pinning Hopes on the Tar Sand." Toronto Star, July 25.

Suggested links

• Fire and Forests over Time
The Webpage of fire historian Stephen J. Pyne of Arizona State University.

The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations' Forestry Website

Eco-Economy Indicators: DATA - FOREST COVER - World Forest Cover - Industrial and Fuel Wood Use

An overview of Michael Williams / Deforestating the Earth: From Prehistory to Global Crisis (University of Chicago Press, 2003).

The Great Restoration: The Potentials for Forest Protection to 2050

• Tragedy of the Commons

Yandle on the Tragedy of the Commons and the Implications for Environmental Regulation

History - Carbon Fuels

Coal and coal (manufactured) gas
Allen Hatheway's Manufactured Gas Website

Drake Well

Crude Oil
- General
Abraham Gesner (1897-1964)

Oil History Website by Samuel T. Pees

Petroleum History = Energy Education

Petroleum History Institute

Museum of the Earth - Oil History

Petroleum History Society (Canada) 

- Regional
An Index to Early Petroleum History Sites by Blake Malkamaki

Canada's Oil Heritage District

Oil Museum of Canada (Oil Springs, Ontario)

Petroleum History Society - Preserving history of the petroleum industry in Canada

- Unconventional Oil
Museum of the Scottish Shale Oil Industry

Carbon Fuels - Technical, Economic and Policy Issues

Clean Coal Technology Roadmap - Links

Fossil fuels - Union of Concerned Scientists

Latest WEC Studies and Reports (World Energy Council)

Running on Empty: America's Energy Security, America Abroad Media.

William Kovarik and Matthew Hermes. "Fuel and Society.", Kennesaw State University.

A RFF policy briefing video on
"Clean Coal?"
"The Future of Natural Gas."
"The Future of Petroleum."

Natural Resources Canada on Energy

US Energy Information Administration
- Petroleum and other liquids

Natural Gas

Alberta's (Tar or Oil) Sands
> Positive Views
Environment Canada on Alberta's Oil Sands
Oil Sands Discovery Centre
Oil Sands Question & Response
Alberta Energy: Oil Sands
Alberta's Oil Sands - Government of Alberta
Canada's Oil Sands - Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers
Canada's Oil Sands Innovation Alliance (COSIA)
Ethical Oil website on Myths and Lies about the Oil Sands

> Negative Views
Tar Sands Watch
Oil Sands 101: Alberta’s Oil Sands
Oil Sand Truth
Journalist Andrew Nikiforuk on Alberta's tar sands

Your Alberta. 2010. Alberta Oil Sands: About

CBC. 2008. Tar Sands The Selling Of Alberta. CBC Doc Zone.

National Geographic Channel. 2004. "Megastructures Ultimate Oil Sands Mine."

Lecture 6: Term Test


Lecture 7: Reading week


Lecture 8: Electricity (Hydro and Nuclear)

Suggested readings

Alfred, Randy. 2008. "Oct. 21, 1879: Edison Gets the Bright Light Right." Wired, October 21.

Alfred, Randy. 2008. "Sept. 22, 1791: Faraday Enters a World He Will Change." Wired, September 22.

Gelly, Alain. "A Precipitous Decline, Steam as Motive Power in Montreal: A Case Study of the Lachine Canal Industries." IA, The Journal of the Society for Industrial Archeology, Vol. 29, Issue 1.

Krider, E. Philip. 2006. "Benjamin Franklin and Lightning Rods." Physics Today Online (January).

Lepore, Jill. 2008. "Our Own Devices - Does technology drive history?" The New Yorker, May 12.

Regulatory Framework
Munson, Richard. "Yes, in My Backyard: Distributed Electric Power." Issues in Science and Technology, vol 22, no 2, Winter 2006.

"Lights Out In 2009?" The NextGen Energy Council Management Information Services, Inc., September 2008.


"About Hydroelectric Energy." Natural Resources Canada.

"Hydropower and the World's Energy Future - The Role of Hydropower in Bringing Clean, Renewable, Energy to the World." International Hydropower Association Compton, West Sussex, United Kingdom, International Commission on Large Dams, Paris, France, Implementing Agreement on Hydropower Technologies and Programmes / International Energy Agency, Paris, France, Canadian Hydropower Association Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. November 2000.

"UK Nuclear Power: The Contenders." BBC News, July 10, 2006.

A Survey Article on "Nuclear Power - Overcoming Its Image Problem." Journal of Energy Literature 10 (1): 37-44. 2004.

Bailey, Ronald. 2005. "Nuclear Explosion at Montreal." Tech Central Station, December 9.

Deutsch, John and Ernest Monitz. 2003. The Future of Nuclear Power, MIT Interdicisplinary Studies.

Beck, Peter W. 1999. “Nuclear Energy in the Twenty-First Century: Examination of a Contentious Subject.” Annual Review of Energy and Environment 24: 113-137.

Environmental Progress. 2017. The Power to Decarbonize

Huber, Peter W., and Mark P. Mills, Winter 2005. "Why the U.S. Needs More Nuclear Power." City Journal.

Gabbard, Alex. "Coal Combustion: Nuclear Resource or Danger." Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

Kazimi, Mujid S. and Neil E. Todreas. 1999. “Nuclear Power Economic Performance: Challenges and Opportunities.” Annual Review of Energy and Environment 24: 139-171.

Lester, Richard K. "New Nukes." Issues in Science and Technology, vol 22, no 4, Summer 2006.

Lorenzi, Paul. "A Second Look at Nuclear Power." Issues in Science and Technology, vol 21, no 3, Spring 2005.

MacFarlane, Allison. 2001. “Interim Storage of Spent Fuel in the United States.” Annual Review of Energy and the Environment 26: 201-235.

Frequently asked questions about nuclear energy” on John McCarthy's Progress and Its Sustainability Website.

Murphy, Francois. 2005. "Chernobyl radiation death toll 56 so far - U.N." Yahoo! News, September 5.

Nolan, Peter. 2005. "Energy in the UK." TCS Daily, December 19.

Peterson, Per F., William E. Kastenberg & Michael Corradini "Nuclear Waste and the Distant Future." Issues in Science and Technology, vol 22, no 4, Summer 2006.

Reynolds, Glenn Harlan. 2006. "No Nukes Is Good Nukes?" Tech Central Station, February 8.

Richel, Theo. 2005. "Deadly Assumptions: Radiation and Risk." Tech Central Station, September 28.

Rummery, T.E., and J.A. Macpherson. "Canada's Nuclear Achievement: Technical and Economic Perspectives."

Talbot, David. 2005. "Nuclear Powers Up.", September.

Taylor, Jerry, and Peter Van Doren. 2007. "Hooked on Subsidies." Forbes, November 26.

"Understanding Radiation." Nuclear Engineering, U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy, Science & Technology, DOE/NE-0074.

"The Chernobyl Catastrophe - Consequences on Human Health." Greenpeace, April 2006.

On Wikipedia
Electric potential energy
Power station
Base load power plant
Peaking power plant

Suggested links

Institute for Energy Research on story of electricity.
International Energy Agency - Electricity


International Energy Agency - Hydro

“Survey of Energy Resources Interim Update 2009 - Hydropower.”  World Energy Council.

The World Commission on Dams

A special issue of Energy Policy (volume 30, issue 14, 2002) on "Hydropower - The Politics of Water and Energy." November 2002.

Great Resources About Dams and Hydropower

Large Dams Under Construction by Basin Watersheds of the World: Global Maps

International Energy Agency - Nuclear

“Survey of Energy Resources Interim Update 2009 - Nuclear.”  World Energy Council.

A RFF policy briefing video on "The Future of Nuclear Power."

The ABC's of nuclear science

The BBC's guide to nuclear power

Environmental Literacy Council Website.
California Energy Crisis.”
Enron and Energy Trading.” - A guide to radioactive waste resources on the Internet.

"Ghost Town: My Ride through Chernobyl Area," by Elena (family name unknown).

Special issue on nuclear power, Energy and Environment, volume 13, no. 2, May 2002.

UNSCEAR - United Nations Scientific Committee On The Effects Of Atomic Radiation

Nuclear Safety - Union of Concerned Scientists

The Interview: Patrick Moore

Fundamentals of Electricity

Natural Resources Canada on Energy


Lecture 9: Electricity (Alternatives) and Biomass

Suggested readings

Classic Works
Jevson, William Stanley. 1866/1865. The Coal Question; An Inquiry concerning the Progress of the Nation, and the Probable Exhaustion of our Coal-Mines. MacMillan and Co., Chapter 8: Of Supposed Substitutes for Coal.

Wayland, Francis. 1870/1838. Elements of Political Economy. Gould and Lincoln, Part II: The Modes by Which the Productiveness of Human Industry May be Increased, Section 1: On the Use of Natural Agents pp. 60-74.

Abbot, C. G. 1929. The Sun and the Welfare of Man. Smithsonian Institution Series (Chapter 9: Harnessing the Sun).

- Substantial pieces

Anderson, Dennis. 1997. "Renewable Energy Technology and Policy for Development," Annual Review of Energy and the Environment 22: 187-215.

Ausubel, Jesse H. 2007. "Renewable and Nuclear Heresies." International Journal of Nuclear Governance, Economy and Ecology, Vol. 1, No.3.

Bradley. Robert L. 1997. "Renewable Energy: Not Cheap, Not 'Green'," Cato Policy Analysis No. 280

Bradley, Robert L and Richard W. Fulmer. Energy: The Master Resource, Kendall Hunt Publishing Company, 2004, Chapter 2: Using Energy, pp. 33-36, 39-43, 56-61.

Clougherty, Tom (Editor). 2007. "Positive Environmentalism - A Convenient Truth." Globalisation Institute.

Conley, Mike and Tim Maloney. 2018. Roadmap to Nowhere. The Myth of Powering the Nation with Renewable Energy. (A commentary on the 2015 landmark paper: 100% Clean and Renewable Wind, Water, and Sunlight (WWS) All-sector Energy Roadmaps for the 50 United States by Mark Jacobson, Mark Delucchi, et al.) (Shorter discussion in Conca, James. 2017. "Stanford's 100% Renewables A Roadmap To Nowhere." Forbes (December 12).

Hughes, Gordon. 2011. The Myth of Green Jobs. Global Warming PolicyFoundation.

McVeigh, James, Dallas Burtraw, Joel Darmstadter and Karen Palmer. 1999. "Winner, Loser, or Innocent Victim? Has Renewable Energy Performed As Expected?" Discussion Paper 99-28, Washington: Resources for the Future.

Metcalf, Gilbert E. 2008. "Using Tax Expenditures to Achieve Energy Policy Goals." NBER Working Paper No. 13753, January.

Mohiuddin, Shamarukh. 2004. "How America Lost Its Clean Technology Edge." Progressive Policy Institute, December 1st.

Neville, Kate J., Jennifer Baka, Shanti Gamper-Rabindran, Karen Bakker, Stefan Andreasson, Avner Vengosh, Alvin Lin, Jewellord Nem Singh, Erika Weinthal. 2017. "Debating Unconventional Energy: Social, Political, and Economic Implications." Annual Review of Environment and Resources 42: 241-266. 

Pimentel, David, Megan Herz, Michelle Glickstein, Mathew Zimmerman, et al. 2002. "Renewable Energy: Current and Potential issues." Bioscience 52(12): 1111-1121.

Sayigh, Ali. 1999. “Renewable Energy – The Way Forward.” Applied Energy 64 (1-4): 15-30.

Taylor, Jerry and Peter VanDoren. 2002. Evaluating the Case for Renewable Energy: Is Government Support Warranted? Policy Analysis No. 422. Washington: Cato Institute.  

United Nations Environment Programme. 2008. Green Jobs: Towards Decent Work in a Sustainable, Low-Carbon World. UNEP.

Zycher, Benjamin. 2016. "Four Decades of Subsidy Rationales for Uncompetitive Energy." Statement before the U.S. Senate Committee on Finance Hearing on Energy Tax Policy in 2016 and Beyond. June 14 (American Enterprise Institute).

- Shorter pieces
Anderson, William L. 2003. "Energy Bills and Central Planning,", December 16.

Bairstow, Jonny. 2018. "Quarter of businesses say renewables are a passing fad. The financial services sector is particularly dubious, with 40% doubting clean power is here to stay." Energy Live News (August 14). 

Benjamin Zycher, Benjamin. 2017. "The high cost of unreliable power. Wind and solar power subsidies put dependable energy at a disadvantage." Washington Times (August 7). 

Bryce, Robert. 2018. "California Climate Policies Facing Revolt from Civil-Rights Groups." National Review (September 15).

Bullis, Kevin. 2011. "Venture Capitalists Back Away from Clean Energy." Technology Review, August 11.

Darmstadter, Joel and Karen Palmer. "Renewable Sources of Electricity: Safe Bet or Tilting at Windmills?" Resources (Navigating Energy Choices in the 21st Century), Winter 2005, Issue 156, pp. 24-27.

Delingpole, James. 2011. "Green Jobs? Wot Green Jobs (pt 242)." The Telegraph (September 2).

"Energy Fact Sheet - Appropriate Technology." State the Essence!

Forbes, Viv. 2013. "Parasitic Power Producers." American Thinker (August 19). 

Gosselin, P. 2018. "Green Energy Revolution A Flop: Fossil Fuels' Share Of Total Energy Use Unchanged in 40 Years!" No Tricks Zone (January 12).

Innis, Roy. 2007. "The Truth About 'Alternative Energy'.", December 5.

Kapitza, Bryan. 2016. "Central planning and energy alternatives." Rebel Media (May 27).

Lomborg, Bjorn. 2013. "The Decline of Renewable Energy." Project Syndicate (August 14).  

Love, Shannon. 2010. "Why Alternative Power Is and Will Remain Useless." Chicago Boyz, February 28th.

Michaels, Robert J. 2005. "An Ill Wind for Consumers: The Energy Bill." NCPA Brief Analysis No. 522, July 26.

Mouawad, Jad. 2009. "Oil Giants Loath to Follow Obama’s Green Lead.", April 7.

Pearce, Fred. 2008. "The Great Green Electricity Con.", October 23.

Ridley, Matt. 2017. "The green movement has broken in two: what happens next?" Reaction (November 7).

Roberts, David. 2018. "Batteries Have a Dirty Secret. Energy storage is considered a green technology. But it actually increases carbon emissions." Vox (July 21). 

Smil, Vaclav. 2017. "Grid Electricity Storage: Size Matters." IEEE Spectrum (February).

Smil, Vaclav. "21St Century Energy - Some Sobering Thoughts." OECD Observer No. 258/59, December 2006.

Solomon, Lawrence. 2018. "Trudeau Stands Alone as Canada - and the World - Abandons Green Energy - World is Moving Off Wind and Solar." Financial Post (September 28). 

Taylor, Jerry. 2006. "For Now, Gasoline Is Our Only Cheap Fuel." Cato Institute, May 12.

Tanton, Thomas. 2004. "A Whirlwind of Troubles - Environmental, Operational, and Financial Problems." PERC Reports, September.

Wilson, Peter. 2013. "The Dream of a World Without Oil." American Thinker, March 25.

Worrall, Eric. 2017. "British Foreign Aid Scandal: "Hundreds of Millions" Wasted on Useless Renewable Projects." WUWT (March 12). 

- Overview
Eloy, Álvarez Pelegry, Iñigob Ortiz Martínez and Jaimec Menéndez Sánchez. 2016. The German energy transition (Energiewende). Policy, Energy Transformation and Industrial Development. Orkestra (May). 

Joas, Fabian. 2017. Challenges of the Energiewende from a Policy Analysis Perspective: Understanding the goals and improving the policy instruments of Germany's energy Transition. D. phil. Dissertation, Technischen Universität Berlin. 

Wikipedia. "Energiewende in Germany." 

- Supporters
Parkinson, Giles. 2015. "Graphs of the Day: The success of Germany's energy transition." RenewEconomy (January 29). 

Sonnenschein, J., & Hennicke, P. (Eds.) (2015). The German Energiewende. A transition towards an efficient, sufficient Green Energy Economy. International Institute for Industrial Environmental Economics, Lund University. 

Bößner, Stefan. 2016. Turning Energy Around: Coal and the German Energiewende. Stockholm Environment Institute Discussion Brief. 

Morris, Craig and Martin Pehnt. 2016. The German Energiewende Book. Heinrich Böll Foundation (PDF).

Cunningham, Thomas et al. 2018. Assessing the Energiewende. An International Expert Review. Konrad Adenauer Stiftung. 

Gordon, Jeremy. 2018. "Three Things the Nuclear Industry can Learn from Energiewende." LinkedIn (July 16). 

- Critics
Center for Industrial Progress. Undated. "Little-known Facts about Germany's Solar and Wind Experiment." 

Gosselin, P. 2012. "From Rescuing The Climate To Rescuing The Economy - Germany's Energy Transition Goes Into Reverse." NoTricksZone(January).

Rich, Howard. 2013. "Germany's Green Energy Disaster: A Cautionary Tale For World Leaders." Forbes (March 14).

Canadian Nuclear Association. 2014. "Germany Replaces Nuclear with Coal, GHGS Skyrocket." (October).

Noon, Marita. 2016. "Earth Day's anti-fossil fuel focus could plunge millions into green energy poverty." CFACT Insights (April 18).

Martin, Richard. 2016. "Germany Runs Up Against the Limits of Renewables. Even as Germany adds lots of wind and solar power to the electric grid, the country's carbon emissions are rising. Will the rest of the world learn from its lesson?" MIT Technology Review (May 24).

Tupy, Marian. 2017. "The Coming German Energy Crisis. An overcommitment to renewables has already had negative consequences." Reason (March 21).

Editorial Board. 2017. "Germany's Green Energy Meltdown. Voters promised a virtuous revolution get coal and high prices instead." Wall Street Journal (November 18). 

Peiser, Benny. 2017. "Mugged by Reality, Germany's Climate Consensus is Collapsing." GWPF Opinion (November 20).

Gosselin, P. 2018. "Green Failure: German Solar Industry Crashes And Burns.Solar Jobs See Blood Bath!" No Tricks Zone (April 21).

Topical Pieces
> Historical Perspective

Laird, Frank. N. 2003. "Constructing the Future - Advocating Energy Technologies in the Cold War." Technology and Culture 44 (1): 27-49.

> Wind
- Substantial pieces
Courtney, Richard S. 2006. "Wind Farms Provide Negligible Useful Electricity." Center for Science and Public Policy, March.

Klem Jr., Daniel, Christopher J. Farmer, Nicole Delacretaz, Yigal Gelb, and Peter G. Saenger. 2009. "Architectural and Landscape Risk Factors Associated with Bird–glass Collisions in an Urban Environment." The Wilson Journal of Ornithology 121(1):126-134.

McGowan, Jon G. and Stephen R. Connors. 2000. "Windpower: A Turn of the Century Review," Annual Review of Energy and the Environment 25: 147-197.

- Shorter pieces
Driessen, Paul. 2017. "Revisiting Wind Turbine Impacts." FCPP Commentary.

Ridley, Matt. "Wind is an Irrelevance to the Energy and Climate Debate." Rational Optimist (May 15).

Booker, Christopher. 2010. "The Thanet wind farm will milk us of billions." The Telegraph, September 25.

Boone, Jon. 2010. "Power Hungry: The Myths of “Green” Energy and the Real Fuels of the Future—by Robert Bryce (nutrition for energy appetites)." MasterResource, April 27.

Bryce, Robert. 2010. "Wind Power Won't Cool Down the Planet." The Wall Street Journal, August 24.

Bryce, Robert. 2009. "Windmills Are Killing Our Birds." The Wall Street Journal, September 7.

Bullis, Kevin. 2006. "Giant Wind Turbines: Floating Wind Farms Placed Far Offshore Could Lead to Affordable Electricity – Without Cluttering the View." Technology Review, May 9.

Cleveland, Cutler, Ida Kubiszewski and Peter K. Endres. 2006. "Energy Return on Investment (EROI) for Wind Energy." Encyclopedia of Earth. Eds. Peter Saundry. (Washington, D. C.: Environmental Information Coalition, National Council for Science and the Environment). [First published October 13, 2006; Last revised October 16, 2006; Retrieved October 27, 2006].

Fairley, Peter. 2006. "A Supergrid for Europe - A radical proposal for a high-tech power grid could make possible the continent's vast expansion of renewable energy sources." Technology Review, March 15.

Hawkins, Kent. 2012. "'Recouping cost of wind turbine may take more than a lifetime' (Consumer Reports confirms micro-wind diseconomies)." MasterResource (August 14).

Horner, Chirstopher. "'Anti-Lobbyist' Obama Administration Recruited Left-Wing Lobbyists to Sell Bogus 'Green Jobs'." Pajamas Media, March 3.

Linowes, Lisa. 2010. "Offshore Wind: DOE’s Reality Challenge." MasterResource, October 14.

Lomborg, Bjorn. 2015. "Blowing it on the Wind." Project Syndicate (October 21).

Macrae, Fiona. 2010. " More than half of Britain's wind farms have been built where there is not enough wind." Mail Online, August 17.

Potter, Mitch. 2008. "Embracing a Clean Green Dream." Toronto Star, March 29.

Roney, J. Matthew. 2010. "Wind Power Soared Past 150,000 Megawatts in 2009." Earth Policy Institute, March 30.

Sickinger, Ted. 2010. "Too much of a good thing: Growth in wind power makes life difficult for grid managers." The Oregonian, July 17.

Wald, Matthew L., and Tom Zeller Jr. 2010. "Green Power’s High Cost Scuttles Projects.", November 7.

Wasson, Matt. 2010. "Extreme Misinformation in the Washington Post: Actually, Wind Power has Reduced Denmark's CO2 Emissions a Lot." The Huffington Post, April 26.

Woollacott, Emma. 2010. "Wind farms could raise temperatures." TG Daily, March 12.

> Canada (including Ontario)
Adams, Tom. 2006. "Review of Wind Power Results in Ontario: May to October 2006." Energy Probe, November 15.

Cosh, Colby. 2006. "Windmills Aren't the Answer." National Post, November 21.

> Denmark
–, "The Practicalities of Developing Renewable Energy In The UK – In The Light of Danich Experience." Incoteco (Denmark) ApS.

Hawkins, Kent. "Peeling Away the Onion of Denmark Wind" Parts I-IV, Master Resource, Oct. 26-29, 2010. Part I | Part II | Part III | Part IV

Mason, Dr V.C. 2005. "Wind power in West Denmark. Lessons for the UK." Country Guardian (November).

"Wind Energy – The Case of Denmark" Executive summary, Center for Politiske Studier, September 2009.

> Biomass
- Substantial pieces
Mark W. Rosegrant, Mark W. and Siwa Msangi. 2014. "Consensus and Contention in the Food-Versus-Fuel Debate." Annual of Environment and Resources 39: 271-294.

Pearce, Fred. 2017. "Carbon Loophole: Why Is Wood Burning Counted as Green Energy?" Yale 360 (December 19). 

Auld, Douglas. 2008. "The Ethanol Trap: Why Policies to Promote Ethanol as Fuel Need Rethinking." C.D. Howe Institute Commentary, No. 268, July.

Green, Kenneth P. 2008. "Ethanol and the Environment." American Enterprise Institute.

James, Sallie. 2008. "Food Fight." Center for Trade Policy Studies, Free Trade Bulletin, No. 31, January 31.

Kheshgi, Haroon S., Roger C Prince and Gregg Marland. 2000. "The Potential of Biomass Fuels in the Context of Global Climate Change: Focus on Transportation Fuels," Annual Review of Energy and the Environment 25: 199-244.

Lave, Lester B., & W. Michael Griffin. "Import Ethanol, Not Oil." Issues in Science and Technology, vol 22, no 3, Spring 2006.

Runge, C. Ford, and Benjamin Senauer. 2008. "How Ethanol Fuels the Food Crisis." Foreign Affairs, May 28.

R. W. Howarth and S. Bringezu, editors. 2009. "Biofuels: Environmental Consequences and Interactions with Changing Land Use." Proceedings of the Scientific Committee on Problems of the Environment (SCOPE), International Biofuels Project Rapid Assessment, 22-25 September 2008 Gummersbach, Germany.

Shapouri, Dr. Hossein, & Dr. Michael Salassi. 2006. "The Economic Feasibility of Ethanol Production From Sugar in the United States." U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), July.

Taylor, Jerry, and Peter Van Doren. "The Ethanol Boondoggle." The Milken Institute Review, First Quarter 2007.

Zubrin, Robert. 2008 "In Defense of Biofuels." The New Atlantis (Spring).

- Shorter pieces
Eyermann, Craig. 2018. "Ethanol Is Terrible for Health and the Environment, but Government Keeps Backing It. The US federal government still strongly pushes corn- and soy-based ethanol despite the EPA's new study showing its harmful effects FEE on ethanol." (August 19).

Mayer, Jared. 2016. "Politicians Love Burning Food For Fuel. An Interview with Robert Bryce." Forbes (April 3). 

Ragan, Chris. 2016. "Stop subsidizing biofuels. The Canadian system has cut carbon emissions. But at huge cost.Against biofuels." National Post (October 3).

DeCicco, John. 2016. "Biofuels turn out to be a climate mistake." Energy Post EU (November 15).

Lean, Geoffrey. 2015. "Are wood chips really worse than burning coal? Some campaigners believe that using apparently environmentally friendly wood can be three times worse for the climateWood chips vs coal." Telegraph (February 14).

Conca, James. 2014. "It's Final -- Corn Ethanol Is Of No Use." Forbes (April 12).

Anderson, Peter. 2005. "Ethanol and the Calculation Issue." Ludwig von Mises Institute, August 18.

Aziz, John. 2013. "It's Time for America to End Ethanol Subsidies." The Week (July 31). 

Bailey, Ronald. 2008. "The Biggest Green Mistake - Biofuels and the Global Food Crisis. " Reason Magazine, April 8.

Bailey, Ronald. 2007. "Bioethanol Boondoggle - Political Viability is More Important than Commercial Viability. " Reason Magazine, December 4.

Bailey, Ronald. 2006. "Alcohol Saves the Planet - The Future of Booze-Fueled Machines." Reason Online, February 3.

Bailey, Ronald. 2003. "Congress Gets Drunk on Ethanol: Corn + your tax dollars = a bad improvement." Reason Magazine, November 20.

Bast, Joseph L., Thomas Tanton, Jonathan Adler, Joel Schwartz, Roy Cordato, Fred L. Smith, Jr., David Hogberg, and Myron Ebell. 2006. "A Kernel of Support For Ethanol" Perc Reports.

Brahic, Catherine. 2007. "Forget Biofuels - Burn Oil and Plant Forests Instead. " NewScientist Environment, 16 August.

Chakrabortty, Aditya. 2008. "Secret Report: Biofuel Caused Food Crisis - Internal World Bank Study Delivers Blow to Plant Energy Drive." The Guardian, July 4.

Chavez, Linda. 2008. "A Government Engineered Food Crisis.", March 28.

Clayton, Mark. 2006. "Carbon Cloud Over a Green Fuel Byline." The Christian Science Monitor, March 23.

"Editorial: Administration caves to Big Corn - EPA burns your money with ethanol." The Washington Times, October 18, 2010.

Gattuso, Dana Joel. 2007. "Corn Prices High as an Elephant's Eye.", November 29.

Gorrie, Peter. 2008. "Biofuels not 'Miracle' Cure, Studies Say." The Toronto Star, February 8.

Grunwald, Michael. 2008. "The Clean Energy Scam." Time, March, 27.

Harrabin, Roger. 2007. "Biofuels Bonanza Facing 'Crash'." BBC News, November 15.

Huber, Peter. 2006. "The Forest Killers." Forbes, April 10.

James A. Baker III Institute, "Fundamentals of a Sustainable U.S. Biofuels Policy." 2010.

Jordan, James & James Powell. 2006. "The False Hope of Biofuels." The Washington Post, July 2, p. B-07.

Kinver, Mark. 2007. "Biofuels Look to the Next Generation." BBC News, September 18.

Kiesling, Lynne. 2007. "Proprietary, Sweeter Tomates: Another Unintended Consequence of Ethanol Subsidies." Knowledge Problem, Oct. 2.

Lehr, Jay. 2006. "Are The Ethanol Wars Over?" Perc Reports.

Llosa, Alvaro Vargas. 2007. "The Ethanol Alliance." The Independent Institute, April 4.

Michaels, Patrick J. 2008. "Corn on the Mob." American Spectator (Online) on January 30.

Millikin, Mike. 2005. "Is Corn Ethanol A Good Energy Source?" FuturePundit, April 17.

Muse, Ben. 2006. "Get Rid of the Tariff on Ethanol." Ben Muse, May 11.

Parker, Randall. 2008. "Studies Find Most Biomass Energy Increases Carbon Dioxide Emissions." Future Pundit, Feb. 7.

Parker, Randall. 2006. "Brazil Gets 40 Percent Of Gas Vehicle Fuel From Ethanol.", August 20.

Pasour Jr., Ernest C., Randal R. Rucker. 2007. "Big Ethanol Push in U.S. Is Pork Barrel Boondoggle." The Independant Institute, July 14.

Purple, Matt. 2010. "Corny Capitalism." The American Spectator, August 27.

Rohrlich, Justin. 2009. " American's Crazed Corn Habit." Mises Institute, December 22.

Roger, Heather. 2009. "Why Biofuels Are the Rainforest's Worst Enemy." Mother Jones, March/April.

Rosenthal, Elisabeth. 2008. "Studies Deem Biofuels a Greenhouse Threat." The New York Times, February 8.

Rubin, Jeff. 2007. "Fueling Inflation." StrategEcon, October 22.

Staniford, Stuart. 2006. "Life in a Grass House." The Oil Drum, March 07.

Steil, Mark. 2005. "The Ethanol Equation." Minnesota Public Radio, March 21.

Stossel, John. 2007. "The Many Myths of Ethanol.", May 23.

Surowiecki, James. 2006. "Deal Sweeteners." The New Yorker, November 27.

Taylor, Jerry, & Peter Van Doren. 2007. "Wishful Thinking Is No Magical Energy Elixir." Cato Institute, February 26.

Taylor, Jerry, & Peter Van Doren. 2007. "Ethanol Makes Gasoline Costlier, Dirtier." Chicago Sun-Times, January 27.

Zubrin, Robert. 2006 "An Energy Revolution." The American Enterprise, March.

"Quick guide: Biofuels." BBC News, 24 January 2007.

- Canadian public policy on biofuels
- "An Update on Renewable Diesel Infrastructure in Canada." Office of Energy Efficiency, Natural Resources Canada.
- "Evaluation of the Alternative Transportation Fuels Sub-Sub-Activity." Natural Resources Canada,

> Solar
- Substantial pieces
Calzada, G, R. Merino, J. Rallo and J. Garca. 2010. Study of the effects on employment of public aid to renewable energy sources. Instituto Juan de Mariana (University Rey Juan Carlos). 

- Shorter pieces
Henderson, David. 2017. "Solar Power: Lots of Jobs per KWH is Bad, not Good." Econlog (May 22).

Why Electricity Matters. 2017. "4 reasons why the World Bank is wrong about off-grid solar." (October 25).

Perry, Mark J. 2017. "Today's most productive energy workers are in coal and gas, not solar." Washington Examiner (May 3).

Dowd, Philip. 2016. "A Solar Power Plant vs. A Natural Gas Power Plant: Capital Cost - Apples to Apples." WUWT (April 1).

Bin, Liu. 2018. "China solar industry struggles through sudden subsidy cuts. After years of breakneck growth, solar panel manufacturers are tightening their belts as the government slashes support." Climate Home News (August 15).

Chen, Stephen. 2017. "China's ageing solar panels are going to be a big environmental problem. The issue of how to dispose of hazardous waste from ageing panels casts a shadow over the drive towards renewable energy and away from fossil fuels." South China Morning Post (July 30).

Suggested links

- General
"Beyond Fossil Fuels" (New York Times article series, Fall 2010)

Renewable Energy Annual by the Energy Information Agency.

Renewable Energy

Renewables - International Energy Agency

Renewable & Alternative Fuels - Energy Information Administration

About Renewable Energy - Natural Resources Canada

Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy.” US Department of Energy.

- Biomass
Global Development and Environment Institute (Tufts University). Food vs. Fuel - U.S. Biofuels and the Global Food Crisis

- Wind
Country Guardian's Website

Alliance for Wise Energy Decisions

Glebe Mountain Group - Vermont Ecologists opposed to windwills (including the song "Tilting at Windmills")
See especially their links to wind energy Websites

"Executive summary" of "Study of the effects on employment of public aid to renewable energy sources" by Gabriel Calzada Álvarez PhD., Raquel Merino Jara, Juan Ramón Rallo Julián Technical & José Ignacio García Bielsa. Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, March 2009.

Helmer MEP, Roger. 2012. "“Sustainable energy” just isn’t …. well, sustainable." (April 27).

- Solar
Tavares, Stephanie. 2010. "New wave of solar plants could worsen air quality." Las Vegas Sun, April 26.

Foreign aid wasted resources

Subsidies (fossil fuels vs renewables)

- Biomass
Biomass destroying forests

Palm oil no good

Lecture 10: The Perennial Energy Debate

Suggested videos


Royal Society (UK). 2012. People and the Planet Report. (Watch the John Sulton video). 

Sabin, Paul. 2013. The Bet. Paul Ehrlich, Julian Simon, and Our Gamble over Earth's Future. Yale University Press.

"Oil: The Next Revolution." Harvard - Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs (June 2012) Executive Summary (excerpts video).

Words and Numbers. 2017. "The Population Boom Could Save the World."

Suggested readings

Nillesen, Eleonora and Erwin Bulte. 2014. "Natural Resources and Violent Conflict." Annual Review of Resource Economics 6: 69-83. 

Adelman, Morris A. 1997. "My Education in Mineral (Especially Oil) Economics," Annual Review of Energy and the Environment 22: 13-46.

Auerback, Marshall. 2005. "Oil: Geologists vs. Economists.", September 13.

Bradley, Robert L and Richard W. Fulmer. Energy: The Master Resource, Kendall Hunt Publishing Company, 2004, Chapter 4: Will We Run Out of Energy?

Bradley, Robert L. and Richard W. Fulmer. Energy: The Master Resource, Kendall Hunt Publishing Company, 2004, Chapter 7: Energy for the Future.

Groshong, Kimm. 2004. "Debate centers on oil reserves." Pasadena Star-News, December 14.

Hamilton, James. 2006. "Is Peak Oil Irrelevant?", October 24.

Hamilton, James. 2006. "ExxonMobil and Peak Oil.", March 14.

Hamilton, James & Kash Mansori. 2006. "The Perils of Forecasting." The Wall Street Journal, January 26.

Hammes, David and Douglas Wills, "Black Gold: The End of Bretton Woods and the Oil-Price Shocks of the 1970s." The Independent Review 9 (Spring 2005): 501-11.

"Kenneth Deffeyes and Peter R. Odell on Counterpoint." Global Public Media.

Kratkraemer, Jeffrey A. 2005. "Economics of Natural Resource Scarcity: The State of the Debate." Resources for the Future, Discussion Paper 05-14.

Linden, Henry R. 1996. "The Evolution of an Energy Contrarian," Annual Review of Energy and the Environment 21: 31-67.

Peart, Sandra J., and David M. Levy, 2005. "Happiness, Progress and the 'Vanity of the Philosopher'." The Library of Economics and Liberty, June 6.

Rogner, H-H. 1997. "An Assessment of World Hydrocarbon Resources," Annual Review of Energy and the Environment 22: 217-262.

Seale, Avrel. 2005. "How Long Do We Have?" The Alcalde, July/August, p. 40-45.

Simpson, R. David, Michael A. Toman and Robert U. Ayres. 2004. "Scarcity and Growth in the New Millennium: Summary." Discussion Paper 04-01, Washington: Resources for the Future.

Smil, Vaclav. 2005. "Limits to Growth revisited: A review essay." Population and Development Review. 31: 157-164.

Smil, Vaclav. 1998. “Future of Oil: Trends and Surprises." OPEC Review 22 (4): 253-276.

Hotelling's Rule
"Hotelling's Rule." From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Cowen, Tyler. 2004. "Oil Prices and Time." Marginal Revolution, May 19.

Friedman, David. 2006. "Peak Oil?" Ideas, March 10.

Haab, Tim. 2005. "Oil prices: Hotelling's Rule, Futures and Options." Environmental Economics, July 7.

Roberts, Russell. 2004. "Why Oil (and Lots of Other Stuff) Gets Cheaper." Café Hayek, May 20.

Simon, Julian. 1990. "Hotelling's Law: Is it Useful or Wasteful?" September 6.


Chapter 15 “Synthesis – What it all amounts to?” in Campbell, C. 1997. The Coming Oil Crisis. Multi-Science Publishing Company & Petroconsultants.

Chapter 1 of Deffeyes, Kenneth S. 2003. Hubbert’s Peak: The Impending World Oil Shortage. Princeton University Press.

Collins, Donald A. "The Great Population Debate: An Opinion Paper." Volume 32, Number 1, Spring 2007.

Crawford, Dan. 2006. "Natural gas has eight years left." The Republic, no 131, February 2 to 14.

Hall, Charles A.S. 2004. “The Myth of Sustainable Development: Personal Reflections on Energy, its Relation to Neoclassical Economics, and Stanley Jevons.” Journal of Energy Resources Technology 126: 85-89.

Journal of Industrial Ecology 17 (3) (June 2013) "Depth and Nature of Giant Petroleum Discoveries Through Time as an Indicator of Resource Depletion."

Hirsch, Robert L., Roger H. Bezdek & Robert M. Wendling. "Peaking Oil Production: Sooner Rather Than Later?" Issues in Science and Technology, vol 21, no 3, Spring 2005.

Hubbert Peak” on Wikipedia.

Kirby, Alex. 2004. “When the Last Oil Well Runs Dry.” BBC News World Edition, April 19.

Kaufmann, Robert and James D. Hamilton. 2005. "Drilling for Broke? Experts Debate 'Peak Oil'." Wall Street Journal Online, August 3.

Laherrère, Jean. 2000. “Learn Strengths, Weaknesses to Understand Hubbert Curve,” Oil & Gas Journal 98 (16): 63-76.

Long Term World Oil Supply (A Resource Base/Production Path Analysis)” on the EIA Website.

Mieszkowski, Katharine. 2006. "The Oil is Going, The Oil is Going!", March 22.

Osborn, Fairfield, Our Plundered Planet, Osborn, Fairfield, Little, Brown, Boston : 1948

Pirages, Dennis. 2005. "From Limits to Growth to Ecological Security," Chapter 1 from From Resource Scarcity to Ecological Security - Exploring New Limits to Growth, Edited by Dennis Pirages and Ken Cousins, June, 280 pp.

Tucker, William. 2005. "A Cartel and Its Snakeoil - The Saudis claim to have huge oil reserves. Do they really?" Opinion Journal, June 28.

Whitty, Julia. "The Last Taboo." Mother Jones, May-June 2010 Issue.

McKinsey Global Institute. 2011. Resource Revolution: Meeting the world's energy, materials, food, and water needs (Executive Summary).

-Political Peak Oil

Bailey, Ronald. 2009. "Peak Oil, Revisited." Reason Magazine, October.

Bailey, Ronald. 2009. "Peak Oil: The Threat of Resource Nationalism." Reason Magazine, August 20.

–, 2005. "Does 'Peak Oil' Spell Death for the Suburbs?" Vanishing Automobile Update #56, September 30.

–, 1948. "Eat Hearty." Time, November 8.

Adelman, M. A. 2004. "The Real Oil Problem." Regulation (Spring): 16-21.

Bailey, Ronald. 2004. "Are We Out of Gas Yet? The Continuing 'Oil Crisis' Crisis." ReasonOnline, March 18.

Bailey, Ronald. 2006. "Peak Oil Panic - Is The Planet Running Out of Gas? If It Is, What Should the Bush Administration Do About It?" Reason Online, May.

Bradley Jr, Robert. 2004. "Are We Running Out of Oil?" PERC Reports, September.

Brandly, Mark. 2004. “Will We Run Out of Energy?, May 19.

Bradley, Robert L. "Jr.'s Remarks Upon Receiving The Julian Simon Memorial Award," Competitive Enterprise Institute, May 22, 2002.

Brätland, John. 2008. "Resource Exhaustibility: A Myth Refuted by Entrepreneurial Capital Maintenance." The Independent Review, Volume 12, Number 3, Winter.

Corcoran, Terence. 2011. "The energy superpower that isn't." Financial Post Comment, November 4.

Corcoran, Terence. 2008. "The price of oil returns to 'normal'." Financial Post Comment, December 10.

Deming, David. 2003. “Are We Running Out of Oil?," National Center for Policy Analysis Background Paper 159.

Emmett, Ross B. 2006. "Malthus Reconsidered: Population, Natural Resources and Markets." PERC Policy Series #38.

Engels, Frederick. "Outlines of a Critique of Political Economy (excerpt)." October and November 1843.

Featherstone, Charles H. 2005. "A Challenge to Peak Oilers.", August 15.

Grewell, J. Bishop. "The Magic of Oil Prices". A Better

Hossein-Zadeh, Ismael. 2008. "A Powerful Trap. The Recurring Myth of Peak Oil." Counterpunch, October 1.

Kleit, Andrew N. 2002. "An Economic Theory of Shortage. Review of Kenneth S. Deffeyes' Hubbert's Peak: The Impending World Oil Shortage," Regulation (Fall): 69-70. (Scroll down to p. 5)

Lapin, Daniel. 2001. "Existential (Energy) Crisis - Because we are human, we are capable of infinite creativity and invention," National Review, June 11.

Lemieux, Pierre. 2005. "The Oil Price Mirage." Ludwig von Mises Institute, August, 23.

Lynch, Michael. 2006. "Crop Circles in the Desert: The Strange Controversy Over Saudi Oil Production." International Research Center for Energy and Economic Development, Occasional Papers: Number Forty.

Lynch, Michael. 2004. The New Pessimism about Petroleum Resources: Debunking the Hubbert Model (and Hubbert Modelers)

Lynch, Michael. 1999. “Oil Scarcity, Oil Crisis and Alternative Energies – Don’t Be Fooled Again!,” Applied Energy 64 (1-4): 31-53.

Lynch, Michael. 1998. “Crying Wolf: Warnings about oil supply." M.I.T., March.

ONeill, Brendan. 2009. "Too many people? No, too many Malthusians." Spiked Online, November 19.

Porter, Edward D. and Sally Brain Gentile. 1996. "Are We Running Out of Oil?," Heartland Institute.

Porter, Edward D. 1995. "Are We Running Out of Oil?," Discussion Paper #81, American Petroleum Institute, December 1995.

Press, Daryl G., and Eugene Gholz. 2007. "Energy Alarmism: The Myths That Make Americans Worry about Oil." Cato Institute, Policy Analysis no. 589, April 5.

Rozeff, Michael S. 2008. "The Coming Oil Price Decline.", January 16.

Schulz, Max. 2006. "Running Out of Oil? History, Technology and Abundance." Tech Central Station, March 13.

Schulz, Max. 2006. "Houston, Do We Have a Problem?" Tech Central Station, February 8.

Solomon, Lawrence. 2011. "Democratic jackpot." National Post, November 4.

Solomon, Lawrence. 2008. "Abundant Energy Will Power Future Growth." National Post, July 12.

Stroup, Richard. 2008. "Review of The Bottomless Well: The Twilight of Fuel, the Virtue of Waste, and Why We Will Never Run Out of Energy  by Peter W. Huber and Mark P. Mills." The Independent Review, Vol. 12, No 3 (Winter).

Are We Running Out of Oil?” Transcript of a talk by G. Campbell Watkins, May 27, 2004.

Yergin, Daniel. 2005. "It's Not the End of the Oil Age." The Washington Post, July 31.

Lynch, Michael. 2009. "‘Peak Oil’ Is a Waste of Energy." The New York Times, August 24.

Glover, Peter C. 2012. "Whatever happened to peak oil?" The Commentator (August 15).

Hayward, Steven. 2016. "An End to Peak Nonsense?" Powerline Blog (January 13). 

Smil, Vaclav. 2013. "Memories of Peak Oil." The American Magazine (February 2).

Smil, Vaclav. 2007. "Peak performance." Tech Central Station, February 23

Smil, Vaclav. 2006. "Peak Oil: A Catastrophist Cult and Complex Realities." World Watch 19: 22-24.

Smil, Vaclav. 2005. "Peak Curiosity." Tech Central Station, December 2.

Worstall, Tim. 2015. The No Breakfast Fallacy. Why the Club of Rome was wrong about us running out of resources. Adam Smith Institute.

Bradley Jr., Robert. 2016. "Peak Oil Consensus 2008: Lesson for 'Settled' Climate Science." Master Resource (September 29).

Bailey, Ronald. 2017. "Physical Scientists Are So Darned Cute When They Finally Understand Economics. Geologists analyze the myth of mineral resource exhaustion." Reason (May 1). 

The Simon-Ehrlich Bet
–, "Julian Lincoln Simon," Wikipedia.

–, "Overpopulation," Wikipedia.

–, "Thomas Malthus," Wikipedia.

–, "Paul R. Ehrlich," Wikipedia.

McClintick, David, and Ross B. Emmett. 2005. "Betting on The Wealth Of Nature." Perc Reports, September.

Regis, Ed. 1997. "The Doomslayer," Wired 5 (2) (February).

Perry, Mark J. 2008. "Would Julian Simon Have Won a Second Bet?" Carpe Diem, February 13.

Perry, Mark. 2013. "Julian Simon: Still more right than lucky in 2013." Carpe Diem (AEIdeas) (January 12). 

Wagner, John E. and David H. Newman. 2013. "The Simon-Ehrlich Bet: Teaching Relative vs Absolute Scarcity." The American Economist 58 (1): 16-26. 

Desrochers, Pierre. 2015. "The Simon-Ehrlich Wager 25 Years On." Spiked (September 29). 

Desrochers, Pierre and Vincent Geloso. 2016. "Snatching the Wrong Conclusions from the Jaws of Defeat: A Historical/Resourceship Perspective on Paul Sabin's The Bet: Paul Ehrlich, Julian Simon, and Our Gamble over Earth's Future (Yale University Press, 2013), Part 2: The Wager: Protagonists and Lessons." New Perspectives on Political Economy 12 (1-2): 42-64.

Desrochers, Pierre and Vincent Geloso. 2016. "Snatching the Wrong Conclusions from the Jaws of Defeat: A Historical/Resourceship Perspective on Paul Sabin's The Bet: Paul Ehrlich, Julian Simon, and Our Gamble over Earth's Future (Yale University Press, 2013). Part 1: The Missing History of Thought: Depletionism vs Resourceship." New Perspectives on Political Economy 12 (1-2): 5-41.

Mann, Charles. 2018. "The Book That Incited a Worldwide Fear of Overpopulation - 'The Population Bomb' made dire predictions-and triggered a wave of repression around the world." Smithsonian Magazine (January).

Tupy, Marian L. 2018. Julian Simon Was Right: A Half-Century of Population Growth, Increasing Prosperity, and Falling Commodity Prices on Julian Simon. Economic Development Bulletin No. 29. 

The Lomborg Affair
A video debate between Bjorn Lomborg and Daniel Kammen of the Energy and Resources Group (UC Berkeley), originally aired on PBS's Uncommon Knowledge in 2002.

Bradley, Robert. 2003. The Heated Energy Debate: Assessing John Holdren's Attack on Bjorn Lomborg's The Skeptical Environmentalist. Competitive Enterprise Institute.

Frost, Caroline. 2002. “The Sceptical Environmentalist.” BBC Four, September 2.

–, "Bjørn Lomborg," Wikipedia.

Kysar, Douglas. 2003. "Some Realism about Environmental Skepticism." Ecological Law Quarterly 30: 223-279.

Lomborg, Bjørn. 2004. “The Skeptical Environmentalist.” In Anderson, Terry (ed.) You Have to Admit It’s Getting Better. Hoover Institution Press, p. 2-51.

Pope, Carl & Bjørn Lomborg. 2005. "The State of Nature: Our Roof Is Caving in / Let’s Try Priorities, not Propaganda." Foreign Policy, July/August.

Special issue of Environmental Science and Policy (Vol. 7, Issue 5, October 2004) on "The Politicization of Science: Learning from the Lomborg Affair."

The Jevons Paradox, a.k.a the "Rebound Effect"
Biography of William Stanley Jevons (1835-82), The Concise Encyclopedia of Economics.

William Stanley Jevons, 1835-1882

Jevons Paradox, from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Alcott, Blake, 2005. "Jevons Paradox." Ecological Economics 54 (1): 9-21.

Hertwich, Edgar G. 2005. "Consumption and the Rebound Effect: An Industrial Ecology Perspective." Journal of Industrial Ecology, Vol. 9, 1-2 (Special Issue on Consumption and Industrial Ecology - Winter-Spring) pp. 85-98.

Gottron, Frank. 2001. "RS20981: Energy Efficiency and the Rebound Effect: Does Increasing Efficiency Decrease Demand?" CRS Report for Congress, July 30.

A special issue of the journal Energy Policy, Volume 28, Numbers 6-7, 2000: "On the Rebound: The Interaction of Energy Efficiency, Energy Use and Economic Activity."

Sorrell, Steve. 2009. "Jevons' Paradox Revisited. The Evidence for Backfire from Improved Energy Efficiency." Energy Policy 37(4): 1456-1469.

William Stanley Jevons, The Coal Question; An Inquiry Concerning the Progress of the Nation, and the Probable Exhaustion of Our Coalmines (1865)

Nordaus, Ted. 2017. "The Energy Rebound Battle." Issues in Science and Technology 33 (4) (Summer) VOL. XXXIII, NO. 4, SUMMER 2017. 

Ecological Footprint
Ecological Footprint.” Wikipedia.

Global Footprint Network

Earth Overshoot Day

Living Planet Report - past issues 

Sustainability 2 (6), Special issue "Ecological Footprint Indicator." 

Blomqvist, Linus. Date unknown. "It's Time to Scrap the Ecological Footprint - Earth Overshoot Day Is Fundamentally Meaningless." Breakthrough Institute. 

Wackernagel, M. et al.Ecological Footprints of Nations.” The Earth Council (date unknown).

Rees, William. “Revisiting Carrying Capacity: Area-Based Indicators of Sustainability.” (Revised version, date unknown)

Gordon, Peter and Harry Richardson. 1998. "Farmland Preservation and Ecological Footprints: A Critique," Planning and Markets 1 (1).

Rees, William E. 2002. "Footprint: Our Impact on Earth is Getting Heavier." Nature 420 (November 21), 267-268.

Wackernagel, Mathis, Niels B. Schulz, Diana Deumling, Alejandro Callejas Linares, Martin Jenkins, Valerie Kapos, Chad Monfreda, Jonathan Loh, Norman Myers, Richard Norgaard, & Jørgen Randers. 2002. "Tracking the Ecological Overshoot of the Human Economy." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS), June 27.

Bailey, Ronald. 2002. "The End Is Nigh, Again," ReasonOnline, June 26.

Jørgensen, A. et al. 2002. “Assessing the Ecological Footprint: A Look at the WWF’s Living Planet 2002 Report.” Environmental Assessment Institute.

Kinver, Mark. 2006. "Britain Now 'Eating the Planet'." BBC News, April 15.

Fiala, Nathan. 2008. "Commentary: Measuring sustainability: Why the ecological footprint is bad economics and bad environmental science." Ecological Economics 67 (4): 519-525. 

Willis Eschenbach, Willis. 2010. "Ecological Footprints - A Good Idea Gone Bad." WUWT (August 26). 

Blomqvist, Linus, Barry W. Brook, Erle C. Ellis, Peter M. Kareiva, Ted Nordhaus and Michael Shellenberger. 2013. "Does the Shoe Fit? Real versus Imagined Ecological Footprints." PLOS Biology 11(11): e1001700. 

Recent News
"World Energy Outlook 2012 (Released on 12 November 2012)"

"Review & Outlook: The Non-Green Jobs Boom." The Wall Street Journal, November 28.

Agence France-Presse. 2007. "Brazil Discovers Huge Oil Reserves.", November 09.

Bailey, Ronald. 2011. "What Energy Crisis? Natural Gas Supplies Could Last 250 Years." Reason, January 20, 2011.

Connor, Steve. 2008. "Oil Shortage a Myth, Says Industry Insider." The Independent, June 9.

Effinger, Anthony. 2008. "An elusive ocean of crude." - Houston Chronicle, June 6.

Forero, Juan. 2012. "Center of gravity in oil world shifts to Americas." The Washington Post (May 25).

Hargreaves, Steve. 2007. "Still Waiting to Cash in on Iraq's Oil.", November 9.

Krauss, Clifford. 2010. "There Will Be Fuel.", November 16.

Maykuth, Andrew. 2011. "U.S. revises amount of Marcellus gas higher, much higher." (August 24).

Mouawad, Jad. 2007. "Oil Innovations Pump New Life Into Old Wells." The New York Times, March 5.

Solomon, Lawrence. 2012. "A world awash in oil." National Post (March 30).

Utley, Jon Basil. 2008. "The Coming Energy Abundance - How new technology can lower prices and reshape the global economy." Reason Magazine, September 22.

"Oil in America - Energy to spare - America is on track to produce all the energy it needs at home." The Economist (Nov 17th 2012)

Farnham, Alan. 2012. "An American Oil Find That Holds More Oil Than All of OPEC." ABC News (November 13).

Foster, Peter. 2012. "Anti-markets drivel." National Post (November 13).

Nguyen, Lananh. 2012. "U.S. Oil Output to Overtake Saudi Arabia’s by 2020." Bloomberg (November 12).

Pearlman, Jonathan. 2013. "Trillions of dollars worth of oil found in Australian outback." The Telegraph (January 24).

"World's top oil producer projected to be U. S. by 2020." CBC News (November 12, 2012).

Webb, Tim. 2012. "It's Humongous: UK Shale Gas Deposit 50% Bigger than Thought." The Times (London).

"What is Oil Shale?" Institute for Energy Research.

Bryce, Robert. 2013. "New Technology for Old Fuels. Innovation in Oil and Natural Gas Production Assures Future Supplies." Energy Policy & the Environment Report No. 12 (Manhattan Institute) (April) (Executive Summary).

Jaffe, Amy Myers. 2011. "The Americas, Not the Middle East, Will be the World Capital of Energy." Foreign Policy (September-October).

Lind, Michael. 2011. "Everything you've heard about fossil fuels may be wrong - War Room.", May 31.

Smil, Vaclav. 2014. "Are Low Oil Prices Good or Bad?" The American (December 22).

Mueller, Philipp. 2013. "The Abundance of Fossil Fuels." Global Warming Policy Foundation (Briefing Paper 6).

Bryce, Robert. 2014. "OPEC KO'd by the Three Rs." National Review (November 26). 

Ashkenas, Jeremy, Alicia Parlapiano and Hannah Fairfield. 2015. "How the U.S. and OPEC Drive Oil Prices." New York Times (October 5).

Krauss, Clifford. 2016. "Stock Prices Sink in a Rising Ocean of Oil." New York Times (January 16).

Russell, Karl. 2016. "Why Oil Is Plummeting." New York Times (February 16).

Suggested links

US Department of the Interior (US Geological Survey)

A talk by economist James Hamilton on the "Peak Oil" controversy

The Abiotic Oil Debate and "Peak Oil"

The Interview: Thomas Homer-Dixon

Association for the Study of Peak Oil & Gas

Club of Rome

Energy Bulletin


The Oil Depletion Analysis Centre (ODAC)

The Oil Drum - Discussions About Energy and Our Future

The End of Fossil Fuels” on Die Off

The Global Oil Crisis Website

UK Energy Research Centre

Remembering Julian Simon. Freedom Network and the Heartland Institute.

Bjørn Lomborg's (The Skeptical Environmentalist) Website

Peak Oil Debunked


Lecture 11: The Curse of Natural Resources

Suggested readings

Bailey, Ronald. 2007. "Political Peak Oil - One Thing Stands in the Way of Secure and Abundant Supplies of Oil: Government. " ReasonOnline, January 5.

Bannon, Ian and Paul Collier, eds. "Natural Resources and Violent Conflict." The World Bank, 2003.

Beinea, Michel, Charles S. Bosb & Serge Coulombec. "Does the Canadian economy suffer from Dutch disease?" Resource and Energy Economics, Volume 34, Issue 4, November 2012, Pages 468-492.

Birdsall, Nancy and Arvind Subramanian. 2004. "Saving Iraq from its Oil," Foreign Affairs, July, pp. 77-89.

Boianovsky, Mauro. 2013. "Humboldt and the economists on natural resources, institutions and underdevelopment (1752 to 1859)." The European Journal of the History of Economic Thought 20 (1): 58-88.

Boschini, A.D. et al. 2003. "Resource Curse or Not : A Question of Appropriability." Department of Economics, Stockholm University.

Challender, Chloe, Annie Heaton, Fiona King, Vanessa Herringshaw and Bill Bell. "Lifting the Resource Curse - Extractive Industry, Children and Governance." Briefing Report, Save the Children, 2003.

Conca, Ken. 2012. "Decoupling Water and Violent Conflict." Issues in Science and Technology 29 (Fall). 

Coronel, Gustavo. 2006. "Corruption, Mismanagement, and Abuse of Power in Hugo Chávez's Venezuela." Development Policy Analysis no. 2, Cato Institute, November 27.

Cross, Philip. 2013. "Dutch Disease, Canadian Cure: How Manufacturers Adapted to the Higher Dollar." A Macdonald-Laurier Institute Publication (January).

Crowley, Brian Lee. 2006. "The Meaning of Ralph." AIMS In the Media, April 18.

Crowley, Brian Lee. 2005. "The Mixed Blessing of Natural Resources." Dialogues, Fall.

Davis, Graham A. and John E. Tilton. "The Resource Curse." Natural Resources Forum, Volume 29 Issue 3, p. 233 - August 2005.

Davis, Graham A. and John E. Tilton. “Should Developing Countries Renounce Mining? A Perspective on the Debate” International Council on Mining and Metals. (date unknown)

DiJohn, Jonathan, "Mineral Resource Abundance and Violent Political Conflict: A Critical Assessment of the Rentier State Model," LSE Crisis States Programme, Working Paper No. 20, December 2002.

Do Natural Resources Limit Economic Development?” Lancaster University, Department of Geography (Human Geography: Poster 3).

Edvardsen, Espen. 2006-2007. North Sea Saga - The Oil Age In Norway, Horn Forlag.

Eviatar, Daphne. 2003. “Striking It Poor: Oil as Curse.” New York Times, June 7.

Fernandez, Richard. 2016. "The Death of a Nation." PJ Media, April 28.

Ghazvinian, John. 2007. "The Curse of Oil." Virginia Quarterly Review, Volume 83, Number 1.

Ghersi, Enrique. 2006. "Peru's Mining Crisis." The Independent Institute, September 15.

Harford, Tim, and Michael Klein. 2005. "Aid and the Resource Curse - How Can Aid Be Designed to Preserve Institutions?" Public Policy for the Private Sector 291 (April).

Jones Luong, Pauline, and Erika Weinthal. 2006. "Rethinking The Resource Curse: Ownership Structure, Institutional Capacity, and Domestic Constraints." Annual Review of Political Science Vol. 9: 241-263 (June).

Kheiriddin, Tasha. 2012. "The Time is Ripe for First Nations Land Reform in Canada." National Post (August 9).

Le Billon, Philippe, "The political ecology of war: Natural resources and armed conflict," Political Geography 20 (2001), pp. 561-584.

Martinez, Ibsen. 2006. "Reflections from Latin America - OPEC: A Texan Idea Twice Thought In Venezuela." Library of Economics and Liberty, August 7.

Mathiesen, Karl. 2017. "Into the Abyss: Oil states face turmoil as climate policies bite." Climate Change News (April 1). 

Mbachu, Dulue. 2006. "Nigeria Boosting Protection for Pipelines.", May 13.

"Meeting the Challenge of the Resource Curse - International Experiences in Managing the Risks and Realising the Opportunities of Non-Renewable Natural Resource Revenue Management." Prepared for Bureau for Resources and Strategic Partnerships, United Nations Development Programme, January 2006.

Moreen, Amber Linea. 2006. "Overcoming the 'Resource Curse' - Prioritizing Policy Interventions in Countries with Large Extractive Industries." RAND Corporation, October.

Papyrakis, Elissaios and Reyer Gerlagh. 2004. "The Resource Curse Hypothesis and its Transmission Channels." Journal of Comparative Economics 32 (1): 181-193.

Patrick, Roland. 2006. "Thanks Hugo... Hoser - Canada Benefits From Venezuela's Export of Petroleum Engineers." Let's Fly Under the Bridge, April 3.

Pendleton, Christian et al. 2003. ”Fueling Poverty: Oil, War and Corruption.” Christian Aid.

Ross, Michael L. 2013. The Oil Curse: How Petroleum Wealth Shapes the Development of Nations. Princeton University Press. 

Ross, Michael. 2006. "A Closer Look at Oil, Diamonds, and Civil War." Annual Review of Political Science Vol. 9: 265-300 (June).

Ross, Michael, "Oil, Drugs, and Diamonds: How Do Natural Resources Vary in their Impact on Civil War?" Working paper: UCLA University Press, 2002.

Skidelsky, Robert. 2004. “Can Russia Escape the ‘Resource’ Curse?Wall Street Journal, July 6.

Stevens, Paul J. 2006. "Resource Curse and How to Avoid It?" Journal of Energy and Development 31 (1): 1-20.

Stevens, Paul. 2003. “Resource Impact: A Curse or a Blessing?” Centre for Energy, Petroleum and Mineral Law and Policy, University of Dundee, Draft Working Paper, April 22.

Stevens, Paul J. 2002. "'Resource Curse' and Investment in Oil and Gas Projects: The New Challenge." Internet Journal (The Centre for Energy, Petroleum and Mineral Law and Policy) June. (later published as "Resource Impact: curse or blessing? A literature survey." Journal of Energy Literature Vol IX No 1 June 2003 Pp. 3-42)

Tupy, Marian L. 2006. "Sir John Cowperthwaite: A Personal Tribute." The Cato Institute, February 3.

Van der Ploeg, Frederick and Anthony J. Venables. 2012. "Natural Resource Wealth: The Challenge of Managing a Windfall." Annual Review of Economics 4: 315?337.

Van der Ploeg, Frederick. 2011. "Natural Resources: Curse or Blessing?" Journal of Economic Literature 49 (2): 366-420.

Weinthal, Erika, and Pauline Jones Luong. 2006. "Combating the Resource Curse: An Alternative Solution to Managing Mineral Wealth." Perspectives on Politics 4(1): 35-53.

The Curse of Resources.” Bastard Sword (Blog), January 26, 2004.

"Resource curse." Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

"Rent seeking." Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Suggested links

A National Public Radio series (originally aired in August 2005) on "Oil Money Divides Nigeria."

The Dark Side of Natural Resources" and “Oil and Natural Gas” on the Global Policy Forum.

The second installment (“The Oil Curse”) of the 3 part CBC series “Oil: The World Over a Barrel.”

Odious Debt

Exorcizing the Resource Curse: Minerals as a Knowledge Industry, Past and Present

Mehlum, Halvor, Karl Moene and Ragnar Torvik. 2006. "Institutions and the Resource Curse." The Economic Journal, 116 (January), 1–20. Royal Economic Society (earlier non-gated version available here).

Brunnschweiler, Christa N., Erwin H. Bulte. "The Resource Curse Revisited and Revised: A Tale of Paradoxes and Red Herrings." Working Paper 06/61, Economics Working Paper Series, December 2006.

The Curse of Oil. Jean-Pierre Beaurenaud, Les Films du Village, France 5, Zarafa Films.

Lecture 12: The Future of the Automobile

Suggested readings

Bradley, Robert L and Richard W. Fulmer. Energy: The Master Resource, Kendall Hunt Publishing Company, 2004, Chapter 2: Using Energy, pp. 48-55.

Brain, Marshall. "How Car Engines Work." Howstuffworks.

Schulz, Max. 2007. "The CAFE Paradox." Tech Central Station, June 28.

"Alternative Fuel Cars." Collingwood School, Springfield Road, Wallington, Surrey.

The American Dream Coalition on Cars
- Automobiles & the American Dream
- Automobiles and Low Income Families
- Automobile Myths
- Congestion and the American Dream
- Automobility References and Experts

–, "Change the Name to Anti-Business Week." The Antiplanner, February 19, 2008.

National Research Council. 2013. Transitions to Alternative Vehicles and Fuels. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

> Before the Car
Urban Pollution - Many long years ago - Carriage Horse History - Coalition for New York City Animals

Davies, Stephen. 2004. "Our Economic Past ~ The Great Horse-Manure Crisis of 1894." The Freeman - Ideas On Liberty, September 1st.

"How Equine Flu Brought the US to a Standstill." Horsetalk, September 26, 2007.

Lee, Dwight R. 2007. "Thank You, Internal-Combustion Engine, for Cleaning up the Environment - Widespread Pollution from Horse Manure Caused Diseases and Produced Methane Gas." The Freeman - Ideas On Liberty (October - Volume 57 - Issue 8).

Morris, Eric. (2007). "From horse power to horsepower." Access, vol. 30, pp. 2-9.

Smil, Vaclav. 2000. "Horse Power," Nature 405: 125.

Teicher, Jordan G. 2014. The Glories of 19th Century Paris (Photos), Slate (February 24).

> Tractors
White, William J. 2008 "Economic History of Tractors in the United States." Eh.Net Encyclopedia of Economic and Business History.

James Pethokoukis. 2012. "What if the Tractor Had Never Been Invented" The Enterprise Blog (March 8)

National Academy of Engineering. Greatest Achievements of the 20th Century - Agricultural Mechanization - Tractor Development

• Historical Perspective
Kinney Bennett, Ralph. 2006. "Bertha’s Muscle Car." Tech Central Station, January 31.

Reynold, Alan. 2004. “Energy Disinformation.” Washington Times, June 27.

Biomass Fuels
Several links dealing with biomass fuels are provided in lecture 8.

Electric Car
"History of Electric Vehicles The Early Years (1890-1930)." U.S. Department of Energy, July 11, 2005.

Carl Sulzberger, Carl. "100 Miles On One Charge - The remarkable Fritchle electric car." IEEE Power Engineering Society.

Fienberg, Daniel. 2006. "Who Killed the Electric Car?", June 30.

Foster, Peter. 2010. "The Voltswagen: The people's car the people pay for." Financial Post, July 28.

Freese, Duane D. 2006. "Technology and Politics as Metaphor." Tech Central Station, June 30.

Jenkins, Holman W. 2008. "What Is GM Thinking?" The Wall Street Journal, July 2.

Moran, Rick. 2012. "GM loses $49,000 on each Chevy Volt it sells." American Thinker (September 10).

Rauch, Jonathan. 2008. "Electro-Shock Therapy." The Atlantic Monthly, July-August.

Vaughan, Adam. 2010. "Figures show massive slump in UK sales of new electric cars." The Guardian, October 21.

Voelcker, John. 2007. "Can Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles Keep the Electric Grid Stable?" IEEE Spectrum, October.

Webster, Ben. 2011. "Electric cars may not be so green after all, says British study." The Times, June 10.

Wickstrom, Doug. 2006. "Who Killed the Electric Car?" rec.arts.sf.fandom Google Group, July 14.

- Tesla Motor
Epstein, Alex. 2013.
- "With The Tesla Model S, Elon Musk Has Created A Nice Fossil Fuel Car." Forbes (August 21). 
- "Tesla Debate" Center for Industrial Progress (August 22).  

Michaels, Pat. 2013. "If Tesla Would Stop Selling Cars, We'd All Save Some Money." Forbes (May 28) on Tesla Motor.

Powell, Ben. 2014. "Affording Tesla the Freedom to Fail." Washington Times (April 4).
Stockman, David. 2015. "Tesla: Bonfire Of The Money Printers' Vanities." David Stockman's Contra Corner (February 21). 


–, "Toyota Prius proves a gas guzzler in a race with the BMW 520d." The Sunday Times, March 16, 2008.

Baukus Mello, Tara. 2004. "The Real Costs of Owning a Hybrid.", November 18.

Demorro, Chris. 2007. "Prius Outdoes Hummer in Environmental Damage." The Recorder, March 7.

Fingarson, Ashley and Jane S. Shaw. 2005. "Hybrids: Made In The USA? - A Little-Known Government Program That Fizzled." PERC Reports, March.

Friedman, Sasha. 2009. "High Voltage Danger: Emergency Responders and Hybrid Cars." Hybrid-electric EVs, January 25.

Koerner, Brendan I. 2008. "Tank vs. Hybrid - Is it possible that a Hummer's better for the environment than a Prius is?", March 18.

Leblanc, John. 2008. "The Higher Cost of Hybrids." (The Toronto Star), April 4.

Murray, Iain. 2004. “Rude Awakening for Hybrid Dreamers.” Tech Central Station, May 18.

Shields, Michael. 2006. "Carmakers Say Combustion Engines Here For Years." Planet Ark, June 8.

Smith, Lewis. 2008. "Eco-friendly Claims for ‘Hybrid’ Cars Dismissed as Gimmickry." Times Online, May 19.

Smith, Rebecca. 2008. "Utilities, Plug-In Cars: Near Collision? Electric Firms Say Daytime Charges May Raise Costs." The Wall Street Journal, May 2.

Wald, Matthew L. 2005. "Hybrid Cars Burning Gas in the Drive for Power." The New York Times, July 17.

Williams-Derry, Clark. 2005 "To Hybrid, or Not to Hybrid." Canstats Bulletins, January 31.

Yates, Brock. 2004. “Engines for Today, Engines for the Future.” Tech Central Station, July 22.

Yates, Brock. 2004. “A Hybrid Shock?Tech Central Station, July 8.

"CNW's 'Dust to Dust' Automotive Energy Report." ("Why 100,000 Miles for Prius?," "Hidden Cost of Driving a Prius Commentary," etc.)

Brain, Marshall. "How Diesel Engines Work (Introduction)." Howstuffworks.

Brain, Marshall. "How Diesel Engines Work (Diesel Engines vs. Gasoline Engines)." Howstuffworks.

Ciulla, Vincent. "The Diesel Engine."

Anthrop, Donald. 2004. "Hydrogen’s Empty Environmental Promise", Cato Institute Briefing Papers no. 90, December 7.

Bailey, Ronald. 2003. "Where are the Hydrogen Mines?," Tech Central Station, December 10.

Coninx, Paul. 2004. "The Hydrogen Balloon." Fraser Forum, August, pp. 29-30

Hoffmann, Peter, and Robert Rose. 2003. "Toward Tomorrow's Energy: Speeding the Commercial Use of Fuel Cells and Hydrogen." Progressive Policy Institute (PPI), January 22.

Economist Lynn Kiesling suggests that we Let the Hydrogen Economy Evolve
on the Reason Public Policy Institute Website:
"The Science of Hydrogen Fuel Cells." Part 1 of a five-part series, March 24, 2003.
"The Economics of Hydrogen: Innovation in Mature and New Technologies." Part 2 of a five-part series, March 25, 2003.
"Are Hydrogen Fueling Station Subsidies Necessary?" Part 3 of a five-part series, March 26, 2003.
"Hydrogen-Powered Buildings." Part 4 of a five-part series, March 27, 2003.
"Can the Government Pick Technology Winners? Can Anyone?" Part 5 of a five-part series, March 28, 2003.

Korchinski, William J. 2004. Fueling America: How Hydrogen Cars Affect the Environment. Reason Public Policy Institute Policy Study No. 322. Full Study - Study Summary

National Academy of Engineering, Board on Energy and Environmental Systems. 2004. The Hydrogen Economy: Opportunities,Costs, Barriers, and R&D Needs. National Academies Press.
(see the columns on this report by Ronald Bailey and Ken Silverstein)

Newel, Richard G. "The Hydrogen Economy: Laying out the Groundwork." Resources (Navigating Energy Choices in the 21st Century), Winter 2005, Issue 156, pp. 20-23.

Romm, Joseph. 2004. "The Hype about Hydrogen." Issues in Science and Technology.

Shekhar, Chandra. 2006. "Methanol: The New Hydrogen Advances in Methanol Synthesis, Coupled With Improved Fuel Cell Technology, Could Make it a Viable Alternative to Gasoline." Technology Review, March 27.

Shinnar, Reuel, 2003. “The Hydrogen Economy, Fuel Cells and Electric Cars.” Technology in Society 25 (4): 455-476.

Sperling, Daniel and Joan Ogden. 2004. "Hydrogen Hope." Issues in Science and Technology.

Sperling, Daniel. 2003. "FreedomCAR and Fuel Cells: Toward the Hydrogen Economy?" Progressive Policy Institute (PPI), January 22.

Talbot, David. 2006. "Cheap Hydrogen Fuel - GE says its new machine could make the hydrogen economy affordable, by slashing the cost of water-splitting technology." Technology Review, March 09.

Zubrin, Robert. "The Methanol Alternative." The New Atlantis, Number 13, Summer 2006, pp. 85-88.

Related topics
Baden John. 2008. "Third World's Realities." Tech Central Station, February 6.

Taylor, Jerry, and Peter Van Doren. 2007. "Don't Raise CAFE Standards." CATO Institute, August 2.

Trent, Dan. 2008. "Top 10: Europe’s best selling cars." MSN Cars UK, January 29.

"Mazda Develops New Catalyst Material Structure for Autos That Reduces Precious Metal Requirements." Green Car Congress, October 1st, 2007.

Suggested links

"Alan Alda Scientific American Frontier: Future Car." (a video that can be seen on the PBS Website.)

Vehicle Technologies Program: Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity

Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity: Overview

Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity: Related Links

Eric Peters Autos

Nova: Car of the Future.” (The program can be watched online here)

Before the Car

Running Like Wildfire - A Study of the Most Destructive Recorded Episode of Equine Influenza in History

Historical Perspective

History of the Automobile” on

Cité de l'Automobile - Car Museum, Alsace France

Car News and Debate
The Detroit News Auto Talk

The various editorials of "The Truth about Cars"

Diesel Vs Gasoline

Comparing Gas and Diesel Engines

Diesel Technology Forum

Hybrid and Electric Cars

Who Killed the Electric Car? (Sony Pictures Classics)

Rauch, Jonathan. 2008. "Rauch on the Volt, Risk, and Corporate Culture." EconTalk, September 01. 

Future Car


Green Car Congress

Horisly's Space: World's First Air-Powered Cars by Toyota [Videos]

The International Journal of Hydrogen Energy

The Interview: David Sanborn Scott

Lecture 13: Guest Lecture: TBA

Ontario energy history and policy framework
Special Issue: Energy and Society in Canada.” 2014. Scientia Canadensis: Canadian Journal of the History of Science, Technology and Medicine 37 (1-2): 1-221.

White, A. (2015, December 14). "Ontario's surging electricity prices endanger domestic manufacturing." The Globe and Mail

Final exam: TBA


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