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University of Toronto Mississauga • Department of Geography • FALL 2018

GGR 365H5S Trade and Globalization


 Instructor: Pierre Desrochers


 Lectures: Tuesday 7-9PM


 Phone: (905) 828-5206

 Office: Davis Building, room 3273


 Lecture room: CC 2130




GGR 365H5S - Primary Syllabus and Required Readings

Primary Syllabus and Required Readings

Suggested Readings' DIRECT LINKS

> Lecture 1 (September 11): Introduction and Concepts
> Lecture 2 (September 18): Transportation 1
> Lecture 3 (September 25): Transportation 2
> Lecture 4 (October 2): The Battle of Ideas 1
> October 9: Fall Reading Week
> Lecture 5 (October 16): The Battle of Ideas 2
> Lecture 6 (October 23): Term Test
> Lecture 7 (October 30): Market Liberalization, Sweatshops, Child Labor and Fair Trade
> Lecture 8 (November 6): Market Liberalization, Sweatshops, Child Labor and Fair Trade
> Lecture 9 (November 13): Globalization and Culture
> Lecture 10 (November 20): Global Institutions and Foreign Aid
> Lecture 11 (November 27): Globalization and the Environment
> Lecture 12 (December 4): Finance and Concluding Thoughts


Lecture 1: Introduction and Concepts

Suggested readings

My GGR 329 Geography and the Roots of Globalization course webpage contains several links to the pre- and more recent history of globalization.

On Wikipedia: "Trade" and "History of international trade."

Blinder, Alan S. “Free Trade.” The Concise Encyclopedia of Economics.

Bhagwati, Jagdish. “Protectionism.” The Concise Encyclopedia of Economics.

LaHaye, Laura. “Mercantilism.” The Concise Encyclopedia of Economics.

Chanda, Nayan. 2002. "Coming Together: Globalization Means Reconnecting the Human Community." YaleGlobal (November 19).

Findlay, Ronald, and Kevin H. O’Rourke. 2008. "Lessons From the History of Trade and War. " vox (10 March).

Rockwell, Llewellyn H. 2003. “Mercantilism, USA” Ludwig von Mises Institute (July 26).

Maxmen, Amy. 2016. "The Myth Buster: Hans Rosling is on a Mission to Save the World from Preconceived Ideas." Nature 540 (7633) : 330-333.

Kling, Arnold. 2016. Specialization and Trade. A Re-Introduction to Economics. Cato Institute.

Cave, Christine. Undated. "Think Everyone Died Young in Ancient Societies? Think Again." Aeon.

Mitchell, Dan. 2018. "7 Reasons to Support Free Trade. The bottom line is that Trump's protectionism is bad policy. And risky policy." (September 26). 

Suggested links

The Global Policy Forum on Globalization

The Global Transformations website

Marginal Revolution (MR) University on international trade 

LectureS 2-3: Transportation

Suggested readings

People and Goods
On Wikipedia. "Trade Route" and "History of Transportation"

Canadian Encyclopedia. "Transportation"

Smil, Vaclav. 2018. "April 1838: Crossing the Atlantic." IEEE Spectrum (April): 23. 

Gordon, John Steele. 2014. "100 Years of the Panama Canal." The American (August 15).

Desrochers, Pierre. Review of Marc Levinson's The Box: How the Shipping Container Made the World Smaller and the World Economy Bigger (Princeton University Press, 2006), Independent Review, vol. 12, no. 1, (Summer 2007), pp. 146-149.

Smil, Vaclav. 2010. Prime Movers of Globalization: The History and Impact of Diesel Engines and Gas Turbines. MIT Press.
- Review by Nick Schulz, Wall Street Journal (December 1, 2010)
- Review by Mark Reutter, Wilson Quarterly (Winter 2011)
- Review by William Sjostrom, (August 2012)

The Free Migration Debate
Powell, Ben. 2013. "Immigration Reform -- The Time for Free Trade." Huffington Post (June 16).

Plants, Livestock and Diseases
Crosby, Alfred W. 2001. "The Columbian Exchange: Plants, Animals, and Disease between the Old and New Worlds." National Humanities Center.

Tatem, A.J., D.J. Rogers and S.I. Hay. 2006. "Global Transport Networks and Infectious Disease Spread." Advances in Parasitology 62: 293-343.

Nunn, Nathan and Nancy Qian. 2010. "The Columbian Exchange: A History of Diseases, Food and Ideas." Journal of Economic Perspectives 24 (2): 163-188.

Suggested links

People and Goods
BBC News - The Box

Great Circle Mapper

International Maritime Organization

International Labor Organization
- Bibliographies on the transport sector

Mighty Ships (videos)
- Emma Maersk 
- MV Becrux 
- MV Paul R. Tregurtha 
- MV Fairplayer 
- North Star 
- Umiak 1 

Open Borders: The Case

Logistics Bureau (blog)


LectureS 4-5: The Battle of Ideas I - II

Suggested videos

"Jerusalem, the Anthem, with simultaneous lyrics." 

2009. The Shock Doctrine (Watch the video documentary here)

Globalisation is Good by Johan Norberg (2003) (Watch it here)

The Nation. 2007. "Naomi Klein: Disaster Capitalism." 

PBS Foreign Exchange. 2008. "The Real News: Naomi Klein." 

Reason TV. 2008. "Johan Norberg Vs Naomi Klein and the Shock Doctrine." 

F.A. Hayek Interviewed By John O'Sullivan

Victims of Communism Memorial Foundation channel 

Capitalism Vs Communism (old cartoon) 

Cato Institute Policy Forum. 2016. "Socialism and Human Nature" (September 14)

Suggested readings


-Biographical Information

Biography of Karl Marx. The Concise Encyclopedia of Economics.

Biography of Ludwig Edler Von Mises. The Concise Encyclopedia of Economics.

Biography of Friedrich August Hayek. The Concise Encyclopedia of Economics.

Biography of John Maynard Keynes. The Concise Encyclopedia of Economics.

Mises, Ludwig Edler von. 1951. “The Symptomatic Keynes.” The Freeman, June 18.

Seldon, Arthur. 2005. "Obituaries." The Independant, October 15.


Hayek, Friedrich. 2001/1945. The Reader's Digest Condensed Version of the Road to Serfdom. London: Institute of Economic Affairs.

Keynes, John Maynard (1883-1946), The Economic Consequences of the Peace,  New York: Harcourt, Brace, and Howe, Inc., 1919.

Mises, Ludwig von. 1920. "Economic Calculation in the Socialist Commonwealth."

Mises, Ludwig von. 1951/1922. Socialism: An Economic and Sociological Analysis. Yale University Press.

Hicks, Stephen C. 2004. Explaining Postmodernism: Skepticism and Socialism from Rousseau to Foucault. Scholargy Publishing..


Judis, John B. 2009. "A Man for All Seasons - The misunderstood John Maynard Keynes." The New Republic, February 04.

Larner, Jesse. 2008. "Who’s Afraid of Friedrich Hayek? The Obvious Truths and Mystical Fallacies of a Hero of the Right." Dissent Magazine, Winter.

Solow, Robert M. 2012. "Hayek, Friedman, and the Illusions of Conservative Economics." The New Republic, November 16 (comments on this piece by Tyler Cowen).

Keynes, John. 1920. The Economic Consequences of the Peace. Harcourt, Brace, and Howe.

---. 2016. "City of the Century: How Vienna Produced Ideas that Shaped the West." The Economist (December 24).

Boettke, Peter J. 2016. "The Significance of Mises's "Socialism'." (September 1).

Dekker, Irwin. 2016. "How Viennese Culture Shaped Austrian Economics." (July 31). 

-Substantial Pieces

Berger, Suzanne. 2000. "Globalization and Politics." Annual Review of Political Science 3: 43-62.

Milner, Helen V. 1999. "The Political Economy of International Trade." Annual Review of Political Science 2: 91-114.

-Milton Friedman and the Chicago School of Economics

The Chicago School of Economics” on the History of Economic Thought Website.

Biography of Milton Friedman. The Concise Encyclopedia of Economics.

Ebeling, Richard M., and Sheldon Richman. "Milton Friedman (1912-2006)." The Freeman: Ideas on Liberty, December 2006, Vol. 56 No. 10.

"Free Markets and the End of History." Interview with Milton Friedman, New Perspectives Quarterly, Volume 23 (1) Winter 2006.

Sahlins, Marshall. 2008. "Institute Will Give the U. of Chicago a Bad Name.", August 18.

Sorman, Guy. 2008. "Cheers for Chile's Chicago Boys." City Journal, vol. 18, no. 2 (Winter).

Sorman, Guy. 2007. "The Market Revolution." City Journal, August 24.

Warsh, David. 2008. "The Chicago School (and the Russert Wing)." Economic Principals, June 22.

–. 2008. "University of Chicago Faculty Letter on The Milton Friedman Institute.", June 6.

Economist Milton Friedman's Free to Choose on the web (also on Idea Channel TV)

Interviews on the Charlie Rose Show: Milton Friedman (26-12-2005)

-Recent History

Flynn, Daniel J. 2008. "The Right Gifts." City Journal, 12 December.

Hammes, David and Douglas Wills, "Black Gold: The End of Bretton Woods and the Oil-Price Shocks of the 1970s." The Independent Review 9 (Spring 2005): 501-11.

Henderson, David R. “The German Economic Miracle.” The Concise Encyclopedia of Economics.

Lasswell, Mark. 2005. "Investing in Ideas – How John Olin and William Simon helped create the conservative counterintelligentsia." The Wall Street Journal, December 28.

Piñera, José. 2003. “How Chile was Saved.” The Objectivist Center, September 1.

Powell, Benjamin. 2004. "State Development Planning: Did it Create an East Asian Miracle?" Independent Institute, Septermber 28.

Pirie, Madsen. 2013. "Ten Myths about Margaret Thatcher." Adamd Smith Institute (April 15). 

Jones, Daniel G. 2017. "Capitalism's Gotta Go." American Thinker (December 27). 

Mitchell, Dan. 2018. "Most Socialists Can't Even Define Their Own Ideology. Claims that "socialism is freedom" sound bizarre. Because they are." (September 21).

Mitchell, Dan. 2016. "Free Markets and Small Government vs. Redistributionism and State Planning." International Liberty (July 19). 

-Older Debates

Bowler, Gerry. 2018. "The Scorecard of Socialist Revolutions." FCPP Commentary (October 2).
Borders, Max. 2006."The Stone Age Trinity." TCS Daily, March 6.

Horwitz, Steven. 2012. "On Human Action. We owe a debt to Ludwig von Mises." The Freeman (September 13).

Caplan, Bryan. 2016. "The Dystopian Novel that Foresaw the Nightmares of Socialism." Learn Liberty (October 27).

-Naomi Klein

Klein, Naomi. 2008. "Why the Right Loves a Disaster." (January 27).
---. 2008. "Naomi Klein: 'We can't lose this moment'" (December 12).

Norberg, Johan. 2008. "The Klein Doctrine - The Rise of Disaster Polemics." Cato Institute Briefing Papers, No. 102, May 14.

Chait, Jonathan. 2008. "Dead Left (Review of Naomi Klein's The Shock Doctrine)." The New Republic (July 30).

Kein, Naomi. 2008. "One Year After the Publication of The Shock Doctrine, A Response to the Attacks.", September 2.

Norberg, Johan. 2008. "Three Days after Klein's Response, Another Attack." (September 4).

Heath, Joseph. 2014. "Bad Arguments against Capitalism, vol. 1." In Due Course (November 22).
Brennan, Jason. 2011. "Dear Left: Corporatism Is Your Fault." Bleeding Heart Libertarians (November 29).

"The Shock Doctrine." Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Journalist and activist Naomi Klein's website

Renegade Pictures / Revolution Films. 2009. The Shock Doctrine: The Rise of Disaster Capitalism. (Video)

Interviews on the Charlie Rose Show: Naomi Klein (02-01-2008)

Boaz, David. 2009. "Obama's shock doctrine - On the economy, Obama is trying to scare the American people in order to ram through a progressive agenda.", February 12.

Carden, Art. forthcoming. 2009. "Shock and Awe: Institutional Change, Neoliberalism, and Disaster Capitalism." Journal of Lutheran Ethics 9 (6).

Chait, Jonathan. 2008. "Dead Left." The New Republic, July 30.

MacFarquhar, Larissa. 2008. "Outside Agitator - Naomi Klein and the New New Left." The New Yorker, December 8.

Stromberg, Joseph. 2008. "Review of The Shock Doctrine: The Rise of Disaster Capitalism by Naomi Klein." The Freeman, vol. 58, no. 8 (October): 43-44.

-Naomi Klein Vs Johan Norberg
Kein, Naomi. 2008. "One Year After the Publication of The Shock Doctrine, A Response to the Attacks.", September 2.

"Johan Norberg Vs. Naomi Klein and The Shock Doctrine." Reason TV, September 29, 2008.

Boaz, David. 2008. "Johan Norberg vs. Naomi Klein, Round 3." Cato-at-liberty, September 5.

Norberg, Johan. 2008. "Defaming Milton Friedman." Reason Online, October.

- On Democratic Socialism

Democratic Socialists of America. "What is Democratic Socialism?

Ingemarson, Anders. 2018. "How 'Democratic Socialism' Wreaked Havoc On My Native Sweden." The Federalist (September 5).

Schwartz, Joseph and Jason Schulman. 2012. "Toward Freedom: Democratic Socialist Theory and Practice." DSA (December 21).

Mueller, Antony. "4 Reasons Why Socialism Fails." Mises Wire (September 10).

Anderson, William L. 2018. "The Key Word in 'Democratic Socialism' is 'Socialism'." Mises Wire (August 8). 

Harwood Economic Review, Volume 2, Issue 3 (Fall 2018) (Socialism Issue).

-Thomas Piketty

---. 2014. "Thomas Piketty's "Capital", Summarised in Four Paragraphs." The Economist Explains (May 4).
McCloskey, Deirdre. 2015. "How Piketty Misses the Point." Cato Policy Report (July/August).

Suggested links

The History of Economic Thought Website.

McMaster Archive of the History of Economic Thought.

The Road to Serfdom, the movie.

The Mont Pelerin Society

Boudreaux, Don. 2015. "Fair Trade: Does it Help Poor Workers?" MR University: Everyday Economics.

-Naomi Klein

Naomi Klein "The Shock Doctrine" & "No Logo" interview

-Milton Friedman debates Naomi Klein
Milton Friedman Debates Naomi Klein

Milton Friedman Debates Naomi Klein Part 2

Taylor & Francis freely available research on Millenium Development Goals.

Lecture 6: Term Test


Lecture 7-8: Market Liberalization, Sweatshops, Child Labor and Fair Trade

Suggested readings

-On Job Destruction

That Which is Seen, and That Which is Not Seen by Frederic Bastiat, 1850.


Substantial Pieces

Amiti, Mary, and Wei, Shang-Jin. 2004. "Fear of Service Outsourcing: Is it Justified?" NBER Working Paper 10808.

Balaker, Ted and Adrian Moore. 2005. "Offshoring and Public Fear: Assessing the Real Threat to Jobs." Reason Foundation, Policy Study 333.

Bartel, Ann, Saul Lach and Nachum Sicherman. 2005. "Outsourcing and Technological Change." NBER Working Paper 11158.

Blinder, Alan S. 2006. "Fear of Offshoring." Princeton University.

Lindsey, Brink. 2004. “Job Losses and Trade: A Reality Check.” Center for Trade Policy Studies, Briefing Paper No. 19.

Mankiw, N. Gregory and Phillip Swagel. 2006. "The Politics and Economics of Offshore Outsourcing." NBER WP 12398.

Overby, Stephanie. 2003. "The Hidden Costs of Offshore Outsourcing.", Sept. 1.

Paul Craig Roberts Vs Jagdish Bhagwati on Outsourcing (originally published in The Wall Street Journal, May 10, 2004).

Shorter Pieces

"Offshoring" and "Offshore outsourcing" on Wikipedia

Anderson, William L. 2003. “The Myth of ‘Exporting Jobs.’” Mises Institute Website, June 27.

Boland, Brian, and Block, Walter. "The Benefits of Outsourcing." The Freeman: Ideas on Libety, January 1997.

Bartlett, Bruce. “India May Have Solved the Outsourcing Issue for Us,” Townhall, May 18, 2004.

Cowen, Tyler, and Irons, John. 2004. "The Rise of Outsourcing." The Wall Street Journal, November 9.

Holodnak, Stas. 2008. "Downward Dollar Delivers Blow to Outsourcing." Ludwig von Mises Institute, February 13.

Irwin, Douglas A. 2004. "'Outsourcing' is Good for America." The Wall Street Journal, January 28, p. A16.

Irwin, Douglas A. 2004. "Free-Trade Worriers." The Wall Street Journal, August 9, p. A12.

Landsburg, Steven E. 2008. "What to Expect When You’re Free Trading." The New York Times, January 16.

Mankiw, N. Gregory, and Phillip Swagel. "The Politics and Economics of Offshore Outsourcing." March 2006.

McKay, John. 2004. "Outsourcing: Separating Fact from Hysteria." TCS Daily, December 23.

Mihlar, Fazil. 2008. "Saint Wal-Mart? Well, Let's Look at the Record." Vancouver Sun, February 9.

Reh, F. John. "Offshoring - Outsourcing to Extreme."

Roberts, Russell. 2004. "The Great Outsourcing Scare of 2004." Hoover Digest no 2, Spring Issue.

Rockwell, Lew. 2003. "Job Overseas? Another Attempt to Explain.", November 27.

Williams, Walter. 2006. "Foreign Trade Angst." Jewish World Review, October 18.


Ikenson, Daniel. 2007. "Thriving in a Global Economy. The Truth about U.S. Manufacturing and Trade." Trade Policy Analysis no. 35, Cato Institute.

Elder, Larry. 2005. "Lou Dobbs to outsourcing: Drop dead." World Net Daily, March 10.

Balaker, Ted, & Adrian T. Moore. 2005. "Offshoring and Public Fear: Assessing the Real Threat to Jobs." Policy Summary of Study 333, Reason Foundation. (Policy Summary | Executive Summary)

Bartlett, Bruce. 2004. "The debate over outsourcing needs some facts,", October 12.

Drezner, Daniel. 2004. “The Outsourcing Bogeyman.” Foreign Affairs, May/June.

Gumpert, David E. 2004. "An Atlas of Offshore Outsourcing." Business Week, February 18.

Hazlitt, Henry. 1948. "The Curse of Machinery" in Economics in One Lesson.

Mankiw, Gregory. 2006. "Outsourcing Redux." Greg Mankiw's Blog. May 7.

Roberts, Russell. 2007. "Remember When They Were Going to Take All Our Jobs?" Café Hayek, April 08.

Stossel, John. 2005. "Truth trumps outsourcing hysteria - Clueless claims about job losses from Lou Dobbs, unions don't stand up." The Orange County Register, February 27.

Strong, Michael. 2006. "Forget the World Bank, Try Wal-Mart." TCS Daily - TCS Daily, August 22.

"The Jobs Of Yesteryear: Obsolete Occupations." NPR.

Barriers to Development
"Bureaucratic Barriers to Entrepreneurship," part of an interview with Peruvian economist and social thinker Hernando de Soto.

Harford, Tim. 2005. "Yes, We Have Bananas. We Just Can't Ship Them." The New York Times (December 16).

Sweatshops and Child Labor
-Overview and Historical Perspective

“Sweatshop,” on Wikipedia.

Tuttle, Carolyn. 2001. "Child Labor during the British Industrial Revolution." EH.Net Encyclopedia, August 15.

Babbage, Charles. 1832. On the Economy of Machinery and Manufactures. Chapter 1, sections 1-3 and note 3.

Levinson, Mark. 1997. "Economists and Sweatshops." Dissent, New York: 44 (4): 11-13.

Horwitz, Steven. 2016. "We Didn't Humanize Markets, Markets Humanized Us." (September 8). 

-Substantial Pieces

OECD. 2003. Child Labour: A Review of Policies (available as e-resouce on UofT library website, online resource #215923)

Drusilla K. Brown, Alan V. Deardorff and Robert M. Stern. 2003. The Effects of Multinational Production on Wages and Working Conditions in Developing Countries. NBER Working Paper No.w9669.

-Shorter Pieces

What You Need to Know About Sweatshops,” on Global Exchange.

Hightower, Jim. 2003. “Going Down the Road.”

Kristof, Nicholas D. and Sheryl Wudunn. 2000. “Two Cheers for Sweatshops.” New York Times Magazine, September 24.

Powell, Benjamin, and David Skarbek. 2005. "Don't Get Into a Lather Over Sweatshops." The Christian Science Monitor, August 02.

Powell, Benjamin & David Skarbek. 2005. "Third World Work in the Apparel Industry: No Sweat?" The Independent Institute, June 2.

Samida, Dexter. 2002. “A Child’s Burden: Reducing Child Labour by Increasing Trade.” Fraser Forum, May: 10-11.

Spath, Stefan. 2002. “The Virtues of Sweatshops.” The Freeman, March.


Edmonds, Eric. 2003. "Should We Boycott Child Labor?" Ethics and Economics 1(1), December.

Kristof, Nicolas D. 2009. "Where Sweatshops Are a Dream." The New York Times, January 15.

Krugman, Paul. 1997. "In Praise of Cheap Labor." Slate, March 20.

Levinson, Mark. 1997. "Economists and Sweatshops." Dissent, New York: 44 (4): 11-13.

Free Trade Vs Fair Trade

-Fair Trade

"Fair Trade" on Wikipedia

Boudreaux, Don. 2007. "Perspective on Trade." Café Hayek, December 29.

Callahan, Gene. 2003. “Fair Trade… or Foul?LewRockwell.Com.

Doherty, Bob, Iain A. Davies & Sophi Tranchell. 2013. "Where Now for Fair Trade?" Business History 55 (2): 161-189

Giberson, Michael. 2005, "Taking Advantage of the Fair Trade Buzz." Knowledge Problem, December 21.

Le Mare, Ann. "The Impact of Fair Trade on Social and Economic Development: A Review of the Literature." Geography Compass 2/6 (2008): 1922-1942.

Morris, Julian. 2005. "Just Trade: The Moral Imperative of Eliminating Barriers to Trade." IPN Trade Briefing Papers.

Welford, Richard, Julia Meaton and William Young. 2003. “Fair Trade as a Strategy for International Competitiveness.” International Journal of Sustainable Development and World Ecology 10 (1): 1-13.

Yanchus, Dennis, and Xavier de Vanssay. 2003. "The Myth of Fair Prices: A Graphical Analysis." Journal of Economic Education, Vol. 34, No. 3, Summer, p. 235-240.

-Food Policy

James, Sallie. 2008. "Food Fight." Center for Trade Policy Studies, Free Trade Bulletin, No. 31, January 31.

-Case Study: Coffee

"Coffee with a Conscience" CBC Marketplace, February 15, 2000.

Berndt, Colleen E. H. 2007. "Does Fair Trade Coffee Help the Poor? Evidence from Costa Rica and Guatemala." Mercatus Policy Series, July 2.

Boudreaux, Karol. 2007. "State Power, Entrepreneurship, and Coffee: The Rwandan Experience." Enterprise Africa, October 31.

Boudreaux, Donald J. & Karol C. Boudreaux. 2007. "Economics in many lessons: A better brew for Rwanda." Pittsburgh Tribune-Review, November 20.

Dragusanu, Raluca, Daniele Giovannucci and Nathan Nunn. 2014. "The Economics of Fair Trade." Journal of Economic Perspectives 28 (3): 217-36.

Henderson, David R. 2008. "Fair Trade is Counter-Productive - and Unfair." Economic Affairs 28 (3): 62-64.

Howley, Kerry. 2006. "Absolution in your Cup. The Real Meaning of Fair Trade Coffee." Reason Magazine, March.

La Giorgia, Gian Carlo. 2002. "In Search of a Compassionate Cup." The Manitoban, September 18.

Levi, Margaret and April Linton. 2003. “Fair Trade: A Cup at a Time?” Politics and Society 31(3): 407-432.

Rogers, Tim. 2004. “Small Coffee Brewers Try to Redefine Fair Trade.” Christian Science Monitor. April 13.

Ross, Oakland. 2002. "A Bitter Brew for Coffee Farmers." Toronto Star, August 4.

Solomon, Lawrence. 2011. "Fair-trade coffee fix." National Post, May 13.

Taussig, Doron. 2007. "Drip Grind - Taylor Clark's weak case against Starbucks." Washington Monthly, December.

Veeser, Cyrus. 2004. "Review of The Global Coffee Economy in Africa, Asia, and Latin America, 1500-1989." Edited by William Gervase Clarence-Smith and Steven Topik. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2003. Business History Review, Spring.

Cato Institute Podcast. 2016. "Haitian Coffee Grows on Trees."

Watkins, Tate. 2017. Haitian Coffee Grows on Trees. Independently published.

-Various entries on the Second Cup Controversy

"Canadian coffee chain under attack." Catholic New Times, March 21, 2004.

Demanding Fair Trade Coffee at SECOND CUP (Petition)

Fair Trade Coffee Sale (Petition)

Second Cup's statement on fair trade coffee (CBC)

-Case Study: Canada - Supply Management
Findlay, Martha Hall (with assistance from Margarita Gres). 2012. "Supply Management: Problems, Politics - and Possibilities," The School of Public Policy, University of Calgary, June 2012.

Hedley, Douglas D. 2015. "The Evolution of Agricultural Support Policy in Canada." CAES Fellows Paper 2015-1.

Bernier, Maxime. 2018. "My Chapter on Supply Management." (June 5).

Byers-Lane, Brett. 2018. "Inside Policy: It's Time to Kill Canada's Sacred Cow - Supply Management." McDonald-Laurier Institute (July 24).

Hains, Brigid. Undated. "Cows might Fly." Aeon

Suggested links

Economic Policy Institute on Offshoring

Reason Public Policy Institute’s Offshore Outsourcing Resource Center.

The Facts about Insourcing, Organization for International Investment

Bringing the Jobs Home: How the Left Created the Outsourcing Crisis, and How We Can Fix It. Heritage Foundation. March 9, 2005.

Eric Edmonds of Darmouth College has written a lot on child labor

Economist Benjamin Powell of Suffolk University has written much on sweatshops

Global exchange against sweatshops

The UNICEF and the International Labour Organization have published several statistics and studies on this topic.

Initiative for Free Trade 

Free Trade Vs Fair Trade

Global Exchange on Fair Trade

Fair Trade Federation on Fair Trade

The Fair Trade Research Group at Colorado State University.

The Copenhagen Consensus on Subsidies and Trade Barriers

Black Coffee

Coffee @

Vanderbilt University Institute For Coffee

University of London (SOAS). Fair Trade, Employment & Poverty Reduction Research 
- Publications 
- Response to Fair Trade statement 

Fair trade Foundation 
- Response to SOAS report 

Fair Trade Initiative 

Lecture 9: Globalization and Culture

Suggested videos

TVO. The Agenda with Steve Paikin. 2016. "The Trouble with Cultural Appropriation." (October 31).

Rebel Media. 2017. "Will SJWs Complain About "Indigenized" Star Wars Artwork?" (January 6).

Suggested readings

-General Interest

Does Globalization Diminish Cultural Diversity?” on The Globalization Website.

Bornon, Julien, & Jacques Delacroix. 2005. "Can Protectionism Ever Be Respectable? A Skeptic’s Case for the Cultural Exception, with Special Reference to French Movies." The Independent Review, Vol. 9, No. 3 (Winter).

Carden, Art. 2008. "Does Globalization Destroy Culture?" Daily Sun News, July 8. 

Evans, Stephan. 2003. “Myths of our Time: Globalization”. BBC News, December 23.

Legrain, Philippe. 2003. “Cultural Globalization is Not Americanization.” Chronicles of Higher Education 49 (35), May 9.

Lieber, Robert J. & Ruth E. Weisberg. 2002. “Globalization, Culture, and Identities in Crisis.” International Journal of Politics, Culture and Society 16(2).

Palmer, Tom G. "Globalization and Culture: Homogeneity, Diversity, Identity, Liberty." Occasional Paper 2, 2004.

Porter, Keith. 2004. “Americanization vs. Globalization.” Global Envision, November 11.

Riding, Alan. 2006. "A French Author's Singular Take on America's Pluralistic Cultural Life." International Herald Tribune, December 27.

Tomlison, John. 2003. “Globalization and Cultural Identity.

Vargas Llosa, Alvaro. 2010. "A Nobel Laureate in the Family." The Independent Institute, October 13.

Balko, Radley. 2003. "Globalization and Culture" Global Policy Forum.  

-Cultural appropriation
Wilcove, Hannah. 2017. "What You Need to Know About Cultural Appropriation." Critical Social Justice (October 11).

Bradford, K. Tempest. 2017. "Commentary: Cultural Appropriation Is, In Fact, Indefensible." Code Switch (June 28).

Domise, Andray. 2017. "How Some People are Missing the Point on Cultural Appropriation." MacLean's (May 22).

Brown, T. J. 2016. "A world without cultural appropriation is a world without learning and emulation." (October 31).

Veer, Pierre-Guy. 2017. "Cultural Appropriation Is Intellectual Property on Stilts. When a culture's ideas don't get adopted into wider society, they die." (June 29).

Will, George S. 2017. "The Left's Misguided Obsession with 'Cultural Appropriation' on Cultural Appropriation." The Washington Post (May 12).

Zmirak, John. 2017. "How Really To Stop Cultural Appropriation. If we are going to draw bright lines around cultures, and bar borrowings, let's get really serious about it and see what happens." (May 29).

Malik, Kenan. 2017 "In Defense of Cultural Appropriation." New York Times (June 14).

Holiday, Ryan. 2017. "Unpacking the Absurd Logic of Cultural Appropriation-and What It Will Cost Us." The Observer (July 31).

Weiss, Bari. 2017. "Three Cheers for Cultural Appropriation." The New York Times (August 30).

West, Patrick. 2015. "The Secret to Star Wars' Success? Unoriginality." Spiked! (December 18).

Parvini, Neema. 2018. "Rejecting Progress in the Name of 'Cultural Appropriation'." Quillette (August 22).

Van Noord, Jack. 2018. "Commentary: My Nephew Tried to School Me on Cultural Appropriation. It Didn't End Well." Chicago Tribune (August 29). 

-Benjamin Barber Vs Tyler Cowen

Summary: Does Globalization Thwart Cultural Diversity?” World Bank.

Barber, Benjamin. “Beyond Jihad Vs McWorld”.

Cowen, Tyler. 2005. "The Future of Culture in a Globalised World." The Sir Ronald Trotter Lecture, New Zealand Business Roundtable.

Cowen, Tyler. 2003. “Globalization and Diversity: Friends or Foes?” Independent Institute, May 27.

Cowen, Tyler. 2003. “Commerce, Culture, and Diversity: Some Friedmanesque Theme in Trade and the Arts.” Paper presented at the Conference “The Legacy of Milton and Rose Friedman’s Free to Choose: Economic Liberalism at the Turn of the 21st Century," October 23-23, Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas.

Barber, Benjamin. 1992. “Jihad Vs McWorld.” The Atlantic. (March)

A debate between Tyler Cowen and Benjamin Barber, Cato Policy Report, May-June 2003.

Suggested links

-General Interest

Globalization and Culture” on the Global Policy Forum.

-Benjamin Barber Vs Tyler Cowen

Creative Destruction: How Globalization Is Changing the World's Cultures. Book Forum video featuring Tyler Cowen and Benjamin Barber, Cato Institute, March 4, 2003.

Another debate between Tyler Cowen and Benjamin Barber can be found on Marginal Revolution. August 4, 2005.

A lecture by Tyler Cowen on "The Future of Culture in a Globalized World," May 2nd 2005 at the American Enterprise Institute.

-Cultural Appropriation (Interviews, Podcasts)
CBC Metro Morning with Matt Galloway. 2017. "Susur Lee on Fusion Food." (November 6).

Patterson in Pursuit. 2016. The Case for Cultural Appropriation. (Near-verbatim transcript, also posted as an article in the Observer)

Lecture 10: Global Institutions and Foreign Aid

Suggested videos

Poverty Inc - Trailer
Foundation for Economic Foundation. 2015. "Myth Busting African Poverty" (Magatte Wade).

Suggested readings

-Global Institutions
Historical Perspective
Luther, William J. 2014. Review of "The Battle of Bretton Woods: John Maynard Keynes, Harry Dexter White, and the Making of a New World Order (Princeton University Press, 2013)" by Benn Steil, Independent Review 18 (3) (Winter 2014).

In their own words

What is the WTO?
- WTO. 2011. Making Globalization Socially Sustainable (Brochure) (Note: Full report and other material available here)

What is the IMF?
- IMF 2008. Globalization: A Brief Overview

About us (the World Bank).
- WB. Youthink! Issues - Globalization


"Aid" on Wikipedia

-Social, Economic and Policy Background

The New Foreign Aid (Los Angeles Times on the money sent back to home countries by migrant workers.)

–, "Millions of children dying needlessly." BBC News, June 26, 2003.

–, "Poverty" on the Earth Institute's Website.

Ammann, Melinda. 2005. "Cry the Beloved Continent - Africans are poor because they’re poorly governed." Reason, July.

Bhandari, Jayant. 2005. "The Polluting State." The Mises Institute. July 20.

Borders, Max and H. Sterling Burnett. 2006. "Farm Subsidies: Devastating the World's Poor and the Environment." National Center for Policy Analysis, Brief Analysis No. 547, March 24.

Bovard, James. 2005. "Bush’s Foreign-Aid Fraud.", October 25.

Glassman, James K. 2005. "Poor Countries, Tear Down this Wall!" Frontier Center for Public Policy. December 09.

Gwartney, James & Robert Lawson. 2002. "Trade Openness, Sound Policies, & Prosperity." Fraser Forum, May: 8-9.

Innovation, Entrepreneurship and the Global Marketplace.” Alexis de Tocqueville Ceremony, Independent Institute, April 21 2004 (Some famous entrepreneurs’ personal take on globalization).

Kasper, Wolfgang. 2006. "Make Poverty History: Tackle Corruption." Issue Analysis, Centre for Independent Studies, January 26.

Labs, Eric J. 1997. The Role of Foreign Aid in Development. Congressional Budget Office.

Mbeki, Moeletsi. 2005. "Underdevelopment in Sub-Saharan Africa: The Role of the Private Sector and Political Elites." Foreign Policy Briefing no. 85, Cato Institute, April 15.

Palda, Filip. 2003. "The High Price of Natural Wealth." Fraser Forum, January, 30-31.

Parris, Matthew. 2005. "We must all sneer and scoff at the corrupt, cruel jackasses of Africa." The Sunday Times, July 02.

Williams, Walter. “Self-Inflicted Poverty.” Cato Institute Daily Commentary, July 12, 2004.

Vásquez, Ian. 2005. "Exploiting the Asian Disaster to Increase Foreign Aid." Cato Institute, January 19.

"Doing Business in 2006: Creating Jobs." World Bank and International Finance Corporation, 2006.

-Theory and History

Adamson, Michael. 2002. "Social Scientists as Policy Makers." Review Essay of Charles Kimber Pearce "Rostow, Kennedy, and the Rhetoric of Foreign Aid." Michigan University Press, 2001. Humane Studies Review 14 (3).

Banerjee, Abhijit Vinayak. 2007. "Inside the Machine - Toward a New Development Economics." Boston Review, March-April.

Blundell, John et al. 2002. A Tribute to Peter Bauer. London: Institute of Economic Affairs.

Djankov, Simeon, Jose G. Montalvo and Marta Reynal-Querol. "The Curse of Aid." April 2005.

Haber, Stephen, Douglass C. North, and Barry R. Weingast. 2003. "If Economists Are So Smart, Why Is Africa So Poor?", Hoover Digest no 4, Fall Issue.

Mary M. Shirley. 2004. "Review of The Institutional Economics of Foreign Aid by Bertin Martens, Uwe Mummert, Peter Murrell, and Paul Seabright, Cambridge University Press, 2002." The Independent Review 9 (2): 299-302.

Remmer, Karen L. 2004. “Does Foreign Aid Promote the Expansion of Government?American Journal of Political Science 48(1): 77-92.

Shleifer, Andrei. 2009. "Peter Bauer and the Failure of Foreign Aid." Cato Journal, Vol. 29, No. 3, pp 379-390.

Vasquez, Ian. 2007. "Peter Bauer: Blazing the Trail of Development." Econ Journal Watch, Vol. 4, No. 2, pp 197-212.

-Historical Perspective and Recent Developments

Erixon, Fredrik. 2003. "Poverty and Recovery: The History of Aid and Development in East Africa." Economic Affairs 23 (4): 27-33.

Dichter, Thomas. 2007. "A Second Look at Microfinance: The Sequence of Growth and Credit in Economic History." Development Briefing Paper no. 1, February 15.

Kling, Arnold. 2006. "The Materialism Fallacy." TCS Daily - TCS Daily, January 5.

Llosa, Alvaro Vargas. 2005. "Millennium Flop." The Independent Institute, September 16.

Muzinich, Justin, and Eric Werker. 2008. "A Better Approach To Foreign Aid Private development finance is vital." Policy Review, June & July.

Webster, Paul. 2006. "It's The Pneumonia, Stupid." Toronto Star, February 23.

-Perspectives on Foreign Aid

A New Democracy Forum on "Making Aid Work." Boston Review, July/August 2006.

Chowdhury, Abdur and Paolo Gharona. 2007. "Effective Foreign Aid, Economic Integration and Subsidiarity: Lessons from Europe." Discussion Paper 2007-2, UNECE.

Special issue on Foreign Aid in the Journal of Development Studies vol. 37, No. 6, August 2001.
especially, Hermes, Niels and Robert Lensink. 2001. “Changing the Conditions for Development Aid: A New Paradigm.” Journal of Development Studies 37 (6): 1-16.

Surowiecki, James. 2005. "A Farewell To Alms?" The New Yorker, July 25.


Bandow, Doug. 1998. "Foreign Aid, Help or Hindrance?" Freedom Daily, February.

Brea, Jennifer. 2007. "Africans to Bono: 'For God's sake please stop!'" The American, July 3.

Coyne, Christopher. 2008. "With Friends Like These, Who Needs Enemies? Aiding the World's Worst Dictators." Working Paper, Mercatus Center at George Mason University, September 24.

Dichter, Thomas. Time to Stop Fooling Ourselves about Foreign Aid. A Practitioner's View. Cato Institute Foreign Policy Briefing No. 86.

O'Grady, Mary Anastasia. 2008. "The Real Key to Development." The Wall Street Journal, January 15.

Powell, Benjamin and Matt Ryan. "Does Development Aid Lead To Economic Freedom?" Journal of Private Enterprise. Vol. 22. No. 1. Fall 2006.

Sacks, Daniel, and Karol Boudreaux. 2008. "Starving for Change." Mercatus On Policy, No. 30, November 3.

Shaw, Jane. 2004. "Overlooking the Obvious in Africa." Econ Journal Watch 1 (1): 1-10.

Stossell, John and Gena Binkley. 2007. "Are Americans Cheap? Or Charitable?" ABC 20/20, August 21.

2006-7 Olive W. Garvey Fellowships Winners on "Is foreign aid the solution to global poverty?"

-The Easterly-Sachs Debate


Bate, Roger. 2006. "Planners vs. Searchers." TCS Daily - TCS Daily, April 28.

Labohm, Hans. 2006. "'For God's Sake, Please Just Stop Aid'." TCS Daily, March 6.

Schiffrin, Anya. 2009. "Moyo Joins the Frey" (Review of Dambisa Moyo's Dead Aid). The Whitehead Journal of Diplomacy and International Relations. 10 (1): 167-169.


Burnham, James B. 2007. "The White Man’s Burden: Why the West’s Efforts to Aid the Rest Have Done So Much Ill and So Little Good." The Independent Review, Volume 11, Number 4, Spring 2007.

Easterly, William. 2008. "Trust the Development Experts - All 7bn of Them." Financial Times, May 29.

Easterly, William. 2007. "Africa's Poverty Trap." The Wall Street Journal, March 23, p. A-11.

Easterly, William. 2006. "The West Can't Save Africa." The Washington Post, February 13, p. A-21.

Easterly, William. 2005 "The End Of Poverty: Economic Possibilities for Our Time." The Washington Post, March 13. (Sachs' reply to Easterly's criticism can be found here)


Giles, Chris. 2007. "Lunch with the FT: Jeffrey Sachs." Financial Times, April 6.

Nolen, Stephanie. 2006. "Millennium Man." The Globe and Mail, March 11.

Rich, Sam. 2007. "Africa's Village of Dreams." The Wilson Quarterly, Spring edition.

Cassidy, John. 2005. "Always with us - Jeffrey Sachs’s plan to eradicate world poverty." The New Yorker, April 11.

Sachs, Jeffrey. 2009. "Aid Ironies." The Huffington Post, May 24.

Sachs, Jeffrey. 2006. "Foreign Aid Skeptics Thrive on Pessimism." Los Angeles Times, May 7

Sachs, Jeffrey. 2006. "Foreign Aid is in Everyone's Interest." Christian Science Monitor, May 10.

> General

Ben-Ami, Daniel. 2005. "Postponing the 'End of Poverty'" Spiked, May 6.

Cassidy, John. 2005. "Always with us - Jeffrey Sachs's plan to eradicate world poverty." The New Yorker, April 11.

Easterly, William R. 2008. "Why Bill Gates Hates My Book." The Wall Street Journal, February 7.

Erixon, Fredrik. 2005. "Aid and development: Will it work this time?" International Policy Network, June 10.

Kristoff, Nicholas. 2006. "Aid: Can it Work?" The New York Review of Books 53 (15). (Sachs' comments; Easterly's comments.)

Loungani, Prakash. 2006. "Review of William Easterly's The White Me's Burden (Penguin Press, 2006)." Cato Journal 26 (2): 382-382.

Martinez, Ibsen. 2007. "Reflections from Latin America - Latin America and the Ideology of Development." The Library of Economics and Liberty, August 6.

Pardo, Pablo. 2005. "Has Foreign Aid ever Lifted a Country out of Poverty?" El Mundo, May 26.

Parker, Star. 2005. "Philanthropy is the best foreign aid." Naples Daily News, March 15.

Powell, Benjamin. 2005. "Doubling Aid Will Not Help World’s Poor." Independent Institute, January 31.

Sen, Amartya. 2006. "The Man Without a Plan." Foreign Affairs, March/April.

Tupy, Marian L. 2005. “Poverty That Defies Aid,” Washington Times, June 19.

-Copenhagen Consensus

Strassel, Kimberly A. 2006. "Get Your Priorities Right - A Rationalist Crusader Does the Math on Global Warming." The Wall Street Journal, July 6.

Website of the Copenhagen Consensus

Wikipedia on the Copenhagen Consensus

-Odious Debt Perspective

Several short articles on the "odious debt" perspective can be found here.


Boudreaux, Karol, and Tyler Cowen. 2008. "The Micromagic of Microcredit." Wilson Quarterly, Winter.

Sautet, Frederic. 2008. "The Micromagic of Microcredit." The Austrian Economists, February 7.

Surowiecki, James. 2008. "What Microloans Miss." The New Yorker, March 17.

Tucker, Jeffrey. 2006. "Microcredit or Macrowelfare: The Myth of Grameen.", November 8.

-Canada and Foreign Aid

"Foreign Aid" in the Canadian Encyclopedia

What do others think?
- IMF and World Bank
Spruiell, Stephan. 2006. “The IMF and World Bank: An Overview.” Global Envision (December 27).

Bovard, James. 2009. "McNamara's Other Debacle." (July 10).

Bate, Roger and Benjamin Schwab. 2004. "McNamara's Bank." TCS Daily (July 29).

Karlin, Mark. 2007. "Naomi Klein: Shocking the World Bank and IMF Crowd with her Analysis of 'Disaster Capitalism." BuzzFlash (October 16).

Klein, Naomi. 2007. "The World Bank has the Perfect Standard Bearer." The Guardian (April 27).

French, Doug. 2014. "Monetary One World Order." Mises Canada (October 6). 

Rockwell, Lew. 2004. “Cotton Candy.” Mises Institute Daily Commentary (April 29).

Nader, Ralph and Lori Wallach. "GATT, NAFTA, and the Subversion of the Democratic Process: WTO, The Global Enforcer" (excerpted from the book The Case Against the Global Economy edited by Jerry Mander and Edward Goldsmith, Sierra Club Books, 1997).

Griswold, Dan. 2000. "WTO Critics Trade Away Truth for a Sound Bite." Cato Institute Commentary (January 2).

Lester, Simon. 2014 "The WTO vs. the TPP." Cato Institute Commentary (May 2).

Suggested links


The United Nations' Millenium Project

The Copenhagen Consensus Website and "Global Crises Global Solutions," a presentation by Bjørn Lomborg, Associate Professor of Statistics, University of Aarhus, and author of The Skeptical Environmentalist.

The Lancet Child Survival Series

Development Research Institute (New York University)

-The Sachs-Easterly Debate

The Earth Institute at Columbia University and Jeffrey D. Sachs' book The End of Poverty. Economic Possibilities For Our Time

Economist William Easterly's Website

Sachs Vs Easterly

An interview with Bill Easterly, Tavis Smiley Show, April 7, 2006.

Munk, Nina. 2007. "Jeffrey Sachs's $200 Billion Dream." Vanity Fair, July.

Easterly, William. 2008. "Easterly on Growth, Poverty, and Aid." Library of Economics and Liberty, February 11.


The Private Sector Development Blog (World Bank)

"Make Poverty History"

Odious Debts

"World Economic Forum Annual Meeting 2007 - Scaling Innovation in Foreign Aid." (Google Video)

The International Policy Network

The Independent Institute on Economic History and International Development

The Cato Institute on (or rather, against) foreign aid

Special issues of the Cato Journal
24 (3), Winter 2004, on "Institutions and Development."
25 (3), Fall 2005, on "Remembering Peter Bauer." on "Development and Globalization."

Global Envision - Microfinance

Lecture 11: Globalization and the Environment

Suggested readings


–. 2004. "Improvement of the World Environment: The Skeptical Environmentalist," Economic Note, January, Institut Économique Molinari.

Chua, Swee. 1999. “Economic Growth, Liberalization, and the Environment: A Review of the Economic Evidence.” Annual Review of Energy and the Environment 24: 391-430.

Copeland, Brian R. and M. Scott Taylor. 2004. "Trade, Growth, and the Environment." Journal of Economic Literature 42 (1): 7-72.

Driesen, David. 2003. “Markets are Not Magic.” Environmental Forum, November-December: 19-27.

Gardner, B. Delworth. 2004. “Globalization, Free Trade, and Environmental Quality." in Terry Anderson (ed). You Have to Admit It's Getting Better: From Economic Prosperity to Environmental Quality. Stanford: Hoover Institution Press.

Goklany, Indur. 2004. “Economic Growth, Technological Change and Human Well-Being.” In Anderson, Terry (ed.) You Have to Admit It’s Getting Better. Hoover Institution Press, p. 53-81.

Gowdy, John M. 1995. “Trade and Environmental Sustainability: An Evolutionary Perspective.” Review of Social Economy 53 (4): 493-510.

Griswold, Daniel T. 2001. Trade, Labor and the Environment. Trade Policy Analysis No. 15, August 2. Center for Trade Policy Analysis, Cato Institute.

Hayward, Steven F. 2005. "The China Syndrome and the Environmental Kuznets Curve." Environmental Policy Outlook, December 21.

International Institute for Sustainable Development and United Nations Program for the Environment. 2000. Environment and Trade: A Handbook.

Karp, Larry. 2011. "The Environment and Trade." Annual Review of Resource Economics 3: 397-417.

Nordstrom, Hakan and Scott Vaughn. 1999. "Special Studies 4: Trade and Environment", World Trade Organisation.
Oxley Alan. 2005. "Blair's Global Environment Failures: It's Not Just Climate Change." TCS Daily, June 22.

Pearce, David, Neil Adger, David Maddison and Dominic Moran. 1995. "Debt and the Environment." Scientific American 272 (6): 52-56.

Reed, David. 2002. "Poverty and the Environment: Can Sustainable Development Survive Globalization?" Natural Resources Forums 26: 176-184.

Stroup, Richard. 2003. “Economic Freedom and Environmental Quality.” Paper presented at the Conference “Milton and Rose Friedman’s Liberalism at the Turn of the 21st Century.” Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas, October 23-24.

Yandle, Bruce. 2004. "Environmental Turning Points, Institutions, and the Race to the Top," The Independent Review, Fall.

-Forests and Wood Products

"Are Forest Making a Comeback?" Resources, Winter 2007, 8-10.

"Forests Cover 30% of the Total Land Area." FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations).

"Canada's Wood Product Manufacturing Industry: Industrial Outlook Autumn 2005." Conference Board of Canada Report. October 2005.

Berg, Peter, and Per-Ove Nordström. 2006. "The China Factor in Fine Paper." The Mckinsey Quarterly, March.

Carr, David L., Laurel Suter & Alisson Barbieri. 2005. "Population Dynamics and Tropical Deforestation: State of the Debate and Conceptual Challenges." Population & Environment, Volume 27, Number 1, p. 89-113.

Franklin, Jerry F. & Johnson, K. Norman. "Forests Face New Threat: Global Market Changes." Issues in Science and Technology, Summer 2004.

Kauppi, Pekka E., Jesse H. Ausubel, Jingyun Fang, Alexander S. Mather, Roger A. Sedjo and Paul E. Waggoner. 2006. "Returning Forests Analyzed with the Forest Identity." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 103 (46): 17574-17579.

Mandel-Campbell, Andrea. 2006. "Clear-Cutting The Lumber Business." Macleans, January 23.

Parviainen, Liisa. 2006. "UH: End of Deforestation in View? Experts Advance New Way to Size Up Global Forest Resources." University of Helsinki (University Communications), November 14th.

Petersen, Jim. 2005. "Death of a Sawmill: Environmentalists wreck small businesses – and do ecological damage while they're at it." The Wall Street Journal, December 29.

Swift, Allan (Canadian Press). 2005. "Major cuts in forest mills in 2005 should help recovery in 2006, say analysts." Finance, December 27.


Is Globalization Causing a ‘Race To The Bottom’ in Environmental Standards? Assessing Globalization, Part 4. World Bank, 2000.

Bates, Jenny, and Debra S. Knopman. 2000. "Clean Trade." Progressive Policy Institute (PPI), June 1st.

Yandle, Bruce, Maya Vijayaraghavan, & Madhusudan Bhattarai. "Environmental Kuznets Curves." 2002. The Environmental Kuznets Curve: A Primer. PERC RS-02.

"An introduction to trade and environment in the WTO." World Trade Organization.

-Case Study: Forest Cover

Ausubel, Jesse H. "On Sparing Farmland and Spreading Forest." In Clark, T. and R. Staebler, eds., Forestry at the Great Divide: Proceedings of the Society of American Foresters 2001 Convention, Society of American Foresters, Bethesda MD, 2002, pp. 127-138.


On Wikipedia: "Dye," "Natural Dyes," "Pigment."

Pigments: Historical, Chemical, and Artistic Importance of Coloring Agents.

Druding, Susan C. 2002. "Dye History from 2600 BC to the 20th Century."

nicDhuinnshleibhe, Lady Siobhan. 2000. "A Brief History of Dyestuffs & Dyeing." Runestone Collegium, 19 February.

The Project Gutenberg eBook, Creative Chemistry, by Edwin E. Slosson (originally published in 1919).

Travis, Anthony. 2007. "19th C High-Tech." The Future of Things, November 12.

Travis, Anthony. 2001. "The Color Purplish. Review of Mauve: How One Man Invented a Color that Changed the World." by Simon Garfield, W.W. Norton, 2000. American Scientist online, July-August 2001.

Suggested links


A special issue of Environment and Development Economics, Volume 5, Issue 4, October 2000 on Trade and the Environment (see especially the Policy Forum section).

A special issue of the electronic journal Contributions to Economic Analysis and Policy (vol. 3, issue 2, 2004) on "The Pollution Haven Hypothesis."

Environmental Sustainability Index prepared in part by Daniel C. Esty of the Yale Center of Environmental Law and Policy.

The Sierra Club on Trade and the Environment

WHO Health and Environment Linkages Initiative

Global Environment Outlook

"Trade and the Environment" on the International Institute for Sustainable Development Website.

-Forests and Wood Products

The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations' Forestry Website

NPR: Study: Reforestation Shows Signs of Life, Nov 17 2006 (audio)

The Great Restoration:The Potentials for Forest Protection to 2050

The web page of my JGE 1609 course contains several more references to this topic.

Lecture 12: Finance and Concluding Thoughts

Suggested readings

- Finance
Selgin, George. "Lord Keynes' Contra White on the Beginnings of Coinage." Alt-M (August 30).

Norberg, Johan. 2016. "And the Poor Shall Rise." Spiked Review (December).

- Concluding Thoughts
See the content of Lectures 10-12 of GGR 325 Business and Industrial Geography

Hughes, Charles. 2017. "We're Seeing Massive Reductions in Global Poverty. Today, one person escapes extreme poverty every second." (June 19).

Follett, Chelsea. 2017. "5 Charts That Will Shift Your Perspective on Poverty. Is the end of poverty in sight?" (March 21).

DeGregori, Thomas R. 2005. "Quietly, Invisibly, Ominously Getting Healthier and Healthier." (September 30).

Cohen, Patricia. 2011. "Technology Advances; Human Supersize." The New York Times (April 26).

Kolata, Gina. 2006. "So Big and Healthy Grandpa Wouldn't Even Know You." The New York Times (July 30).

Rector, Robert and Rachel Sheffield. 2011. Air Conditioning, Cable TV, and an Xbox: What Is Poverty in the United States Today? Backgrounder #2575, Heritage Foundation (Executive Summary).

Maxim Pinkovskiy and Xavier Sala-i-Martin. 2010. "African Poverty is Falling... Much Faster than You Think." Vox (December 6).

McMahon, Fred. 2018. "As the World Shifted to Free Markets, Poverty Rates Plummeted." Fraser Forum (November 13). 

Suggested links

Final exam

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