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University of Toronto Mississauga • Department of Geography • SPRING 2013

GGR 489H5S: Special Topics in Human Geography
The (Re)Localization of Food Production: Debates and Controversies


 Instructor: Pierre Desrochers


 Lectures: Tuesday, 2-4PM


 Phone: (905) 828-5206

Office: Davis Building, room 3273


 Lecture room: IB 370 UTM




GGR 489H5S

Primary Syllabus and Mandatory Readings

Suggested Readings' DIRECT LINKS

Week 1 (January 8): Introduction
> Week 2 (January 15): The Call of the Local I: Popular Debates
> Week 3 (January 22): Urban Agriculture
> Week 4 (January 29): From Subsistence to Exchange I (Deadline for proposal)
> Week 5 (February 5): From Subsistence to Exchange II
> Week 6 (February 12): The Call of the Local II: Historical Perspective
> Week 7 (February 19): Reading Week
> Week 8 (February 26): The Call of the Local III: Locavorism
> Week 9 (March 5): The Call of the Local IV: Methods
> Week 10 (March 12): The Call of the Local V: Ontario
> Week 11 (March 19): Locavorism and Food Security
> Week 12 (March 26): The Case against Locavorism I
> Week 13 (April 2): The Case against Locavorism II


Week 1 : Introduction

Suggested readings

Gilbert, C. L. and C. W. Morgan. 2010. "Food Price Volatility." Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 365 (1554): 3023-3034.

Suggested links


Week 2 : The Call of the Local I: Popular Debates

Suggested readings

• Overviews

Martin, Glen. 2009. "The Locavore's Dilemma." California Magazine (Winter).

• Locavores and Critics of Agri-Business

Roosevelt, M. 2006. "The Lure of the 100-Mile Diet." Time, June 11.

• Globavores and Supporters of Agri-Business

Ronald G. McCormick. 2010. "An Insider's Account of Walmart's Local Foods Program." The Atlantic (November 17).

Suggested links


Week 3 : Urban Agriculture

Suggested readings

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO).
- 2010. Fighting Poverty and Hunger: What Role for Urban Agriculture? Policy Briefs, August.
- 2005. "Farming in Urban Areas can Boost Food Security." FAO Newsroom, June 3.
- 2002. "Feeding the Cities."
- 1999. "Issues in Urban Agriculture" FAO Spotlight.

van Veenhuizen, Renι. 2006. Cities Farming for the Future - Urban Agriculture for Green and Productive Cities. RUAF Foundation, IDRC-IIRR.

Hoffer, Melissa. 2011. "Agriculture in cities is already common." The Boston Globe, June 22.

Smith, Jac. 2001. Urban Agriculture: Food, Jobs, and Sustainable Cities - 2001 Edition (unpublished revised edition of 1996 UNDP publication).

Zuckerman, Jocelyn C. 2011. "The Constant Gardeners." OnEarth Magazine (November 28).

Suggested links


Week 4 : From Subsistence to Exchange I

Suggested readings

Smith, Bruce D. 2001. "Low-Level Food Production." Journal of Archaeological Research 9 (1).

Mayhew, Henry. 1851 London Labour and the London Poor, Volume 1.

Steel, Carolyn. 2008. Hungry City. Random House.

Suggested links

Week 5 : From Subsistence to Exchange II

Suggested readings

Ausubel, Jesse H. and Cesare Marchetti . 2001 "The Evolution of Transportation." The Industrial Physicist (April/May): 20-24.

Bauer, Peter. (2004/1992) "From Subsistence to Exchange." In Peter Bauer, From Subsistence to Exchange and Other Essays. Princeton University Press.

Steel, Carolyn. (2008) Hungry City: How Food Shapes Our Lives (London: Vintage Books).

Atkins, Peter J. Peter Lummel, and Derek J. Oddy (eds) (2007). Food and the City in Europe since 1800 (Farnham: Ashgate).

Suggested links

Week 6 : The Call of the Local II: Historical Perspective

Suggested readings

• New England Transcendentalists

Cooke, George Willis. 1897. "Brook Farm." The New England Magazine 23 (4): 391-408.

Preucel, Robert W. and Steven R. Pendery 2006. "Envisioning Utopia: Transcendentalist and Fourierist Landscapes at Brook Farm, West Roxbury, Massachusetts." Historical Archaeology 40 (1):25-38.

Alcott, Louisa Mae. 1873. "Transcendental Wild Oats. A Chapter from an Unwritten Romance." The Independent.

Francis, Richard. 2010. Fruitlands: The Alcott Family and Their Search for Utopia. Yale University Press.

Sandborn, F. B. 1908. Bronson Alcott at Alcott house, England, and Fruitlands, New England (1842-1844). The Torch Press.

• Pennsylvania and Other Early 20th Century Local Food Studies

Ross, A. B. "The Point of Origin Plan for Marketing.1917." Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 74 (November) The World's Food, pp. 206-210.

Dunlap, R. Bruce, M. V. Carroll and Burke Horace Critchfield. 1924. Adjusting Production to Meet Home Market Demands in Blair County, Pennsylvania. Pennsylvania Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin no. 184

McKee, John M. 1925. "The Relation of Local Farm Output to the Local Product." Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 117 (January), pp. 278-284.

Jefferson, Lorian P. 1926. "The Balance of Trade in Farm Products." Journal of Farm Economics 8 (4): 451-461.

Taylor, Henry C. and Ann Dewees Taylor. 1952. The Story of Agricultural Economics in the United States, 1840-1932. Iowa State College Press.

• Social Reformers and Government Initiatives

Greene, Maria Louise. 1910. Among School Gardens. Charities Publication Committee.

Mills, Herbert V. 1889. Poverty and the State, or Work for the Unemployed (New Edition). Kegan, Paul, Trench & Co., Chapter 7: Co-Operative Estates: The Remedy, pp. 94-112.

Moore, Harold Edward. 1893. Back to the Land. Methuen.

Hall, Bolton, 1908. A little land and a living, Arcadia Press.

Hoover, Herbert C. 1920. "Some Notes on Agricultural Readjustment and the High Cost of Living." Saturday Evening Post 192 (April 10): pp. 3-4, 45, 46, 49, 50.

Miller, Louise Klein. 1904. Children's Gardens for School and Home: A Manual of Cooperative Gardening. Appleton.

Moore, Sarah. 2006. "Forgotten Roots of the Green City: Subsistence Gardening in Columbus, Ohio, 1900-1940." Urban Geography 27 (2): 174-192.

Lawson, Laura J. 2005. City Bountiful. A Century of Community Gardening in America. University of California Press.

O'Connor, Kaori. 2009. "The King's Christmas Pudding: Globalization, Recipes, and the Commodities of Empire." Journal of Global History, 4 (1): 127-155 (Summary).

Maloney, C. J.. 2011. Back to the Land: Arthurdale, FDR's New Deal, and the Costs of Economic Planning. Wiley.

Brown, Dona. 2011. Back to the Land. The Enduring Dream of Self-Sufficiency in America. University of Wisconsin Press.

• Wartime Measures

Lathrop Pack, Charles. 1919. The War Garden Victorious. Its Wartime Need and its Value in Peace. J.P. Lippincott Company.

Twigs Way and Mike Brown. 2010. Digging for Victory: Gardens and Gardening in Wartime Britain. Sabrestorm Publishing.

Suggested links

Fruitlands Museum.

USDA (World War II). Victory Gardens (Video).

• United Kingdom
Ministry of Information and Ministry of Agriculture. 1942. "Dig for Victory" (Video).

Scotland History - Dig for Victory (Several videos).

BBC Radio 4 "Audio slideshow: The Ministry of Food" (World War II)

• Canada
Les Brϋlιs - NFB Film (English synopsis: The Promised Land).

Week 7 : Reading Week


Week 8 : The Call of the Local III: Locavorism

Suggested readings

---. 2010. "Locavores (Definition of Locavore)." Lopez Locavores.

American Planning Association. 2007. Policy Guide on Community and Regional Food Planning. American Planning Association.

Bailey, Robert. 2011. Growing a Better Future. Oxfam International.

Blouin, Chantal et al. 2009. Local Food System and Public Policy: A Review of the Literature. Equiterre.

Eames-Sheavly, Marcia. Discovering the Food System: A Primer on Community Food Systems (Linking Food, Nutrition and Agriculture), Cornell University.

Johnson, Renιe, Randy Alison Aussenberg and Tadlock Cowan. 2012. The Role of Local Food Systems in U.S. Farm Policy. Congressional Research Services 7-5700.

Phil Mount. 2012. "Growing Local Food: Scale and Local Food Systems Governance." Agriculture and Human Values 29 (1): 107-121.

USDA. Know your Farmer, Know your Food
- Support Local Farmers
- Strengthen Rural Communities
- Promote Healthy Eating
- Protect Natural Resources

Union of Concerned Scientists. 2012. Cooler Smarter: Practical Steps for Low-Carbon Living. Island Press.

Suggested link

Cambridge Journal of Regions, Economy and Society, vol. 3, issue 2 (July 2010), Special Issue: "Re-regionalizing the Food System?"

ATTRA. "Reducing Food Miles."

RUAF Foundation
- Themes
- Information Resources

- Food for the Cities. Publications
- Newsroom: Videos

Rand Corporation
- Neighborhood influences on health
- Special Feature: How Does Food Environment Contribute to Childhood Obesity

Week 9 : The Call of the Local IV: Methods

Suggested readings

American Planning Association. 2013. Planning for Food Access: A National Scan and Evaluation of Local Comprehensive and Sustainability Plans.

King, Robert P., Michael S. Hand, Gigi DiGiacomo, Kate Clancy, Miguel I. Gomez, Sherman D. Hardesty, Larry Lev, and Edward W McLaughlin. 2010. Comparing the Structure, Size, and Performance of Local and Mainstream Food Supply. USDA Economic Research Report ERR-99 (June).

McIntyre, Lynn and Kristen Rondeau. 2011. "Individual consumer food localism: A review anchored in Canadian farmwomen's reflections." Journal of Rural Studies 27 (2): 116-124.

Suggested link

USDA. Annotated Bibliography of Food Hub Research

Week 10 : The Call of the Local V: Ontario

Suggested readings

--. 2011. Growing the Local Bounty: Reports from Farmlands in Flux in Ontario and BC. A Tyee Solutions Series. Published by The Tyee, The Waterloo Region Record, and Small Farmer Magazine.

Beshiri, Roland. 2010. "Regions Feeding the City - Can Local Farms Feed Toronto?" In Kenneth B. Beesley. The Rural-Urban Fringe in
Canada: Conflict and Controversy
. Rural Development Institute (Brandon University).

Metcalf Food Solutions (Press release)
- In Every Community a Place for Food: The Role of the Community Food Centre in Building a Local, Sustainable, and Just Food System
- New Farmers and Alternative Markets Within the Supply-Managed System
- Nurturing Fruit and Vegetable Processing in Ontario
- Scaling Up Urban Agriculture in Toronto: Building the Infrastructure

Region of Waterloo - Public Health (various reports on local food systems)

Suggested linkS

Sarah Elton's blog

Southwestern Ontario Locavore

Week 11 : Locavorism and Food Security

Suggested readings

• Historical Perspective
O'Grada, Cormac. 2009. Famine, A Short History. Princeton University Press.

"Mort, Thomas Sutcliffe (1816-1878)" in David Blair. 1881. Cyclopaedia of Australasia. Fergusson and Moore, Printers and Publishers, pp. 245-247, p. 247.

Trentmann, Frank and Flemming Just. 2006. Food and Conflict in Europe in the Age of the Two World Wars. Palgrave MacMillan.

Collingham, Lizzie. 2012. The Taste of War. World War II and the Battle for Food. Penguin Press.

• Contemporary Debates
- 2012. The State of Food Insecurity in the World 2012
- 2009. How to Feed the World in 2050
- 2003. Trade Reforms and Food Security

Caldwell, Wayne, Anneliza Collett, Therese Ludlow, Ian Sinclair and Jenny Whitehead. 2011. Planning and Food Security within the Commonwealth. Commonwealth Association of Planners.

Cowen, Tyler. 2008. "Freer Trade Could Fill the World's Rice Bowl." The New York Times (April 27).

Johnson, Robbin. 2009. Food Security: The Role of Agricultural Trade. International Food and Agricultural Policy Council.

Zezza, Alberto and Luca Tasciotti. 2010. "Urban Agriculture, Poverty, and Food Security: Empirical Evidence from a Sample of Developing Countries." Food Policy 35 (4): 265-273.

Naylor, Rosamond L. and Walter P. Falcon. 2010. "Food Security in an Era of Economic Volatility." Population and Development Review 36 (4): 693-723.

Wedding, Kristin and Charlotte Hebebrand. 2010. The Role of Markets and Trade in Food Security. CSIS

Ziervogel, Gina and Polly J. Ericksen. 2010. "Adapting to Climate Change to Sustain Food Security." Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Climate Change 1 (4): 525-540.

Suggested links

- Hunger Portal
- Committee on Food Security

Ryerson University's Centre for Studies in Food Security

Stanford's Center on Food Security and the Environment

The Ripple that Drowns: Twentieth Century Famines as Economic History. The Tawney Memorial Lecture (Economic History Society), 2007 by Professor Cormac O'Grada.

Week 12 : The Case against Locavorism I

Suggested readings

Desrochers, Pierre and Hiroko Shimizu. 2012. The Locavore's Dilemma. In Praise of the 10,000 Mile Diet. PublicAffairs.

Kemp, Katherine, Andrea Insch, David K. Holdswort and John G. Knight. 2010. "Food Miles: Do UK Consumers Actually Care?" Food Policy 35 (6): 504-513.

Raj Chi, Kelly, James MacGregor and Richard King. 2009. Fair Miles: Recharting the Food Miles Map. IIED.

Coley, David, Mark Howard and Michael Winter. 2009. "Local Food, Food Miles and Carbon Emissions: A Comparison of Farm Shop and Mass Distribution Approaches." Food Policy 34 (2): 150-155.

Weber, Christopher L. and H. Scott Matthews. 2008. "Food-Miles and the Relative Climate Impacts of Food Choices in the United States." Environmental Science & Technology 42 (10): 3508-13.

Saunders, Caroline.2008. Carbon Footprints, Life Cycle Analysis, Food Miles - Global Trade Trends and Market Issues, SIDE.

Saunders, Caroline and Peter Hayes. 2007. Air Freight Transport of Fresh Fruit and Vegetables. Lincoln University AERU, Research Report 299.

Saunder, Caroline, Andrew Barber and Greg Taylor. 2006. Food Miles - Comparative Energy / Emissions Performance of New Zealand's Agriculture Industry. Lincoln University AERU, Research Report 285.

Garnett, Tara. 2006. Fruit and Vegetables & UK Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Exploring the Relationship. Food Climate Research Network.

Smith, Alison, Paul Watkiss, Geoff Tweddle, Alan McKinnon, Mike Browne, Alistair Hunt, Colin Treleven, Chris Nash and Sam Cross. 2005. Validity of Food Miles as an Indicator of Sustainable Development, ED50254 Issue 7.

Suggested links

Week 13 : The Case against Locavorism II

Suggested readings

Sharzer, Greg. 2012. No Local. Why Small Scale Alternatives won't Change the World. Zero Books.

Stanescu, Vasile. 2010. "'Green' Eggs and Ham? The Myth of Sustainable Meat and the Danger of the Local." Paper presented at the Poultry's Concerns' Ninth Annual Conference "Expert Discourse and the Problem of the Chicken."

Suggested links

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