Pierre Desrochers

GGR 333 – Energy and Society – Recommendations & Suggestions


Encyclopedias and Broad Overviews

Cleveland, Cutler et al. Encyclopedia of Energy, 6 volumes, Elsevier. (UTM Library TJ163.28 .E53 2004)
(Abstracts can be accessed on science direct)

The Encyclopedia of the Earth (freely accessible)
– energy
– mining & materials
– minerals & mining

Encyclopedia of Global Environmental Change, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Krech III, Shepard, J. R. McNeill and Carolyn Merchant (eds), 2004. Encyclopedia of World Environmental History. New York: Routledge, 3 volumes (UTM library GF4 .E63 2004 v. 1-3)

Krowschwitz, Jacqueline I (ed.) 2004. Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology, 5th edition, John Wiley & Sons. This encyclopedia is fully accessible through the UofT libraries Website. While much of the content is technical, the historical development of energy technologies is given much attention.

Ullmann’s Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, 7th edition, John Wiley & Sons, 2006. It is also fully online and can be accessed through the UofT libraries Website.

Zumerchik, John (ed.) 2001. MacMillan Encyclopedia of Energy, 3 volumes. McMillan.

Books and reports covering a wide array of topics

Andrews, John and Nick Jelley. 2007. Energy Science: Principles, Technologies, and Impacts. Oxford University Press.

Boyle, Godfrey, Bob Everett and Janet Ramage. 2004. Energy Systems and Sustainability. Power for a Sustainable Future. Oxford University Press.

Bradley, Robert L and Richard W. Fulmer. Energy: The Master Resource, Kendall Hunt Publishing Company, 2004 (A concise introduction to all facets of the energy debate. Full content available on the Web).

Committee on America’s Energy Future, National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering and National Research Council. 2009.
America’s Energy Future: Technology and Transformation. National Academies Press (Summary Edition).

Cottrell, W. Fred. 2009/1955. Energy & Society (Revised): The Relation Between Energy, Social Change, and Economic Development. AuthorHouse.

Crosby, Alfred W. 2006. Children of the Sun. A History of Humanity’s Unappeasable Appetite for Energy. Norton.

Fanchi, John R., Energy in the 21st Century, World Scientific, 2005, 256 pp.

Fanchi, John R., Energy: Technology and Directions for the Future, Academic Press, 2004, 491 pp.

Hancock, Kathleen J. and Juliann Allison. 2018. The Oxford Handbook of Energy Politics. Oxford University Press.

Hinrichs, Roger A. and Merlin Kleinbach. 2006. Energy. Its Use and the Environment, 4th edition. Thomson / Brooks/Cole.

Huber, Peter and Mark Mills. 2005. The Bottomless Well: The Twilight of Fuel, the Virtue of Waste, and Why We will never Run Out of Energy. Basic Books. (A techno-optimist manifesto that covers most of the topics discussed in this course)

Inkpen, Andrew and Michael H. Moffett. 2011. The Global Oil and Gas Industry. Management, Strategy and Finance. PennWell Books.
– Note: In my opinion, this is the best energy textbook on hydrocarbons presently on the market (2013). The full content is available online through the UofT library system.
– Here is the link to the online certificate of the school in which these authors are affiliated)

Institute for Energy Research 2012. Hard Facts: An Energy Primer.

Lomborg, Bjørn. 2001. The Skeptical Environmentalist. Measuring the Real State of the Planet. Cambridge University Press. (Survey and synthesis of official statistics on a range of issues, from forest cover to air pollution and resource availability)

MacKay, David J.C. Sustainable Energy – Without the Hot Air, University of Cambridge.

MacKerron G., and P. Pearson, The International Energy Experience – Markets, Regulation and the Environment, World Scientific Publishing Co., April 2000, 388 pp.

Mager Stellman, Jeanne (editor in chief). 2011. Encyclopedia of Occupational Health and Safety, International Labor Organization (ILO).
– Kraus, Richard S. 2011. “Storage and Transportation of Crude Oil, Natural Gases, Liquid Petroleum Products and Other Chemicals
– Kraus, Richard. 2011. “75 Exploration, Drilling and Production of Oil and Natural Gas
– Crane, Michael. 2011. “76 Power Generation and Distribution
– Kraus, Richard S. 2011. “78. Oil and Natural Gas

McFarland, Ernie L., James L. Hunt and John L. Campbell. 2007. Energy, Physics and the Environment, 3rd edition. Thomson.

Newell, Richard, Daniel Raimi and Gloria Aldana. 2019. Energy Outlook 2019: The Next Generation of Energy. Resources for the Future.

Shepherd, W., & D.W. Shepherd, Energy Studies – Second Edition, World Scientific Publishing Co., February 2004, 516 pp.

Sinding-Larsen, Richard and Friedrich-W. Wellmer (eds). 2012. Non-Renewable Resource Issues. Geoscientific and Societal Challenges. Springer (Book fully available viat UofT library).

Smil, Vaclav. 2004. “World History and Energy.” In Cleveland, Cutler et al. Encyclopedia of Energy, vol. 6, Elsevier, pp. 539-56.

Smil, Vaclav, Energy in Nature and Society – General Energetics of Complex Systems, MIT Press, January 2008, 512 pp.

Smil, Vaclav, Energy – A Beginner’s Guide, Oneworld Publications, 2006, 192 pp.

Smil, Vaclav. 2003. Energy at the Crossroads. MIT Press. (This book pulls together the mature reflections of a Czech-born Canadian who has devoted nearly four decades to studying energy).

Smil, Vaclav. 2017. Energy and Civilization. A History. MIT Press. (Note: This is an updated version of the author’s 1994. Energy in World History. Westview).

Thornley, Drew. 2009. Energy and the Environment: Myths and Fact (Second Edition).

Vaitheeswaran, Vijay V. 2003. Power to the People: How the Coming Energy Revolution will Transform an Industry, Change our lives, and maybe even save the Planet. Earthscan.
(A lively, balanced, and constructive review of energy issues by the Environment and Energy correspondent of The Economist)

Recent Developments in Energy.” Economic Report of the President (Chapter 11), February 13, 2006, p. 231-257.

Sustainable Energy: a long-term strategy for the UK.” EEF (UK Manufacturers’ Organisation) Report publication.


Historical perspective

Gopi Rethinaraj, T. S., and Clifford E Singer, Historical Energy Statistics – Global, Regional and National Trends Since Industrialisation, World Scientific Publishing Co., Winter 2007, 440 pp.

Energy History (yale.edu).

Harvard University and Cambridge University, Joint Center for History and Economics – Energy History.

Glossaries and Energy Conversion Tables
– Glossaries
US EIA (Energy Information Agency). Glossary

Platts. Energy Glossary Terms

Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP). Glossary

Natural Resources Canada – Office of Energy Efficiency (Glossary)

– Energy Conversion Tables
National Energy Board (Canada) – Energy Conversion Tables

Online Conversion (Energy)

US EIA (Energy Information Agency) – Energy Calculator

World/Countries statistics, briefs, topical analysis other than Canada

– See Articles by topic/Energy and Environment, especially Ritchie, Hannah. and Max Roser. 2018. “Energy.”

The Visual Capitalist – Energy Shift.

BP Statistical Review of World Energy

International Energy Agency
Especially their Information Center

CIA – The World Factbook – Guide to Country Comparisons
– Electricity – production
– Electricity – consumption
– Oil – production
– Oil – consumption
– Oil – exports
– Oil – imports
– Oil – proved reserves
– Natural gas – production
– Natural gas – consumption
– Natural gas – exports
– Natural gas – imports
– Natural gas – proved reserves

United Nations
UNCTAD (United Nations Conference on Trade and Development)
– UNCTAD Statistics
– Statistical Databases online
United Nations Development Programme (UNEP) – Environment and Energy
Why does energy matter?
Science and data

The OECD on Energy and on Energy Statistics

World Resources Institute – United Nations, World Bank information
especially Earth Trends, the Environmental Information Portal on Energy and Resources

The World Energy Council especially their Global Energy Information Service and publications (see especially their latest Survey of Energy Resources)

The Rand Corporation’s Energy and Environment Research Area

IPCC on energy systems

Rice’s University Baker Center for Public Policy – Center for Energy

Specialized Resources

World mapper

International Hydropower Association
– Maps
– Country profiles

International Renewable Energy Agency
Data and Statistics

European Commission – Energy – Statistics

United States Geological Survey – National Minerals Information Center

US Energy Information Administration
– EIA-International statistics

• Topical Analysis on Energy and Resource Issues

Websites with multiple links to energy websites
– Oil and Gas Websites
International Labor Organization – Resource guide on the oil and gas production sector

Lynne Kiesling and Michael Giberson have compiled numerous energy links of interest on their blog “Knowledge Problem.”

Solomon Associates
– Solomon Insights

World Oil

– Economic Geology and Minerals
Paige Underwood’s Geology Exploration and Mining – 101 Exceptional Online Resources

Society of Petroleum Engineers et al. 2011. Guidelines for Application of the Petroleum Resources Management System.

– News Organizations

PBS – e2 energy

CBC News – Energy

BBC – Energy in the UK




News and Analysis
Bloomberg Energy News | Bloomberg Energy Prices

Clean Energy Wire

The Conversation: Environment + Energy

The Economist
– Energy Technology
– Oil Production and Refining

Electricity News

Energy Central

Energy in Depth

Energy Management Institute

Energy Online

Energy Pub

Energy Tribune

European Energy Review

Forbes – Energy Source

Intercontinental Exchange (ICE)

MIT Technology Review on Energy

NS Energy

Oil & Gas Journal



Platts Energy News

Power Engineering and PEI Magazines

The Wall Street Journal Energy Report

VOX.eu on energy

World Energy Source

Academic Centers, NGOs, Think Tanks and Others
– Academic Centers

Belfer Center (Harvard) on Energy

Institute of Political Economy (Utah State University)

The Energy Analysis Division of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

Program for the Human Environment at Rockefeller University
One of the most innovative research program on the grey area at the intersection of technological change, economic growth and the environment.

Texas Tech University – Energy Commerce Program

Energy Strategies (Penn State College of Agricultural Sciences and Computer Services)

MIT Energy Initiative

Australian Commodity Research Institute – Energy

King’s College London – European Centre for Energy and Resource Security

International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis – Energy Primer

Material Cultures of Energy (UK)

– NGOs

United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization on Natural Resources and the Environment

UNCTAD (United Nations Conference on Trade and Development)
– on Energy
– Digital Library

UNEP (United Nations Environment Program) Global Environmental Outlook

Energy” on the Earth Institute’s Website

Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands

The Royal Society for the encouragement of Arts, Manufactures and Commerce

World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD)

Meridian Institute on
– Environment and Natural Resources
– Climate Change and Energy

– Think Tanks

Center for Strategic and International Studies on Energy and Climate Change

The Council on Foreign Relations on Energy/Environment

UK Energy Research Centre

UK Research Council’s Energy Programme

The Rand Corporations’ Environment, Energy and Development Program

The Brookings Institution on Environment and Energy

Reason Foundation on Energy

Resources for the Future
One of the most respected and quoted think tanks on energy and resources issues. Large array of policy analysis on resource and environmental issues.

– Others

“Energy” on Geometry.Net (The On-Line Learning Center)
Links to several Websites, from books and class syllabus to governmental agencies.

NASA’s Global Change Master Directory, especially their Human Dimensions section

The Secret Lives of Energy

GreenFacts on Energy

Visual Capitalist on energy


General Interest
Canadian Energy Centre

Government of Canada on energy, resources and the environment

Natural Resources Canada
Canada’s Energy Outlook: The Reference Case 2006
Report of the National Advisory Panel on Sustainable Energy Science and Technology.
On Energy
Electricity Resources Branch
Office of Energy Efficiency especially Statistics and Analysis

Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation Program (Natural Resources Canada)

Environment Canada
Energy production
Oil sands
Sustainable development (including Canadian Environmental Sustainability Indicators)

National Energy Board of Canada

Canadian Senate – Standing Committee on Energy, the Environment and Natural Resources

Canada Science and Technology Museums Corporations: Let’s Talk Energy

Canadians for Affordable Energy

Energy Future Forum

Sandwell, R. W. 2016. Powering Up Canada. The History of Power, Fuel, and Energy from 1600. McGill-Queen’s University Press.

Canada Center for Energy – Energy Facts and Statistics

Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP) – Statistics

National Energy Board – Statistics

CBC News – In depth: Energy

The Kent Group – Petroleum Price Data (Canada)

Think tanks and research centers (national interest)
ARC Energy Institute

Canadian Energy Research Institute

C.D. Howe Institute
– CD Howe on energy and resources

Canadian Centre for Energy Information
– “Canadian Energy” section
– Partners (link to various Canadian energy-related groups)

Conference Board of Canada on energy, environment and transportation policy

Energy Probe

Fraser Institute on Energy

MacDonald-Laurier Institute on Energy

The Pembina Institute “Energy Watch” division

University of Calgary
– The School of Public Policy (Energy and Environment)
– Energy Education
– Energy In Society (Calgary Institute for the Humanities)

Montreal Economic Institute
– Energy Policies
– Scully the World Show: Scully Energy Series

Data and news organizations
– Data
Crude monitor.ca

Your Environment – The Complete Canadian Environmental Record (Ross McKitrick, Guelph University).

– News Organizations
Alberta Oil Magazine

CBC News Indepth: Energy

Energy Sector in Canada on About.com


Globe and Mail – Report on Business: Energy & Resources

The Tyee – Energy File

Topical Websites
– Carbon Fuels
Canadian Association of Geophysical Contractors (CAGC)

Canadian Energy Pipeline Association

Canadian Federal & Provincial Governments Oil & Gas Web Sites

Canadian Society of Petroleum Geologists


Petroleum Services Association of Canada
– Oil and Gas Info
– How does the Oil and Gas Industry Work?

Small Explorers and Producers Association of Canada (SEPAC)

Ontario Petroleum Institute (suggested links)

– Petroleum
Canadian Association of Oilwell Drilling Contractors

Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers
on Canada’s Oil Sands

Canadian Fuels Association

CFA Perspectives

Canadian Petroleum Producers Institute

Petroleum History Society

– Natural Gas
Canadian Gas Association

Canadian Society for Unconventional Gas (CSUG)

– Coal
Clean Coal Technology Roadmap (Natural Resources Canada)

Coal Association of Canada

– Bitumen
Oil Sands Fact Check

– Electricity
Canadian Electricity Association

– Hydro
Canadian Hydropower Association

– Nuclear
Atomic Energy of Canada

Canadian Nuclear Power Association

Canadian Nuclear FAQ

Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission

– Alternatives
Canadian Clean Power Coalition

Canadian Renewable Fuels Association

Canadian Wind Energy Association

Solar Energy Society of Canada

Canadian Provinces (Governments, Industries and NGOs)
– Ontario
Independent Electricity System Operator (IESO)

Ontario Energy Association

Ontario Energy Board

Ontario Energy Network

Ontario Ministry of Energy

Ontario Power Authority

Ontario Petroleum Institute

– Alberta
Alberta Department of Energy

Alberta Energy and Utilities Board

Alberta’s Energy Resources Conservation Board

Alberta Energy Research Institute

Alberta’s Oil Sands

Alberta’s Oil Sands Discovery Centre

Federation of Alberta Gas Co-Ops

– British Columbia
British Columbia Ministry of Energy and Mines

BC Hydro

BC Oil and Gas Commission

Resources Work

– Manitoba
Manitoba Hydro

Manitoba Petroleum Division

Manitoba Science, Technology, Energy and Mines

– New Brunswick
New Brunswick Ministry of Energy

– Newfoundland and Labrador
Newfoundland and Labrador Ministry of Mines and Energy

Newfoundland and Labrador Natural Resources

Newfoundland Offshore Petroleum Board

– Nova Scotia
Nova Scotia Energy

Nova Scotia Offshore Petroleum Board

– Quebec

Québec Ministry of Energy

– Saskatchewan
Saskatchewan Energy and Resources

Saskatchewan Industry and Resources


American Enterprise Institute on Energy and Environment

Benjamin Zycher (AEI)

Bjørn Lomborg’s (The Skeptical Environmentalist) Website

Cato Institute
– On Energy and Environment
– Energy | Natural Resources

Center for Energy Policy and the Environment (Manhattan Institute)

Center for Industrial Progress

The Moral Case for Fossil Fuels – Data

Chris Knittel

Competitive Enterprise Institute

The David Suzuki Foundation

Department of Energy”  in Downsizing the Federal Government

Energy Talking Points – Alex Epstein

Doomberg | Substack

Irina Slav on energy | Substack

Home – Truth in Energy & Climate

Fraser Institute
Environment and Risk

The Future of Energy.” Spiked-Science Debates

The Heritage Foundation on Energy and Environment Issues

The Independent Institute on Energy

Institute for Energy Research

James Conca (Forbes)

John P. Holdren

John McCarthy’s “Progress and its Sustainability” Site

No Tricks Zone (Germany, Pierre Gosselin)

Peter Glover

Peter Z. Grossman

Power to the People

Rainey Center on Energy

Remembering Julian Simon. Freedom Network and the Heartland Institute

Strata (USA)

UK Energy Research Centre

Union of Concerned Scientists’ Clean Energy Program

Worldwatch Institute

Indur Goklany of the US Department of the Interior

Jesse Ausubel of Rockefeller University

Ozzie Zehner

Tyler Priest

Vaclav Smil of the University of Manitoba

Mike Barnard (Clean Technica)

Samantha Gross (Brookings)

Terry Etam

Deborah Jaremko (Canadian Energy Centre)

Gwyn Morgan


Several academic journals devoted to the topics of energy and resources are accessible through the University of Toronto Librairies website. Most of them, however, are too specialized or too advanced for this course, although technical journals sometimes publish more accessible policy articles. The following publications, however, should prove particularly useful to you:

Annual Review of Environment and Resources (formerly Annual Review of Energy and the Environment)
The best resource for this course. In-depth non technical surveys of several energy related issues.

Annual Review of Resource Economics

International Review of Environmental and Resource Economics. Another publication that specializes in detailed review articles.

Economics of Energy and Environmental Policy

Resources for the Future‘s quarterly magazine. Although not strictly speaking an academic journal, it contains short and accessible feature stories by RFF authors on a variety of environmental, energy, and natural resource issues.

Essays and book reviews on the topics of “Energy, Resources and the Environment” published in the periodical Foreign Affairs that, like Resources, is aimed at a broad readership.

Issues in Science and Technology
– on energy (topical)

 Other energy periodicals

Energy and Environment

Energy Journal

Energy Policy

Energy Research and Social Science

Energy Strategy Reviews

Several academic journals on energy and environmental issue are published by Inderscience Publishers

International Journal of Energy Technology and Policy

International Journal of Global Energy Issues

Journal of Energy History

Natural Resources Forum

Natural Resources Journal

Resources Policy

Society and Natural Resources

You can access these periodicals through the UTL Website.


1. Historical Vignette: Electric Power Generation in Ontario over the Years
(A brief history of power generation and management in Ontario, from the days of Ontario Hydro, through phasing out of the coal plants, to today’s “putting conservation first approach”)

– Required Reading:
Ontario Ministry of Energy. (2013, December). Achieving Balance: Ontario’s Long-Term Energy Plan, pp. 2-19.

– Additional Sources:
Winfield, M, Gibson, R. B., Markvart, T., Gaudreau, K., & Taylor, J. (2010). Implications of sustainability assessment for electricity system design: The case of the Ontario Power Authority’s integrated power system plan. Energy Policy, 38, 4115-4126. doi:10.1016/j.enpol.2010.03.038

Howeltt, K. (2010, January 8). “The high cost of green power.” The Globe and Mail.

Ontario Ministry of Energy. (2014). The End of Coal: An Ontario Primer on Modernizing Electricity Supply.

Solar Share. 2015. “Who Manages Our Electricity In Ontario: A Brief History.” (November 6).

Ontario Energy Board. Ontario’s Energy Sector.

2. The Here and Now: IESO and Electricity Power System Planning
Independent Electricity System Operator (IESO). IESO is supposed to “ensure there is enough power to meet the province’s energy needs in real time” while also planning and securing future energy and negotiating prices. How does it do this?

– Required Readings:
IESO (Independent Electricity System Operator). Electricity Pricing.

Ontario Ministry of Energy. (2013, December). Achieving Balance: Ontario’s Long-Term Energy Plan, pp. 2-19.

– Additional Sources:
Ontario Energy Report

3. Analysis: What Gives with Ontario Electricity Prices?
Observers and analysts, from Energy Probe to the Auditor General of Ontario, have found the pricing and managing of electricity in Ontario downright alarming.

– Required Reading:
Office of the Auditor General of Ontario. (2015, Fall). Annual Report 2015. Chapter 3: Section 3.05. Electricity Power System Planning, pp. 206-215. *In case this excellent report is once again removed from the government’s website – We are providing the link to the PDF*

Crawley, Mike. 2017. “Auditor General Blasts Kathleen Wynne’s ‘Fair Hydro Plan.’ Liberals ‘improperly’ keeping hydro plan debt off government’s books, says special report by Bonnie Lysyk.” CBC News (October 17).

Add Taylor, Peter Shawn. 2019. “Gerald Butts still denies responsibility for a bigger scandal: Ontario’s ‘green energy’ catastrophe.” Financial Post (February 26).

– Additional Sources:
Office of the Auditor General of Ontario. (2015, Fall). Annual Report 2015. Chapter 3: Section 3.05. Electricity Power System Planning. (the rest of the chapter).

Green, Kenneth. 2017. “Ontario power users get some relief, but there’s still much more to do.” Toronto Sun (August 18).

4. Analysis: Electrical Energy Prices Affect the Economy
The Ontario Chamber of Commerce and Adam White, the President of the Association of Major Power Consumers in Ontario, reflect on the electricity pricing trends in the province.

– Required Readings:
Holmes, A. (2015). Empowering Ontario: Constraining Costs and Staying Competitive in the Electricity Market, pp 1-9.

McKitrick, Ross R. and Elmira Aliakbari. 2017. Rising Electricity Costs and Declining Employment in Ontario’s Manufacturing Sector. Fraser Institute (read the Executive Summary).

Heyden-Kaye, Jeffrey. 2018. “$38,000 Power Bill in Ontario Raising Red Flags for Albertans.” Ponoka News (October 23).

– Additional Sources:
Taber, J. (2015, July 8). “Skyrocketing electricity rates may force one in 20 Ontario businesses to close.” The Globe and Mail.

Adams, Tom. 2012. “Review of Mad Like Tesla by Tyler Hamilton (ECW Press, 2011).” Tomadamsenergy.com.

McKitrick, Ross. 2016. “Ontario electricity has never been cheaper, but bills have never been higher.” Financial Post (August 10).

Corcoran, Terence. 2016. “Boondoggle: How Ontario’s pursuit of renewable energy broke the province’s electricity system.” Financial Post (October 6).

Furey, Anthony. 2016. “Canada’s green agenda is having Soviet-style repercussions.” Toronto Sun (October 24).

Parker Gallant, Parker. 2018. “How Kathleen Wynne could have avoided public outcry over electricity costs.” Parker Gallant Energy Perspectives (December 5).

Cross, Philip. 2018. “StatCan just exposed how worthless ‘green’ industries are to Canada’s economy.” Financial Post (December 19) .

— End of Required Readings —

5. Not Easy Being “Green”: Wind Power Generation
Wind as a source of electric power in Ontario is not ideal. Academics and analysts hash it out.

– Sources (not required reading):
Rowlands, I. H., & Jernigan, C. (2008). Wind power in Ontario: Its contribution to the electricity grid.

Bulletin of Science, Technology & Society, 28(6), 436-453. doi: 10.1177/0270467608315942

Adams, T. (2006, November 16). “Review of Wind Power Results in Ontario: May to October 2006.” Energy Probe.

Holburn, G., Lui, K., & Morand, C. (2010, March 10). Policy Risk and Private Investment in Ontario’s Wind Power Sector.

Van Kooten, G. C., & Timilsina, Govinda R. (2008). “Wind power development: opportunities and challenges.” Resource Economics & Policy Analysis (REPA) Research Group.

McKitrick, Ross and Elmira Aliakbari. 2017. Did the Coal Phase-out Reduce Ontario Air Pollution? (January). Fraser Institute.

6. Energy Storage: The Next Big Thing?
How hard is it to store power in off-peak? The Ontario Smart Grid storage plan.

– Sources (not required reading):
Adams, T. (2013, October 10). Smart Grid? Part 1: Ontario’s Next Energy Project.

7. Ontario energy history and policy framework
Special Issue: Energy and Society in Canada.” 2014. Scientia Canadensis: Canadian Journal of the History of Science, Technology and Medicine 37 (1-2): 1-221.

White, A. (2015, December 14). “Ontario’s surging electricity prices endanger domestic manufacturing.” The Globe and Mail.

Stokes, Leah C. 2013. “The Politics of Renewable Energy Policies: The Case of Feed-in Tariffs in Ontario, Canada.” Energy Policym 56: 490-500.