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University of Toronto Mississauga
Department of Geography • SPRING 2009

GGR 489H5S: Special Topics in Human Geography
Cities, Industry and The Environment


 Instructor: Pierre Desrochers


 Lectures: Mon 3-5PM


 Phone: (905) 828-5206

Office: Davis Building, room 3273


 Lecture room: SE 2068 UTM




GGR 489H5S - Primary Syllabus and Mandatory Readings

Primary Syllabus and Mandatory Readings


Plagiarizing will be dealt with according to university policy. Students are expected to abide by the rules of academic honesty, the code of behaviour on academic matters and the student code of conduct. Failure to do so will be dealt with according to university policy.


Week 1 (January 5): Introduction
Week 2 (January 12): Environmentalism in Historical Perspective
Week 3 (January 19): Economic Growth and the Environment
Week 4 (January 26): Industrialization and the Environment
Week 5 (February 2): Forests through Time (Proposal due)
Week 6 (February 9): Urban Pollution Through Time
Week 7 (February 16): Reading Week
Week 8 (February 23): Industrial Ecology and Eco-Industrial Development
Week 9 (March 2): Institutions and Economic Behaviour
Week 10 (March 9): Guest Lecture: Private Property Rights and Environmental Protection
Week 11(March 16): Geography and Production Activities I
Week 12: (March 23): Geography and Production Activities II
Week 13 (March 30): Population / Consumption Growth and the Environment I
Week 14 (April 6): Population / Consumption Growth and the Environment II

Week 1 : Introduction

Suggested readings

Bugliarello, George. 2005. "Urban Sustainability: Dilemmas, Challenges and Paradigms." Technology in Society 28 (1-2): 19-26.

Bai, Xuemei. 2003. "Cities and Sustainability." Journal of Industrial Ecology 7 (1): 143-144.

Capello, R. and P. Nijkamp. 2002. "In Search of Sustainable Human Settlements. Prefatory Remarks." Ecological Economics 40 (2): 151-155.

Camagni, Roberto, Roberta Capello and Peter Nijkamp. 1998. "Towards Sustainable City Policy: An Economy-Environment Technology Nexus." Ecological Economics 24 (1): 103-118.

Clougherty, Tom (ed.). 2007. "Positive Environmentalism: A Convenient Truth." Globalisation Institute.

Grunkemeyer, William, & Myra Moss. 1999. Key Concepts in Sustainable Development. Regional Research Institute, WVU.

Hanson, Susan and Robert W. Lake. 2000. "Needed: Geographic Research on Urban Sustainability." Economic Geography 76: 1-3.

Suggested links

Copenhagen Consensus Center

Special issue of Technology in Society (volume 28, issue 4, November 2006) on Urban Sustainability

Urban Environmental Management, The Global Development Research Center

Western Fuels Association Inc. 1992. The Greening of Planet Earth: Part 1 | Part 2

Week 2 : Environmentalism in Historical Perspective

Suggested readings

-On the History of Environmental Thought and Sustainable Development

Caldwell, Lynton Keith. "Is Humanity Destined to Self-Destruct?"

Tainter, Joseph A. 2006. "Archaeology of Overshoot and Collapse." Annual Review of Anthropology 35:59-74.

Von Storch, Hans; Stehr, Nico. 2006. "Anthropogenic Climate Change: A Reason for Concern Since the 18th Century and Earlier." Geografiska Annaler: Series A, Physical Geography 88 (2): 107-113.

"2.0 A Brief History of Sustainable Development." Human Resources and Social Development Canada.

"History of Dialogue Related to U.S. Government Commitment to Sustainable Forest / Resource Management." (Word document - Updated October 2002 by Ruth McWilliams of the USDA-Forest Service).

"A Brief History of Sustainable Development." Sustainable Development Commission (UK).

-1948 and Environmental Thought

On Wikipedia
"Henry Fairfield Osborn, Jr."
"William Vogt"

McCormick, Maureen A. 2005. "Of Birds, Guano, and Man: William Vogt's 'Road to Survival.'" PhD Dissertation, University of Oklahoma.

-Optimistic Perspective

O'Neill, Brendan. 2007. "Help! I'm a Marxist Who Defends Capitalism." The Spectator, November 28.

Tierney, John. 1990. "Betting on the Planet." New York Times.

Hayward, Steven F. 2006. "Fate of the World Redux. Assessing the Millenium Ecosystem Assessment." Environmental Policy Outlook. American Enterprise Institute, March 20.

Suggested links

American Environmental History Bibliography

Bibliography of Environmental History

Environmental History Timeline

Environmental History on the Web

Environmental History Bibliographies

ESEH Environmental History Bibliography

Arizona State professor Stephen Pyne's Websites "Environmental Historiography - Canon and Counter-Canon" and "Introducing Environmental History."

Georgetown University historian John McNeill on "Issues and Literature" in Environmental History.

Week 3 : Economic Growth and the Environment

Suggested readings

Organization of Economic Co-Operation and Development on Sustainable Development

Goklany, I. M. 2004. "Economic Growth, Technological Change, and Human Well-Being." In Anderson, T. (ed.) You Have to Admit It's Getting Better. Hoover Institution Press, p. 53-81.

Levinson, Arik. Forthcoming. "Environmental Kuznets Curve." New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics, 2nd edition.

Levinson, Arik. 2002. "The Ups and Downs of the Environmental Kuznets Curve," in John List and Aart de Zeeuw, eds., Recent Advances in Environmental Economics. Edward Elgar Publishing.

Kolata, Gina. 2006. "The New Age: So Big and Healthy Grandpa Wouldn’t Even Know You." New York Times, July 30.

Scorse, Jason (2008)." What Environmentalists need to Know about Economics." Monterey Institute of International Studies.

Stern, D. I. 2004 "The Rise and Fall of the Environmental Kuznets Curve," World Development 32 (8): 1419-1439.

Suggested links

The National Round Table on the Environment and the Economy (Canada)

The Danish Environmental Assessment Institute's Green Roads to Growth Project.
- Expert Papers to Green Roads to Growth
- Proceedings of Expert and Policy Maker Forums

Global Environment Outlook

Sustainable Prosperity

Is Sustainable Development Feasible? | State of the Planet 2006

Week 4 : Industrialization and the Environment

Suggested readings

• Canadian Governmental Policy

> Industry Canada.
> Building a 21st Century Economy: Sustainable Development in Canadian Industry
   - Corporate Social Responsibility
   - Eco-efficiency

> Natural Resources Canada
   - Sustainable Development
   - Corporate Social Responsibility

> Corporate Social Responsibility: Lessons Learned (2004)
   - Summary Report
   - Case Studies

> Corporate Social Responsibility: An Implementation Guide for Canadian Business. Cat. No. Iu23-12/2006E 0-662-42873-0 54416E

> Sustainable Development Strategy 2006-2009: Selling the Sustainability Value Proposition.

• Jevons Paradox, a.k.a., Rebound Effect

Stott, Philip. 2008. "The Jevons’ Paradox." Global Warming Politics, February 12.

Hertwich, Edgar G. 2005. "Consumption and the Rebound Effect: An Industrial Ecology Perspective." Journal of Industrial Ecology, Vol. 9, 1-2 (Special Issue on Consumption and Industrial Ecology - Winter-Spring) pp. 85-98.

A special issue of the journal Energy Policy, Volume 28, Numbers 6-7, 2000: "On the Rebound: The Interaction of Energy Efficiency, Energy Use and Economic Activity."

Suggested links

Industry Canada on Sustainable Development
- Research
- Links

Natural Resources Canada
- On Sustainable Development

Environment Canada on Economics and Sustainability

Week 5 : Forests through Time

Suggested readings

Proposal due

• Overview
MacCleery, Douglas W. 1992. "American Forests - A History of Resilience and Recovery." United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service.

• Historical record

Chamberlin, Joseph Edgar. "Will the Land become a Desert?" The Century (November 1885 - April 1886) 31 (NS 9): 532-536.

Goldammer, Johann G. 1998. History of Fire in Land-Use Systems of the Baltic Region: Implications on the Use of Prescribed Fire in Forestry, Nature Conservation and Landscape Management. (Paper presented at the First Baltic Conference on Forest Fires, Radom-Katowice, Poland, 5-9 May 1998).

Greeley, W. B. 1925. "The Relation of Geography to Timber Supply." Economic Geography 1 (1): 1-14.

Kirch, Patrick V. 2005. "Archeology and Global Change: The Holocene Record." Annual Review of Environment and Resources 30: 409-440.

Oswald, Felix Leopold. 1879. "The Preservation of Forests." North American Review 128: 35-46.

Perz, Stephen G. (2007) "Grand Theory and Context-Specificity in the Study of Forest Dynamics: Forest Transition Theory and Other Directions." The Professional Geographer 59 (1), p. 105-114.
  > Walker, Robert. (2008) "Forest Transition: Without Complexity, Without Scale." The Professional Geographer 60 (1), p. 136-140.
  > Perz, Stephen G. (2008) "Forest Transitions, Environmental Social Theory, and Land Science Research: Reply to Walker." The Professional Geographer 60 (1), p. 141-145.

Saito, Osamu. 2009. "Forest history and the Great Divergence: China, Japan, and the West compared." Journal of Global History 4 (3): 379-404.

Williams, Michael. 2003. Deforesting the Earth. From Prehistory to Global Crisis. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Williams, Michael. (2000). "'Dark Ages and Dark Areas': Global Deforestation in the Deep Past." Journal of Historical Geography 26 (1): 28-46.

• Recent trends

–, 2007. "Are Forests Making a Comeback? New Findings Suggest Optimism on Global Outlook." Resources (Winter): 8-10.

Wernick, Iddo K., Paul E. Waggoner, and Jesse H. Ausubel. 1997. "Searching for Leverage to Conserve Forests: The Industrial Ecology of Wood Products in the U.S." Journal of Industrial Ecology 1(3):125-145.

Ausubel, Jesse H., Iddo K. Wernick2, Paul E. Waggoner. 2013. "Peak Farmland and the Prospect for Land Sparing." Population and Development Review 38 (s1): 221-242.

Ausubel, Jesse H. 2000. "The Great Reversal: Nature's Chance to Restore Land and Sea." Technology in Society 22 (3): 289-301.

Blamford, Andrew, Rhys Green and J๖rn Scharlemann. 2005. "Sparing Land for Nature: Exploring the Potential Impact of Changes in Agricultural Yield on the Area Needed for Crop Production." Global Change Biology 11 (10): 1594 - 1605.

Franklin, Jerry and K. Norman Johnson. 2004. "Forests Face New Threat: Global Market Changes." Issues in Science and Technology.

Grainger, Alan. 2008. "Difficulties in tracking the long-term global trend in tropical forest area." PNAS Online, January 9.

Hosonuma, Noriko et al. 2012. "An Assessment of Deforestation and Forest Degradation Drivers in Developing Countries." Environmental Research Letters 7 (4). 

Larson, Anna M and Fernanda Soto. 2008. "Decentralization of Natural Resource Governance Regimes." Annual Review of Environment and Resources 33: 213-239.

Mather, A. S., and C. L. Needle. "The Relationships of Population and Forest Trends." The Geographical Journal, Vol. 166, No. 1, March 2000, pp. 2-1 3.

Minnemeyer, Susan, Matthew Hansen, Peter Potapov, & Kyle Pittman. 2007. "Painting the Global Picture of Tree Cover Change: Tree Cover Loss in the Humid Tropics." World Resources Institute, May.

Murray, Iain. 2008. "Treehuggers Against Trees.", May 1.

Phillips, Tom. 2009. "Poor Brazilians rejoice as loggers return to pillage the rainforest." The Observer, February 15.

Rudel, Thomas K., Oliver T. Coomes, Emilio Moran, Frederic Achard, Arild Angelsen, Jianchu Xu and Eric Lambin. 2005. "Forest Transitions: Towards a Global Understanding of Land Use Change." Global Environmental Change 15 (1): 23-31.

Stolle, Fred. 2008. "Groundbreaking Study Finds the "Hotspots" Most Responsible For Deforestation." World Resources Institute, July 16.

Sedjo, Roger A. "Changing Demands on the World's Forests: Meeting Environmental and Institutional Challenges." S. J. Hall Lectureship In Industrial Forestry, University of California, Berkeley Center for Forestry College of Natural Resources, September 28, 2001.

"Forest Transition." Wikipedia, June 4, 2007.

"No convincing evidence for decline in tropical forests." Eureka Alert!, January 7, 2008.

Idso, Craig. 2012. The State of Earth's Terrestrial Biosphere: How is it Responding to Rising Atmospheric CO2 and Warmer Temperatures? Center for the Study of Carbon Dioxide and Global Change (December 5). 

Suggested links

Global Forest Watch (GFW)

Rockefeller University's Program on the Human Environment (On Forests)

Tribute to Professor Sandy Mather, Department of Geography and Environment, University of Aberdeen

Geographer's Michael Williams's Website

Eco-Economy Indicators: DATA - FOREST COVER - World Forest Cover - Industrial and Fuel Wood Use

Harvard Forest. Dioramas

World Resources Institute and Rights & Resources Institute. 2014. Securing Rights, Combating Climate Change. How Strengthening Community Forest Rights Mitigates Climate Change.

Week 6 : Urban Pollution through Time

Suggested readings

• Historical Perspective

Douglas, I., R. Hodgson and N. Lawson. 2002. "Industry, Environment and Health Through 200 Years in Manchester," Ecological Economics 41 (2): 235-255.

"The Horse and the Urban Environment" on the Environmental Literacy Council's Webpage.

Tarr, J. 2002. "Industrial Waste Disposal in the United States as a Historical Problem," Ambix 49(1): 4-20.

Tarr, Joel. A. "The City and the Natural Environment." Global Development Research Center (non dated).

Urbinato, D. 1994. "London's Historic 'Pea-Soupers'," EPA Journal.

• Recent Trends

Button, K. 2002. "City Management and Urban Environmental Indicators." Ecological Economics 40 (2): 217-233.

Fredericksen, L., L. Jones and T. Wates. 2002. Environmental Indicators, 5th edition. Fraser Institute. Chapter on Air quality / Index of Environmental Indicators

Schwartz, J. and S.F. Hayward. 2004. "Emissions Down, Smog Up. Say What?" Environmental Policy Outlook. American Enterprise Institute for Policy Research. January-February.

Bruce, Nigel, Rogelio Perez-Padilla & Rachel Albalak. 2000. "Indoor Air Pollution in Developing Countries: A Major Environmental and Public Health Challenge." Bulletin of the World Health Organization, World Health Organization, 78 (9): 1078-1092.

Goklany, Indur. 1998. "The Environmental Transition to Air Quality." Regulation 21:4 (Fall): 36-46.

Green, Kenneth and Joel Schwartz. 2004. "Do 1,700 Torontonians Really Die each Year from Air Pollution?" Fraser Forum, August, pp. 26-28.

E. Duflo, M. Greenstone, and R. Hanna. "Indoor Air Pollution, Health and Economic Well-Being." Surv. Perspect. Integr. Environ. Soc., 1, 1–9, 2008.

Suggested links

Cleveland, C. et al. Article topic: Air Pollution and air quality. Encyclopedia of the Earth.

"Indicators," The National Round Table on the Environment and the Economy (Canada)

Heinz Center. 2002. The State of The Nation's Ecosystems: Measuring the Lands, Waters, and Living Resources of the United States. Chapter 10: Indicators of the Conditions and Use of Urban and Suburban Areas.

WHO Health and Environment Linkages Initiative

Week 7 / Reading Week


Week 8 : Industrial Ecology and Eco-Industrial Development

Suggested readings

Boons, Frank. 2008. "History's Lessons: A Critical Assessment of the Desrochers' Papers." Journal of Industrial Ecology 12 (2): 148-158.

Chertow, Marian, Weslynne Ashton and Randha Kuppalli. 2004. The Industrial Symbiosis Research Symposium at Yale Advancing the Study of Industry and Environment. Yale School of Forestry and Environmental Studies.

Ehrenfeld, J. 2004. "Industrial Ecology: A New Field or Only a Metaphor?" Journal of Cleaner Production 12 (8-10): 825-831.

Gibbs, David. 2008. "Industrial Symbiosis and Eco-Industrial Development: An Introduction." Geography Compass 2/4 (2008): 1138-1154.

Koenigh, Andreas. 2005. "Quo Vadis EIP? How Eco-Industrial Parks are Evolving." Journal of Industrial Ecology 9 (3): 12-14.

Roman, Alejandra. 2007. "Kalundborg, Denmark." The Encyclopedia of Earth, June 14.

Suggested link

Freely available sub-section on "industrial symbiosis" in the Journal of Industrial Ecology 11 (1), Winter 2007.

Week 9 : Institutions and Innovative Behavior

Suggested readings

Brubaker, Elizabeth. 1995. Property Rights in the Defence of Nature. Toronto: Earthscan.

Mazurek, J. 2003. Back to the Future. How to Put Environmental Modernization Back on Track. Progressive Policy Institute, April.

van Beers, Cerrs and Andr้ de Moor. 2003. "Grand Deals for Global Subsidy Reforms." Indicators 2 (2): 103-115.

OECD. 2006. Subsidy Reform and Sustainable Development: Economic, Environmental and Social Aspects. Paris: OECD.

Week 10 : Guest Lecture: Private Property Rights and Environmental Protection

Suggested readings

Week 11 : Geography and Production Activities I

Suggested readings

Suggested links

• Detailed studies and longer pieces

Phillips, Lynne. "Food and Globalization." Annual Review of Anthropology 35: 37-57.

Saunders, Caroline, & Peter Hayes. 2007. "Air Freight Transport of Fresh Fruit and Vegetables." Research Report No. 299, Lincoln University.

Saunders, Caroline, Andrew Barber and Greg Taylor. 2006. Food Miles - Comparative Energy/Emissions Performance of New Zealand's Agriculture Industry, Lincoln University, Agribusiness and Economics Research Unit (AERU), Research Report 285. Chapters 1-6, 8.

"The Validity of Food Miles as an Indicator of Sustainable Development." Study by AEA Technology Environment commissioned by Defra.

Specter, Michael. 2008. "Big Foot - In Measuring Carbon Emissions, it’s Easy to Confuse Morality and Science." New Yorker, February 25.

• Shorter pieces

Bailey, Ronald. 2008 "The Food Miles Mistake - Saving the Planet by Eating New Zealand Apples," Reason, November 4.

Desrochers, P., & Hiroko Shimizu. 2008. "Buy Global - The 'Food Mile' Perspective Severely Distorts the Environmental Impacts of Agricultural Production." National Post, November 7.

Foster, Peter. 2008. "Just Plain Bananas." National Post, November 7.

"Food Movement 'Harms Environment'." BBC News, July 15, 2005.

"Voting with your Trolley." The Economist, December 7, 2006.

Averill, Victoria. 2007. "African Trade Fears Carbon Footprint Backlash." BBC News, February 21.

Engelhaupt, Erika. 2008. "Do Food Miles Matter?" ES&T Online News, April 16.

Gray, Richard. 2007. "Greener by Miles." Telegraph, June 3.

Sanderson, Allen R. 2007. "De Minimis." The Library of Economics and Liberty, September 3.

• Video

Hellmann's Eat Real Eat Local

Week 12 : Geography and Production Activities II

Suggested readings

• History of Food Transportation

Can Manufacturers Institute

• Food Miles Controversy

Boudreaux, Don. 2007. "More on the Absurdity of 'Localization.'" Caf้ Hayek, November 24.

Ellis, Hattie. "Food Miles." BBC Food.

Mangu-Ward, Katherine. 2007. "Walk on Green." Reason Online, November 19.

"Sustainable Trade - Food Miles." Manaaki Whenua Landcare Research.

"Reducing Food Miles." National Sustainable Agriculture Information Service.

BBC - Food - Food matters - Food miles

Suggested links

NOVA | Absolute Zero | The Conquest of Cold | PBS

Week 13 : Population / Consumption Growth and the Environment I

Suggested readings

Emmett, Ross B. 2006. Malthus Reconsidered: Population, Natural Resources and Markets. PERC Policy Series #38.

Gordon, Peter, and Harry W. Richardson. 1998. "Farmland Preservation and Ecological Footprints: A Critique." Planning & Markets, Volume 1, Number 1.

Hails, Chris (Editor in chief), "Living Planet Report 2006." World Wildlife Fund.

Lenzen, Manfred, and Shauna A Murray. "The Ecological Footprint – Issues and Trends." ISA Research Paper January 2003.

Norton, Seth. W. 2004 "Population and Consumption Growth and Environmental Quality" in Anderson, Terry (ed.) You Have to Admit It's Getting Better. Hoover Institution Press, pp. 143-172.

York, Richard, Eugene A. Rosa & Thomas Dietz. "The Ecological Footprint Intensity of National Economies." Journal of Industrial Ecology, Fall 2004, Vol. 8, No. 4, Pages 139-154.

Suggested links

Global Footprint Network

Links to Ecological Footprint Work (Global Footprint Network)

Week 14 : Population / Consumption Growth and the Environment II

Suggested readings

Goklany, Indur. 2005. "Is a Richer-but-warmer World Better than Poorer-but-cooler Worlds?" 25th Annual North American Conference of the US Association for Energy Economics/International Association of Energy Economics, September 21-23, 2005.

Happer, William. "Climate Change." Statement Before the U.S. Senate Environment and Public Works Committee, July 10, 2002.

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