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University of Toronto Mississauga Department of Geography FALL 2018

GGR 365H5S Trade and Globalization


 Instructor: Pierre Desrochers


 Lectures: Tuesday 7-9 PM


 Phone: (905) 828-5206

 Office: Davis Building, room 3273


 Lecture room: CC 2130






You will be asked 6-8 questions from the following list (more questions will be added each week). Your answers should rely on both the mandatory readings and your class notes. You are strongly encouraged to use bullet point form. The questions will be weighted differently (in other words, some questions require very brief answers, while others will require more detailed treatments). Please write legibly and leave enough space between each answer in your exam booklet (in other words, try to make the life of your TA easier...)

Q8. How does Robert Heilbroner define socialism? Who was the real architect of socialism in his opinion? What are the two types of social/cultural settings in which socialism (or the collective ownership of most wealth) can be said to have worked historically? What were some of the main features of the case historically made for central planning (or production for use rather than profits) (list 3 characteristics)? What was the Gosplan and how did it operate? Describe a famous cartoon in the magazine Krokodil and the problem it illustrated.

Q14. How did your professor distinguish "free" and "fair" trade? List five (5) principles of fair trade according to Global Exchange.

Q15. In two sentences, why does Sidwell argue that Fair Trade is unfair? According to Gene Callahan, what are the two reasons why some coffee growers cannot earn a living in their line of work and what should be done about this in his opinion? According to Paul Collier, what does fair trade ensure (cite the direct quote)?

Q16. What are the main differences between Arabica and Robusta coffee discussed in class (including their price and geographical origins)? In a few words, what are the two main points made by Peter Singer when he discusses Gucci bags in the context of fair trade coffee? According to Claar and Haight (citing other research), why are newcomers to fair trade production the least likely to benefit from it and why does fair trade appears to exacerbate inequalities in certain ways? According to Colleen Haight, what is the best way to help migrant coffee laborers in the short run?

Q17. How does Sarah Bachman distinguish between positive and negative boycotts? What are the two ways by which success in each type of boycott should be measured in her opinion? List and discuss briefly three main reasons invoked by Eric Edmonds to argue that, for children in less developed economies, the return to not working may be relatively low? Discuss briefly what Blattman and Dercon observed in their study of sweatshops in Ethiopia when comparing sweatshop work to other activities (especially in terms of wages and working conditions).

Q18. According to Held et al., what were two of the main contributors in the early history of the globalization of culture? In their opinion, what were the most important ideas and arguments to emerge out of the relatively recent expansion of the West? Give a concise and commonly accepted definition of "cultural imperialism." What Chinese ethical and philosophical system might have had an impact on European enlightenment? What is the style of architecture of Sezincote House? What recently opened country did the proponents of Art Nouveau, Surrealism, and Art Deco heavily borrow from? According to Don Boudreaux, what is one of the main reasons that cultural elites look down with contempt on popular American culture?

Q19. What are the two main characteristics of culture(s) and how are they produced according to Tyler Cowen? What are Cowen's main thesis and arguments in this respect? Geographically speaking, where are Samosas, Gulab Jamuns and Vindaloos ultimately from?

Q20. According to Maisha Z. Johnson, what is cultural appropriation? List four (4) reasons as to why she views it as inappropriate. Where do the two forms of the word used for "tea" originally came from? How were they spread geographically? List one "white" influence on Chuck Berry's music. How did Berry describe his style?

Q21. How was foreign aid defined in this class and what kind of monetary arrangements does it entail? Summarize the "two gap" model along with the role it entails for experts and foreign donors.

Q22. Why did Peter Bauer argue that the "poverty trap" cannot be a binding constraint? According to June Arunga, what is one of the easiest and best career paths for young educated Kenyans? According to Angus Deaton, what are and what are not the main causes of global poverty today? What is the "central dilemma" of foreign aid in his opinion and why does he believe that it is fundamentally antidemocratic? According to the "odious debt" doctrine, what makes a debt "odious"?

Q23. Provide a concise description of the WTO's dispute resolution mechanism (list 4 items). List three (3) answers provided by WTO defenders against the charge that the organization is not democratic? List three (3) of the five (5) biggest barriers to wealth creation in the developing world according to Iain Murray.

Q24. What was the name of Jeffrey Sachs's African experiment/demonstration project? What was he planning to do with his approach once it had been validated? What was missing in such cases where better farming technologies were implemented and delivered more output? What insight from Hayek does Peter Foster was missing in Jeffrey Sachs' schemes? According to Bill Easterly, what are the poorest parts of the world really suffering from and what is really wrong with the tyranny of experts (list three things in Matt Ridley's summary)? What were the Mourides practicing long before the development experts "discovered" it?

Q25. List three (3) problems that result from the globalization of environmental affairs according to Held et al. What was the main such problem for most of human history? Draw and give a brief explanation of the Environmental Kuznets Curve. What is the main hypothesis behind it? List three (3) possible explanations for it.

Q26. What is the "race to the bottom" (RTB) or "pollution haven" hypothesis? What should we observe if the RTB hypothesis was true? List two factors that might trump environmental regulations in firms' international location decisions. What is the "bootlegger and Baptist" model (or coalition)?

Q27. What historically explained the high rate of deforestation experienced in most civilization? What explains the "forest transition" (i.e., increase in forest cover in the presence of increased and wealthier populations) experienced in many advanced economies in the last two centuries? List three advantages of synthetic dyes over natural dyes? What was the first commercially successful synthetic dye? Who was the main individual involved in its development? Which firm first developed synthetic indigo?

Q28. Give a concise account of Austrian economist Carl Menger's theory of the origins of money. Why were precious metals preferred to other types of goods in this respect? How Does Das define financial globalization? In his opinion, what were the main components of its enabling framework? List the main prime movers of financial globalization in his opinion.


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