Pierre Desrochers

GGR 333 – Energy and Society – Tragedy of the Commons


Tragedy of the commons – Wikipedia

Hardin and the Tragedy of the Commons

Hardin, Garrett (1968). The Tragedy of the Commons: The population problem has no technical solution; it requires a fundamental extension in morality.” Science. 162 (3859): 1243–1248.

Hardin, Garrett. “The Tragedy of the Commons,” The Concise Encyclopedia of Economics.

Mildenberger, Matto. 2019. “The Tragedy of the Tragedy of the Commons. The man who wrote one of environmentalism’s most-cited essays was a racist, eugenicist, nativist and Islamaphobe—plus his argument was wrong.” Scientific American (blog) (April 23).

Smil, Vaclav. 2004. “Garrett James Hardin (Dallas 1915-Santa Barbara 2003),” American Scientist, 92 (1): 8.


Frischmann, Brett M.; Marciano, Alain; Ramello, Giovanni Battista (2019). “Retrospectives: Tragedy of the Commons after 50 Years”Journal of Economic Perspectives. 33 (4): 211–228.

Angus, Ian. 2008. “The Myth of the Tragedy of the Commons.” MROnline (August 25).

Ostrom, Elinor. 2000. “Private and Common Property Rights.” In the Encyclopedia of Law and Economics. Edited by Boudewijn Bouckaert and Gerrit De Geest. Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar, p. 332-379.

Ostrom, Elinor. 1999. “Coping with Tragedies of the Commons.” Annual Review of Political Science 2: 493-535.

Cox, Susan Jane Buck. 1985. “No Tragedy on the Commons.” Environmental Ethics 7 (1):49-61.


Homans, Charles. 2017/2013. “The Most Senseless Environmental Crime of the 20th Century. Fifty years ago 180,000 whales disappeared from the oceans without a trace, and researchers are still trying to make sense of why. Inside the most irrational environmental crime of the century.” Pacific Standard Magazine.

Bailey, Ronald. 2012. “Property Rights Are the Way to Save the World’s Depleting Fisheries, Reports Science.” Reason (September 28).

Bailey, Ronald. 2006. “Pick Your Poissons – Economic and Ecological Diversity for Fisheries.” Reason, August 25.

Mansfield, Becky. 2004. “Neoliberalism in the Oceans: “Rationalization,” Property Rights and the Commons Question.” Geoforum 35: 313-326.

Gissurarson, Hannes. 2000. Overfishing: the Icelandic Solution. London: Institute of Economic Affairs.

Property rights, social institutions and the environment

Alchian, Armen A. “Property Rights,” The Concise Encyclopedia of Economics.

Meany, Paul. 2018. “Aristotle’s Defense of Private Property: 4 Reasons Communal Property Is Inferior.” Fee.org (July 11).

Brubaker, Elizabeth. 1995. Property Rights in the Defence of Nature. Environment Probe and Earthscan. Chapter 13: The Gospel According to St. John.

Borders, Max. 2009. “Society as Ecosystem: Assessing the Metaphors of Human Social Organization.” Fund for the Study of Spontaneous Order Conference.

Original sources

Aristotle. Circa 350 BC. Politics: A Treatise on Government (Translated by William Ellis).

Locke, John. 1691. The Works of John Locke, vol. 4 Economic Writings and Two Treatises of Government [1691]. CHAPTER V.: Of Property.

Forster Lloyd, William Forster. 1833. Two Lectures on the Checks to Population: Delivered Before the University of Oxford, in Michaelmas Term 1832. S. Collingewood.