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University of Toronto Mississauga • Department of Geography • FALL 2014

GGR 419H5: Geography of Food: Geographical Patterns and Environmental Impacts


 Instructor: Pierre Desrochers


 Lectures: Monday, 3-5PM


 Phone: (905) 828-5206

 Office: Davis Building, room 3273


 Lecture room: DV 1147UTM




GGR 419H5S

Primary Syllabus and Mandatory Readings

Suggested Readings' DIRECT LINKS

Week 1 (September 8): Introduction
> Week 2 (September 15): The Global and Canadian Pictures
> Week 3 (September 22): Traditional Agriculture
> Week 4 (September 29): Modern Farming and the Green Revolution
> Week 5 (October 6): Critics of Agri-Business
> Week 6 (October 13): Thanksgiving - No Class
> Week 7 (October 20): Defenders of Agri-Business
> Week 8 (October 27): Agriculture and the Environment
> Week 9 (November 3): Food Security
> Week 10 (November 10): Locavorism I
> Week 11 (November 17): Locavorism II
> Week 12 (November 24): To Liberalize or Not? I
> Week 13 (December 1): To Liberalize or Not? II


Week 1 : Introduction

Suggested readings


Suggested links


Week 2 : The Global and Canadian Pictures

Suggested readings

Ehrlich, Paul. R. and Anne H. Ehrlich. 2013. "Can a Collapse of Global Civilization be Avoided?" Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 280 (1754): 20122845

Kelly, Michael J. 2013. "Why a Collapse of Global Civilization will be avoided: A Comment on Ehrlich & Ehrlich." Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 280 (1767): 20131193

Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada. 2014. "An Overview of the Canadian Agriculture and Agri-Food System 2014."

Schiffman, Richard. 2013. "Hunger, Food Security, and the African Land Grab." Ethics & International Affairs 27 (3): 239-249.

Suggested links


Week 3 : Traditional Agriculture

Suggested readings

Loehrlein, Marietta. 2010. "Horticulture." In Cutler J. Cleveland (ed.) Encyclopedia of the Earth.

Prakash, C. S. 2001. "The Genetically Modified Crop Debate in the Context of Agricultural Evolution." Plant Physiology 126 (1): 8-15.

Suggested links

Planet Forward. 2013. Trent McKnight: Slash-and-Burn African Agriculture

Week 4 : Modern Farming and the Green Revolution

Suggested readings

Fernαndez, Eva. 2014. "Selling Agricultural Products: Farmers' Cooperatives in Production and Marketing, 1880-1930." Business History 56 (4): 547-568

Fulton, M. and K. Giannakas. 2013. "The Future of Agricultural Cooperatives." Annual Review of Resource Economics 5: 61-91.

Scholliers, Peter and Patricia Van Den Eeckhout. 2010. "The Proliferation of Brands: The Case of Food in Belgium, 1890-1940." Enterprise & Society 13 (1): 53-84.

[US] National Academy of Engineering. 2000. "Agricultural Mechanization." Greatest Engineering Achievements of the 20th Century. NAE.

Gardner. Bruce. 2003. "U.S. Agriculture in the Twentieth Century." Eh.Net Encyclopedia of Economic and Business History.

Suggested links

CIMMYT. 2014. "Borlaug and the Green Revolution in India - Dr. M.S. Swaminathan."

Week 5 : Critics of Agri-Business

Suggested readings

Suggested links

Week 6 : Thanksgiving - No lecture

Week 7 : Defenders of Agri-Business

Suggested readings

Specter, Michael. 2014. "Seeds of Doubt." The New Yorker (August 25).

Merchant, Gary et al. 2013. "Impact of the Precautionary Principle on Feeding Current and Future Generations." CAST Issue Paper #52 (Summary of the paper available here - Panel video about the paper available here).

Suggested links


Week 8 : Agriculture and the Environment

Suggested readings

Malhi, Yadvinder et al. 2014. "Tropical Forests in the Anthropocene." Annual Review of Environment and Resources 39.

Doughty, Christopher. 2013. "Preindustrial Human Impacts on Global and Regional Environment." Annual Review of Environment and Resources 38: 503-527.

Derek Byerlee, James Stevenson, Nelson Villoria. 2014. "Does Intensification Slow Crop Land Expansion or Encourage Deforestation?" Global Food Security 3 (2): 92-98. 

Smith, Peter. 2013. "Delivering Food Security without Increasing Pressure on Land." Global Food Security 2 (1): 18-23. 

Tscharntke, Teja et al.2012. "Global Food Security, Biodiversity Conservation and the Future of Agricultural Intensification." Biological Conservation 151 (2012) 53-59.

Suggested link

The Anthropocene Project

Week 9 : Food Security

Suggested readings

Suggested link

UN Committee on Global Food Security

Week 10 : Locavorism

Suggested readings

Scharf, Kathryn, Charles Levkoe & Nick Saul. 2010. "In Every Community a Place for Food: The Role of the Community Food Centre in Building a Local, Sustainable, and Just Food System." Metcalf Foundation.

Beshiri, Roland. 2010. "Regions Feeding the City - Can Local Farms Feed Toronto?" In Kenneth B. Beesley. The Rural-Urban Fringe in Canada: Conflict and Controversy. Rural Development Institute (Brandon University), pp. 89-108.

Suggested linkS

Greenbelt Foundation. Food and Farming Research

Foodland Ontario "Finding Local

Week 11 : Locavorism II

Suggested readings

Suggested links

Week 12 : To Liberalize or Not? I

Suggested readings

Anderson, Kym. 2012. "Government Trade Restrictions and International Price Volatility." Global Food Security 1 (2): 157-166

Chaifetz, Ashley and Pamela Jagger. 2014. "40 Years of Dialogue on Food Sovereignty: A Review and a Look Ahead." Global Food Security 3 (2): 85-91

Cattaneo, Olivier. 2013. Aid for Trade and Value Chains in Agrifood. WTO and OECD [Summary]

Suggested links

WTO (World Trade Organization)
- The Doha Round  
- "Aid for Trade" program  
- Negotiations on Trade and the Environment

United Nations OHCHR (Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights)
- Toolkit on the Right to Food 
- ""Bali package must allow ambitious food security policies" - UN expert on WTO Summit." (OHCHR News, December 2013). 

Week 13 : To Liberalize Trade or Not? II

Suggested readings

- For Trade Liberalization
Li, Nicholas. 2014. Sticker Shock: The Causes of the Canada-US Price Differential. C.D. Howe Institute Commentary #409 (May 6)

Audet, Kristell. 2013. Liberalization's Last Frontier: Canada's Food Trade (Executive Summary), Conference Board of Canada.

Charlebois, Sylvain. 2013. "Opinion: System that Keeps Dairy Prices High Needs Adjustment." The Gazette (May 13).

Milke, Mark. 2012. "Canada's Food Cartels Versus Consumers." Fraser Forum (May-June): 31-33.

Cumming, Ian. 2011. "Flee the Land of Quota." National Post (March 3).

Robson, William B. P. and Colin Busby. 2010. "Free Up our Food Supply: Phase out Farm Quotas." National Post, April 8.

Robson, William P. and Colin Busby. 2010. Freeing up Food: The Ongoing Cost, and Potential Reform, of Supply Management. Backgrounder no. 128, CD Howe Institute.

Goldfarb, Danielle. 2009. Making Milk: The Practices, Players, and Pressures behind Dairy Supply Management. Conference Board of Canada.

Charlebois, Sylvain and Richard Pedde. 2008. A Bushel Half Full: Reforming the Canadian Wheat Board. E-brief #68, CD Howe Institute.

Herman, Lawrence L. 2007. American Corn and Canadian Trade Actions: One Step Forward, Two Steps Back. E-brief #42, CD Howe Institute.

Grenon, Ιric. 2007. The Stabilization Insurance program and the crisis in the pork industry, Economic Note, Montreal Economic Institute (March).

Goldfarb, Danielle. 2005. Canada at the WTO Negotiations: All Defence, No Offence. E-brief #20, CD Howe Institute.

Hart, Michael. 2005. Great Wine, Better Cheese. How Canada Can Escape the Trap of Agricultural Supply Management. Backgrounder no. 90, CD Howe Institute.

Petkantchin, Valentin. 2005. Dairy Production: The Costs of Supply Management in Canada, Economic Note, Montreal Economic Institute (February).

Mussell, R. Allan, Bob Seguin, and Janalee Sweetland. 2012. Canada's Supply-Managed Dairy Policy: How Do We Compare?, Conference Board of Canada

Canadian government on CETA 
- CETA and sustainable development
Goff, Patricia. 2014. Transatlantic Economic Agreements. Parsing CETA and TTIP. CIGI Papers #35

- Alternative Approaches
Baker, Lauren et al. 2010. Menu 2020: Ten Good Food Ideas for Ontario, Metcalf Foundation (Executive Summary)

Canadian Center for Policy Alternatives. 2002. "Government policies "structurally adjust" Canadian agriculture. Effects on Farmers Devastating." (Press Release).

Toronto Food Connections. 2010. Cultivating Food Connections. Toward a Healthy and Sustainable Food System for Toronto.

Metcalf Foundation. 2008. Food Connects Us All. Sustainable Local Food in Southern Ontario.

National Farmers Union Policy on Sustainable Agriculture.

Suggested links

- Alternative Approaches
Food Secure Canada

Metcalf Foundation (various reports)

Toronto Food Connection

Toronto Food Policy Council

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