Pierre Desrochers

GGR 365 – Trade and Globalization

Period: January-April 2022
Instructor: Pierre DesrochersOffice: Davis Building, room 3273
Lectures: Tuesday 3-5 PMLecture room: CC 2150 (in person)
Phone: (905) 828-5206E-mail: pierre.desrochers@utoronto.ca

Office hours are Tuesday 1:30 – 3PM, ONLINE (and perhaps in person at some point). You can contact me in advance at pierre.desrochers@utoronto.ca to make arrangements (Skype, Zoom, others).

Please read the course syllabus before e-mailing a question.

Always use your University of Toronto e-mail address (@utoronto.ca) for all course-related communications. E-mails from other domains (e.g., hotmail, Rogers, gmail, yahoo, etc.) may be filtered as spam and will at any rate be ignored. Always include the course code (e.g., GGR365) as part of your subject line, along with your full name and student number in the body of the e-mail. E-mails will be answered during office hours as promptly as possible. Please note that I do not open attachments and will not answer during week-ends.

The first person that you should e-mail concerning department- or program-related queries or to submit documentation regarding a missed assignment, quiz, or test is the Academic Counsellor for Geography/Environment, Sabrina Ferrari (sabrina.ferrari@utoronto.ca).

E-mail should NOT be viewed as an alternative to meeting with the TA or professor during office hours. Nor should e-mail be used as a mechanism to receive private tutorials (especially prior to tests) or to explain material that was covered in missed lectures. Not receiving replies to e-mails from the TA or professor, or not receiving them in time, will not be an acceptable excuse for pleas for extensions to assignment or exam deadlines.

Students are advised to consult http://www.enough.utoronto.ca/ for information on university policy concerning the appropriate use of information and communication technology.

This course uses economic and geographical principles to help students understand the advent of the current period of globalization. In this context, globalization refers to international trade liberalization which results in increased contacts across borders, migration, trade, and investment.

Topics covered will include the history of globalization, the environment, sweatshops, development and inequalities. By the end of the course, students should have gained a deeper understanding of current controversies surrounding international trade and globalization.

The course format will alternate between formal classes and open discussions. Students are expected to have read the assigned texts in advance.

The course has five (5) main objectives:

  1. To provide some historical perspective and to cover the basic factors which led to the advent of what we now term globalization;

  2. To introduce the students to some of the most important players and institutions shaping international trade;

  3. To cover some of the most important controversies surrounding international trade;

  4. To memorize and use, without aids, the basic terminology with which professionals in relevant disciplines communicate their work and their research findings;

  5. To apply a wide range of academic skills in active listening, note-taking, studying, reading, and test-taking to upper-level university courses.

Exceptionally this COVID year, your assignments will consist of the following:

1) Short Written Assignments40%(Two (2) assignments are due by March 1)
2) Written Assignment 110%February 1, 2:59PM
3) Written Assignment 220%April 5, 2:59PM
4) Written Assignment 310%April 5, 2:59PM
5) Final Exam20%TBA

As per the University Grading Practices Policy, please note that “after the methods of evaluation have been made known, the instructor may not change them or their relative weight without the consent of at least a simple majority of the students enrolled in the course. Any changes shall be reported to the division or the department.”

How to Query or Challenge a Mark

Please note that you have two weeks from the date an item is discussed in class to ask for the item to be remarked. Contact the Course Instructor for all queries about course marks, or if you wish to challenge a mark. Absolutely no item will be remarked after the two-week period has passed. Material submitted for remarking must be accompanied by a brief written explanation detailing your reasons for dissatisfaction with the original mark (such as an addition error or something you think the marker may have missed). A request for a remark without a written explanation will not be acted upon.

Please note that you are allowed two questions where you and the instructor can agree to disagree (meaning you believe that you are entitled to a higher mark, but your instructor disagrees) without penalty. Beginning with the third question where you and your instructor disagree, one point will be taken off your final mark by question for which a revised mark was requested by you and denied by the instructor.

Discussions of the test/exam and written assignments can be found below.

There is no textbook or reading package for this class. Most of the readings are freely available on the Web and links are provided on the course’s Webpage. Suggested readings are not required, but students who will write term papers on topics covered in these texts are expected to be familiar with them.

Most of the suggested readings are freely accessible from anywhere. Some of them, however, may require you to use a UofT terminal or user code.

All assignments will be submitted through Quercus and processed through Ouriginal.

What is the point of these assignments?

  • To acquire more in-depth learning about a topic discussed in this course and its relevance to broader policy discussions
  • To develop your writing skills
  • To learn to think critically
  • To learn the basics of scholarly and policy work

Useful links to help you write your assignments
The University of Toronto Library staff has compiled several links on researching and writing term papers and other types of work. Please look them up, along with the various university resources available to you:

Citation styles
Please look up the University of Toronto Library webpage devoted to citing sources and creating your bibliography.

For written assignments 1 and 2 your are free to follow any of the Standard Documentation Formatsbut I insist you use endnotes in assignment #2 (try to mimick the Federal Government documents as closely as possible).

For assignment 3 you will use embedded hyperlinks instead of traditional citations. Here is how to create or edit a hyperlink. Please note that a hyperlink is only a link to the original document. You are not expected to provide a page or any further information.

Submitting your written assignments through Quercus will imply a review of textual similarity by Ouroriginal for detection of possible plagiarism. In doing so, students will allow their assignments to be included as source documents in the Ouroriginal reference database, where they will be used solely for the purpose of detecting plagiarism. The terms that apply to the University’s use of the Ouriginal service are described on the Ouroriginal web site (https://www.ouriginal.com/). If you have an objection to the use of Ouriginal for the submission of your work, please make an appointment to speak personally with the Course Instructor to discuss alternative arrangements.

Please note that submitting your paper through Ouroriginal or making alternative arrangements with your professor before the relevant deadlines is not optional. Failure to do so will result in a grade of 0 for your assignment. The late penalties describe in this syllabus will apply.

Details of the written assignments

Short Written Assignments

You are asked to submit at least four written assignments that consist of a one page (single space) reflexion on the REQUIRED READINGS for the week. Please note the following:

  • Each assignment will be worth 10% of your final mark. 
  • The deadline to submit your written assignment through Quercus is 2:59PM the day of the lecture. Failure to do so will result in a grade of 0.
  • Two (2) of these assignments are due on or before March 1.
  • Please note that the departmental policy of 10% per day per late assignment does not apply in the case of the short written assignments. 

To clarify

  • Neither the videos nor the suggested readings are to be covered in this assignment.
  • You must cover the readings that will be discussed in the following class. For example, on October 4th (or before) you must submit a written assignment based on the readings to be discussed in class on October 4th, not the readings discussed in the previous lecture.
  • The point here is not to summarize the readings, but to identify the main theme(s) and how some of the readings complement or contradict each other. You do not need to cover all the required readings.
  • You can refer to the author’s last name only (e.g., “Diamond” for Jared Diamond)
  • You do not need to include a bibliography as your professor already knows the readings.
  • Each assignment will be graded out of 10. Your four best marks will be compiled to determine 40% of your final grade.
  • You can write up and submit up to 11 short written assignments.

Two good assignments written by past students have been included in the “Modules” of the Quercus shell for this course. Please consider them “best practice” and models to emulate.

Written assignment #1 (10% of your final mark)
Please choose your topic for this assignment carefully as it will apply to all your written assignments this semester. [Hint: I strongly encourage you to look at the relevant required readings for each potential subject so that you select the one that is of greatest interest to you.]

Write a 2-3 page reflection on ONE of the following questions. The choice is yours. Please use the relevant required readings of the lectures listed in parenthesis as a basis for your reflection. Cite these relevant readings in your paper. You may cite additional sources if you want to, but this is not required for this assignment.


  • What is the sail cargo movement about, both technically and philosophically? Do you think it is a real alternative to current practices (discuss some technical issues) or forever limited to niche markets at best (and if so, which ones)?  (Lectures 2-3)

  • What is “democratic socialism” and why has it been in the news in recent time? Is it something different than other forms of socialism that existed before and is it likely to deliver on the promises of its proponents? (Lectures 4-5)

  • What is “cultural appropriation” and why has it been in the news these last few years? Do you think the concept is valid and should inform public policy? (Lecture 6)

  • Do you think the food service provider at the University of Toronto Mississauga should promote and increase the volume of fair trade food products sold on campus? (Lectures 8-10)

In short, what your professor wants to know is 1) what is the topic about (i.e., define the concept and summarize the relevant controversy if applicable)? 2) What do you think of the debate/controversy on this topic based on your preliminary readings?


  • Text should be written in full sentences and paragraphs organized in a clear and coherent fashion.
  • The reflection should be written from a first-person perspective (i.e., you can use “I”, “me”, and “my” in this assignment).
  • Text should be 11-12 point font and 1.5-2.0 line spacing on all pages. If applicable, block quotes and bibliography should use 1.0 line spacing.
  • Pages should have regular 1 inch (2.54 cm) margins.

Due: Tuesday, February 1st @ 2:59PM (lecture 4) via Quercus

Written assignment #2 (20% of your final mark)
The goal of this assignment is to write a document similar to the “In Brief” notes produced by the Library of Parliament’s Information and Research Service (Ottawa).

Here are links to a few “In Brief” notes:

As specified on the Library of Parliament’s website, their publications aim to “provide analysis to parliamentarians, parliamentary committees and parliamentary associations on current and emerging key issues, legislation and major public policy topics. The publications provide non-partisan, reliable and timely information on subjects that are relevant to parliamentary and constituency work (my emphasis).”

Your goal is to follow the spirit of these “In Brief” notes and produce a short document for busy people that presents all aspects of a particular problem in a non-partisan way. You must present and define the issue or problem, provide some background or context, explain why it is important and list all arguments for and against the problem or issue discussed. You can use bullet points, graphs or maps, but each claim or piece of evidence must be supported through an endnote.


  • Cover page. Must include subject title, first and last name, student number, course number, year and the exact wording of the question you are answering in your assignment;
  • Table of contents, including page number for each section;
  • Between 6 and 9 pages of text, excluding cover page, table of contents and endnotes;
  • Text should be 11-12 point font; 1.0 line spacing on all pages, including cover page, block quotes, and endnotes;
  • Pages should have regular 1.0 inch margins and be numbered;
  • Reference/Citation style: ENDNOTES. Format of your choice, but you must be consistent.

Due: Tuesday, April 5 @ 2:59PM via Quercus

Written assignment #3 (10% of your final mark)
An op-ed (originally short for “opposite the editorial page”) is a written prose piece which presents a specific opinion as opposed to a balanced perspective.

Your task in assignment #3 is to your write your own commentary on the question you have researched in assignments 1 and 2. Present and support your one-sided position with ideas and facts learned while researching your previous assignments and in other lectures and readings during the semester. In the old days of printed newspapers citations and references were not expected in an op-ed. Nowadays, editors typically ask for hyperlinks. Please use them to provide links to the original documents your are quoting or using numbers from. Limit your use of hyperlink to one word or number. For instance, use the link for an author’s name rather than a full quote.

Your op-ed should be between 650-750 words, excluding your name, course number and student number. This assignment does not require a cover page, but it requires you to write the word count of your piece at the end of your assignments (e.g., word count: 673 words.)

Keep in mind that your audience is the general reading public, meaning people who are likely not familiar with your topic and who may not have had a post-secondary education. You must therefore draw their interest by using a catchy title and, ideally, a “hook” at the beginning of your story (e.g., “poachers have killed government officials in a nature preserve”; “ruins of a gigantic city have been discovered in the Amazon”). Explain your position using simple language, do your best to persuade and do not simply make assertions (e.g., “every expert agrees with me”).

Keep in mind that your word count is low and that you might have to use only your BEST arguments, not all the arguments that support your position.

The University of Toronto offers the following guidelines to write an effective op-ed piece:

  • Focus on one main idea or a single theme in your op-ed.
  • Have a clear editorial viewpoint. State that point in your first paragraph, and then proceed to back up your opinion or prove your thesis.
  • Look for opportunities to wed your specific area of expertise or interest with news developments.
  • If you can, be controversial in your opinion.
  • Always write for the lay reader. Be clear and straightforward. Use simple words, short declarative sentences. Even the brainiest of readers will lose interest if your submission is replete with long, complex sentences and paragraphs.
  • Make your submission as argumentative as possible. It should not appear driven by anger and it should follow methodological reasoning.
  • Express a strong call to action. Write with passion and “fire in your gut.”
  • Take pains to educate the reader with your insight, but don’t condescend or preach.

See also the op-ed guidelines of Carleton College.

Op-ed links: New York Times op-ed page

Due: Tuesday, April 5 @ 2:59PM via Quercus

Final Exam

The final exam will be written during the final exam period assigned for this course and is worth 20% of your final mark. It will use an open book format. You will have three (3) hours to answer one (1) or two (2) questions selected by your professor out of up to four (4)) themes communicated in advance through Quercus. More detail will be given towards the end of the semester.

Themes for the final exam will be communicated to students through Quercus.

Masking in Classrooms – until UofT instructs otherwise

Like the other divisions at U of T, UTM will require masking while on campus. 

Students and instructors may remove their masks in order to take quick sips of water during classes but must replace the mask immediately between sips.

All student masking accommodations will be handled through UTM Accessibility. See the attached Classroom management PDF for more information.

Masks are available for sale in vending machines in the Davis Building and other locations.

Student Technology Requirements and Connection Tools (Zoom, Bb Collaborate)

Students are expected to review and be in compliance with the University’s requirements for online learning (https://www.viceprovoststudents.utoronto.ca/tech-requirements-online-learning/). More resources are available on the UTM Library’s Learn Anywhere website (https://utm.library.utoronto.ca/students/quercus/learn-anywhere).

Zoom will be used in the delivery of components of this course. Students are required to register for a UTM Zoom account (https://utoronto.zoom.us) prior to the first lecture. Only authenticated users can join the zoom meetings; please follow the instructions to ensure that your account is authenticated.

Privacy and Use of Course Materials Notifications

Notice of video recording and sharing (Download and re-use prohibited)

This course, including your participation, will be recorded on video and will be available to students in the course for viewing remotely and after each session. Course videos and materials belong to your instructor, the University, and/or other sources depending on the specific facts of each situation, and are protected by copyright. Do not download, copy, or share any course or student materials or videos without the explicit permission of the instructor. For questions about recording and use of videos in which you appear please contact your instructor.

Communications Policy

Students are encouraged to avail of the posted office hour(s). Correspondence by email or requesting a meeting outside of the scheduled office hour(s) is also acceptable. In all email correspondence regarding this course, please note the following:

  1. Always use your University of Toronto email address (…@mail.utoronto.ca) for all course-related communications.
  2. Include the course code (e.g., ENV100Y5Y) as part of your subject line, and include your full name and student number in the body of the email
  3. Check the course Quercus site before emailing a question, to make sure that it has not already been answered

Please contact the department’s Academic Counsellor, Sabrina Ferrari (sabrina.ferrari@utoronto.ca), for any department- or program-related queries or to submit documentation regarding a missed quiz or test.

Snow days

If a snow day is declared, all classes are cancelled, whether online or in-person. Campus closures are posted on the Campus Status page.

Instructors may not schedule additional “make-up” class meetings beyond the class hours already in the UTM Timetable.

Missed Term Work

Late assignments will be subject to a late penalty of 10% per day (including weekends) of the total marks for the assignment. Assignments submitted five calendar days beyond the due date will be assigned a grade of zero.

Term Work – Accommodations

  1. Accommodations due to late registration into the course will NOT be approved.
  2. In courses with final exams, there will be no re-writes or make-ups for term tests/quizzes missed for University-accepted, verifiable reasons. Instead, the final exam will be re-weighted by the value of the term test/quiz.
  3. For in-class or online quiz/test, students CANNOT petition to re-write a quiz/test once it has begun. If you are feeling ill, please do not start the online or in-class test and seek medical attention immediately.
  4. For extension requests, maximum extension (where/when possible) is ONE week.
  5. Extension requests must be made IN ADVANCE of the assignment due date.
  6. Assignments handed in AFTER the work has been returned to the class cannot be marked for credit.
  7. Students are responsible in ensuring strong reliable internet connection. Special consideration requests due to poor internet connection (ie. unable to complete online quiz / unable to submit assignment before deadline) will not be accepted.
  8. Students are expected to back up their work at all times. As such, extension requests due to computer issues (stolen, crashed, damaged etc.) will not be considered.
  9. Extension requests will NOT be approved for Group Assignments
  10. It is every student’s responsibility to ensure that their online submission is submitted successfully by the due date. Accommodations will not be made for unsuccessful submissions due to, but not limited to: i) the system timing out ii) submitting the incorrect document(s) iii) poor internet connection / no internet connection etc.
  11. Holidays and pre-purchased plane tickets, family plans, your friend’s wedding, lack of preparation, or too many other tests/assignments are not acceptable excuses for missing a quiz, a test, an item of term work, or requesting an extension of time.
  12. For extensions of time beyond the examination period you must submit a petition through the Office of the Registrar. https://www.utm.utoronto.ca/registrar/forms

How to Request an Accommodation

In the Geography, Geomatics and Environment department, professors cannot grant extensions on term work or allow makeups for missed items. Instead, you must follow the following steps:

  1. You must submit an online Special Consideration Request using the following link: https://utmapp.utm.utoronto.ca/SpecialRequest within 24 hours. Note: The system only supports Microsoft Internet Explorer and Firefox for the time being.
  2. Email your course instructor.
  3. Submit your absence using the ACORN absence declaration tool. Each day that you are absent must be recorded. The ACORN absence declaration tool lets you record absences for up to 14 consecutive days, one of which must be the day you access the tool (if you are still absent) or the day prior (if you have returned). If you need to record an absence outside of this range, please contact the Office of the Registrar. More information about Absence Declarations can be found at: https://www.utm.utoronto.ca/registrar/utm-absence.

Please note that students are required to submit their assignment/lab as soon as they are able and they should NOT wait for the decision of the committee

It is your responsibility to follow the appropriate procedures and submit requests for special consideration on time. Failure to do so may result in the committee denying your request. Should you require further information regarding Special Considerations, please contact Sabrina Ferrari (sabrina.ferrari@utoronto.ca) Academic Counselor.

Please note that the written explanation and documentation that you submit represents an appeal from you, requesting the opportunity to account for that portion of your grade in some other manner. If a special consideration request is not received, or if the special consideration request is denied, you will receive a grade of zero for the item you missed. If the special consideration request is granted – that is, your reason for missing the item is considered acceptable by the committee – your grade will be accommodated accordingly.

A Departmental committee evaluates each request. Decisions will be communicated by email within two weeks of receipt of all completed documents. Note: It is your responsibility to ensure your email account is working and able to receive emails.  Claims that a Departmental decision was not received will NOT be considered as a reason for further consideration. Contact Sabrina Ferrari (sabrina.ferrari@utoronto.ca) Academic Counselor, should you NOT receive notification of your decision within 2 weeks of submission.

The University of Toronto is committed to equity and respect for diversity. All members of the learning environment in this course should strive to create an atmosphere of mutual respect. As a course instructor, I will neither condone nor tolerate behaviour that undermines the dignity or self-esteem of any individual in this course and wish to be alerted to any attempt to create an intimidating or hostile environment. It is our collective responsibility to create a space that is inclusive and welcomes discussion. Discrimination, harassment and hate speech will not be tolerated. If you have any questions, comments, or concerns you may contact the UTM Equity and Diversity officer at edo.utm@utoronto.ca or the University of Toronto Mississauga Students’ Union Vice President Equity at vpequity@utmsu.ca.

Academic Rights

You, as a student at UTM, have the right to:

  • Receive a syllabus by the first day of class.
  • Rely upon a syllabus once a course is started. An instructor may only change marks’ assignments by following the University Assessment and Grading Practices Policy provision 1.3.
  • Refuse to use turnitin.com (you must be offered an alternative form of submission).
  • Have access to your instructor for consultation during a course or follow up with the department chair if the instructor is unavailable.
  • Ask the person who marked your term work for a re-evaluation if you feel it was not fairly graded. You have up to one month from the date of return of the item to inquire about the mark. If you are not satisfied with a re-evaluation, you may appeal to the instructor in charge of the course if the instructor did not mark the work. If your work is remarked, you must accept the resulting mark. You may only appeal a mark beyond the instructor if the term work was worth at least 20% of the course mark.
  • Receive at least one significant mark (15% for H courses, 25% for Y courses) before the last day you can drop a course for H courses, and the last day of classes in the first week of January for Y courses taught in the Fall/Winter terms.
  • Submit handwritten essays so long as they are neatly written.
  • Have no assignment worth 100% of your final grade.
  • Not have a term test worth 25% or more in the last two weeks of class.
  • Retain intellectual property rights to your research.
  • Receive all your assignments once graded.
  • View your final exams. To see a final exam, you must submit an online Exam Reproduction Request within 6 months of the exam. There is a small non-refundable fee.
  • Privacy of your final grades.
  • Arrange for representation from Downtown Legal Services (DLS), a representative from the UTM Students’ Union (UTMSU), and/or other forms of support if you are charged with an academic offence.

It is your responsibility as a student at the University of Toronto to familiarize yourself with, and adhere to, both the Code of Student Conduct and the Code of Behaviour on Academic Matters.

This means, first and foremost, that you should read them carefully.

  • The Code of Student Conduct is available from the U of T Mississauga website (Registrar > Academic Calendar > Codes and Policies) or in your print version of the Academic Calendar.
  • The Code of Behaviour on Academic Matters is available from the U of T Mississauga website (Registrar > Academic Calendar > Codes and Policies) or in your print version of the Academic Calendar.

Another helpful document that you should read is How Not to Plagiarize, by M. Proctor.

With regard to remote learning and online courses, UTM wishes to remind students that they are expected to adhere to the Code of Behaviour on Academic Matters regardless of the course delivery method. By offering students the opportunity to learn remotely, UTM expects that students will maintain the same academic honesty and integrity that they would in a classroom setting. Potential academic offences in a digital context include, but are not limited to:

  • Accessing unauthorized resources (search engines, chat rooms, Reddit, etc.) for assessments.
  • Using technological aids (e.g. software) beyond what is listed as permitted in an assessment.
  • Posting test, essay, or exam questions to message boards or social media.
  • Creating, accessing, and sharing assessment questions and answers in virtual “course groups.”
  • Working collaboratively, in-person or online, with others on assessments that are expected to be completed individually.

All suspected cases of academic dishonesty will be investigated following procedures outlined in the Code of Behaviour on Academic Matters. If you have questions or concerns about what constitutes appropriate academic behaviour or appropriate research and citation methods, you are expected to seek out additional information on academic integrity from your instructor or from other institutional resources.

University Plagiarism Detection Tool Conditions of Use Statement

“Normally, students will be required to submit their course essays to the University’s plagiarism detection tool for a review of textual similarity and detection of possible plagiarism. In doing so, students will allow their essays to be included as source documents in the tool’s reference database, where they will be used solely for the purpose of detecting plagiarism. The terms that apply to the University’s use of this tool are described on the Centre for Teaching Support & Innovation web site (https://uoft.me/pdt-faq).”

How to Query or Challenge a Mark

Please note that, according to UTM policy, you have one month from the date an item is returned to you, during which time you may query the mark or submit the item for remarking. Contact the Course Instructor in person or by email (@utoronto.ca) for all queries about course marks, or if you wish to challenge a mark. Absolutely no item will be remarked after the one-month period has passed.

Material submitted for remarking must be accompanied by a brief written explanation detailing your reasons for dissatisfaction with the original mark (such as an addition error, or something you think the marker may have missed). The item may be returned first to the TA who originally marked it. If you are still dissatisfied, it may be passed on to the Course Instructor for reconsideration. If a remarking is granted by an instructor, the student must accept the resulting mark as the new mark, whether it goes up or down or remains the same.

U of T Mississauga and the AccessAbility Resource Centre are committed to the full participation of students with disabilities in all aspects of campus life. The AccessAbility Resource Centre provides academic accommodations and services to students who have a physical, sensory, or learning disability, mental health condition, acquired brain injury, or chronic health condition, be it visible or hidden. Students who have temporary disabilities (e.g., broken dominant arm) are also eligible to receive services. All interested students must have an intake interview with an advisor to discuss their individual needs.

Students who require accommodation are advised to visit the AccessAbility Resource Centre as early as possible to have their needs assessed, as it may take some time to process the application.

For more information please contact the centre at:
Room 2047, South Bldg.
Tel/TTY: 905-569-4699
E-mail: access.utm@utoronto.ca
Web: www.utm.utoronto.ca/access

As noted in the the Policy on Scheduling of Classes and Examinations and Other Accommodations for Religious Observances, the following provisions are included:
  • It is the policy of the University of Toronto to arrange reasonable accommodation of the needs of students who observe religious holy days other than those already accommodated by ordinary scheduling and statutory holidays.
  • Students have a responsibility to alert members of the teaching staff in a timely fashion to upcoming religious observances and anticipated absences. Instructors will make every reasonable effort to avoid scheduling tests, examinations or other compulsory activities at these times. If compulsory activities are unavoidable, every reasonable opportunity should be given to these students to make up work that they miss, particularly in courses involving laboratory work. When the scheduling of tests or examinations cannot be avoided, students should be informed of the procedure to be followed to arrange to write at an alternate time.
  • It is most important that no student be seriously disadvantaged because of her or his religious observances. However, in the scheduling of academic and other activities, it is also important to ensure that the accommodation of one group does not seriously disadvantage other groups within the University community.”
  • With respect to minimum advance notice, the Policy provides that “Students have a responsibility to alert members of the teaching staff in a timely fashion to upcoming religious observances and anticipated absences.” Since students would normally be aware of upcoming religious observances as well as examination schedules in advance, a minimum of three weeks advance notice will be considered sufficient.
  • More information and some dates of potential relevance for the U of T community are available at viceprovoststudents.utoronto.ca/publicationsandpolicies/guidelines/religiousobservances.htm.
  • As with any academic accommodation request, students must submit an on-line Special Consideration Request @ https://utmapp.utm.utoronto.ca/SpecialRequest

RGASC Statement

The Robert Gillespie Academic Skills Centre (RGASC) is located in Room 3251 on the third floor of the Maanjiwe nendamowinan Building. The RGASC offers individual consultations, workshops (many CCR-accredited), and a wide range of programs to help students identify and develop the academic skills they need for success in their studies. Much of their programming has shifted online while their physical office is closed to help prevent the spread of COVID-19. Visit the RGASC website to explore their online resources, book an online appointment, or learn about other programming such as Writing Retreats, the Program for Accessing Research Training (PART), Mathematics and Numeracy Support, and dedicated resources for English Language Learners.

UTM Library’s Statement

UTM Library – The University of Toronto Library provides access to a vast collection of online and print resources to faculty, staff, and students and is the largest academic library in Canada. The UTM Library offers Reference and Research Help virtually, through chat, Zoom, and individual research consultations, to help students navigate library databases, find relevant articles for their research, and cite correctly. The Library Workshops and Events help students learn about the search techniques and specialized software, needed to be successful in their academic journey. For more information, visit https://library.utm.utoronto.ca/.

Suggested Web sites

General Interest

Suggested sources on
Environment and the roots of globalization
Food and globalization

Economist Douglas Irwin’s Trade Related Links

Popular Globalization Books (GoodReads)

Best Books about Globalization (Amazon) 

World Trade Organization

UNCTAD (United Nations Conference on Trade and Development)
Digital Library
on Globalization and Development
on International Trade

Writer Michael Magoon’s top authors to read.” Top Authors to Read – The Ratchet of Technology (techratchet.com)

Sources of Global Data

> Gateways to numerous governmental, UN and other agencies and NGO data sources

UN Human Development Reports (International Human Development Indicators)

UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs
Population Division
Sustainable Development
Social Policy and Development Division

Sources of Global Data on The Globalization Website
Links with the statistical Webpages of all the major organizations, from the UN to the CIA. An easy way to find all sorts of statistics on economic growth, the environment, inequalities, women, religious movements, health, culture and other issues.

NationMaster is a fun site for quick statistics on countries.

Researching Globalization on Global Transformations
Presents a number of indicators that can be used to measure various phenomenons.

World Development Indicators (World Bank)

FAO (Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations)

Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) – The World Factbook

International Monetary Fund (IMF) – World Outlook Database

Our World in Data

Human Progress 

> Comparative Work

Economic Freedom Network + 2013 Index of Economic Freedom
Two attempts to measure economic freedom in a large number of countries with much factual information about each country. Essential information if you want to know if a country is more or less open to trade than another.

The Corruption Perception Index + The Global Corruption Report
How corrupt is your country? How does it compare to others?

World Bank’s Doing Business (DB) survey

> Topical

Global Trade Policy Forum | Chatham House – International Affairs Think Tank


Great circle mapper

Human Development Reports of the United Nations Development Program

Human Progress 

International Maritime Organization

SICE – Foreign Trade Information System (Organization of American States)
Several essays on technical issues dealing with trade relations between countries in the Americas.

The University of Texas Inequality Project
The UTIP is concerned with measuring and explaining movements of inequality in wages and earnings and patterns of industrial changes around the world.

The Global Poverty Mapping Project

Gapminder : A Fact-Based Worldview 

World Mapper 

Connectivity Atlas

Lecture 1 (Jan. 11): Introduction and Concepts
Lecture 2 (Jan. 18): Transportation 1
Lecture 3 (Jan. 25): Transportation 2
Lecture 4 (Feb. 1): The Battle of Ideas 1
Lecture 5 (Feb. 8): The Battle of Ideas 2
Lecture 6: (Feb. 15): Globalization and Culture
Reading Week (Feb. 22 )
Lecture 7 (Mar. 1): Market Liberalization, Sweatshops, Child Labor and Fair Trade 1
Lecture 8 (Mar. 8): Market Liberalization, Sweatshops, Child Labor and Fair Trade 2
Lecture 9 (Mar. 15): Market Liberalization, Sweatshops, Child Labor and Fair Trade 3
Lecture 10 (Mar. 22): Global Institutions, Foreign Aid and the Environment 1
Lecture 11 (Mar. 29): Global Institutions, Foreign Aid and the Environment 2
Lecture 12 (Apr. 5): Global Institutions, Foreign Aid and the Environment 3


American Museum of Natural History. 2016. “Human Population through Time.” 

Boudreaux, Don. 2014. “The Hockey Stick of Human Prosperity.” MR University: Every Day Economics. 

Hans Rosling’s 200 Countries, 200 Years, 4 Minutes – The Joy of Stats – BBC Four

Carden, Art. 2013. “Specialization and Trade: Because We Can’t Be Good At Everything.” LearnLiberty.org.

Marginal Revolution University. 2012. Principles of Economics – Microeconomics : Arguments against International Trade

Human Progress. 2021. Ten Global Trends Every Smart Person Should Know – YouTube.


Concepts and Overview
Library of Congress Business Reference Services. Business & Economics Research Advisor (2012/2004)
Defining Globalization
History of Globalization
Elements of Globalization
Trends in Globalization

Roser, Max. 2016. “Proof that Life is Getting Better for Humanity, in 5 Charts.” Vox (December 23).

Hammond, Alexander C. R. 2017. “The World’s Poorest People Are Getting Richer Faster.” @HumanProgress (October 27).

Burkeman, Oliver. 2017. “Is the World Really Better than Ever?The Guardian (July 28). 

Historical Perspective
Sanandaji, Nima. 2018. “Markets are as Old as Civilization. The market system was born in Iraq and Syria, not invented by Adam Smith.” @HumanProgress (May 16). 

Ebeling, Richard M. 2004. “The Company of Strangers: A Natural History of Economic Life by Paul Seabright.” The Freeman – Ideas on Liberty, September 1st.

Broadberry, Stephen. 2013. “Accounting for the Great Divergence.” Vox (November 16).

Irwin, Douglas A. 2001. “A Brief History of International Trade Policy.” The Library of Economics and Liberty, November 26.

For Free(r) Trade
Ikenson, Daniel. 2014. “Enduring Myths that Obscure the Case for Free Trade.” Cato at Liberty (December 1). 

Murray, Ian. 2018. “The Case for Free Trade Restated.” Fee.org (August 20).

Boudreaux, Don. 2020. “Adam Smith’s Alleged “Exceptions” to a Policy of Unilateral Free Trade.” AIER (March 9).

Boudreaux, Don. 2020. “Free Trade in Ten Easy Points.” AIER (February 24).

Gregg, Samuel. 2020. “How Economic Nationalism Hurts Nations.” Law and Liberty (January 6).

Henderson, David. 2021. (Hoover Institution)

Against Free(r) Trade
Fletcher, Ian. 2011. “The Theory That’s Killing America’s Economy – and Why It’s Wrong.” Huffington Post (April 7).

Fletcher, Ian. 2016 (updated). “Five Years Later, Free Trade Still Doesn’t Work.” Huffington Post (November 17).

Cass, Oren. 2020. “Comparative Disadvantage.” Law and Liberty (January 15).

In Practice (Case studies)
Steelman, Jacob D. 2003. “Protectionism Didn’t Help Copper.” Ludwig von Mises Institute, August 9.

Dunaeva, Aleksandra, and Don Mathews. 2007. “How the Shrimp Tariff Backfired.” Ludwig von Mises Institute, August 1st.


On Wikipedia: “Trade” and “History of international trade.”

Blinder, Alan S. “Free Trade.” The Concise Encyclopedia of Economics.

Kling, Arnold. 2016. Specialization and Trade. A Re-Introduction to Economics. Cato Institute.

Bhagwati, Jagdish. “Protectionism.” The Concise Encyclopedia of Economics.

LaHaye, Laura. “Mercantilism.” The Concise Encyclopedia of Economics.

Findlay, Ronald, and Kevin H. O’Rourke. 2008. “Lessons From the History of Trade and War. ” vox (10 March).

Rockwell, Llewellyn H. 2003. “Mercantilism, USA” Ludwig von Mises Institute (July 26).

Irwin, Douglas A. 2008. “International Trade Agreements.” The Concise Encyclopedia of Economics.

Murphy, Jon. 2022. “Does National Security Justify Tariffs?” Econlib (May 7).

Historical Perspective
My GGR 329 Geography and the Roots of Globalization course webpage contains several links to the pre- and more recent history of globalization.

Cave, Christine. Undated. “Think Everyone Died Young in Ancient Societies? Think Again.” Aeon.

Chanda, Nayan. 2002. “Coming Together: Globalization Means Reconnecting the Human Community.” YaleGlobal (November 19).

Overview (Present Time)
Maxmen, Amy. 2016. “The Myth Buster: Hans Rosling is on a Mission to Save the World from Preconceived Ideas.” Nature 540 (7633) : 330-333.

Jerven, Morton. 2015. “Misunderstanding Growth in Africa: How Economists get it Wrong.” African Arguments (June 9).

Horwitz, Steven. 2013. “The Calling: In Defense of Complex, Global, Fast Living.” Future of Freedom Foundation. 

Perry, Mark. 2014. “It’s the Greatest Achievement in Human History, and One you Probably never Heard About.” Carpe Diem Blog (AEI) (November 3). 

Hickel, Jason. 2014. “Exposing the Great ‘Poverty Reduction’ Lie. The UN claims that its Millennium Development Campaign has reduced poverty globally, but some measures show it is worse.” Al Jazeera (August 21).

Roser, Max. 2017. “No Matter what Extreme Poverty Line you Choose, the Share of People Below that Poverty Line has Declined Globally.” Our World in Data – Blog (April 5).

Oxfam International. 2017. “Just 8 Men Own Same wealth as Half the World.” (January 16).

Lomborg, Bjørn. 2017. “Oxfam’s Upside Down Inequality Study.” USA Today (January 17).

Hughes, Charles. 2017. “We’re Seeing Massive Reductions in Global Poverty. Today, one person escapes extreme poverty every second.” Fee.org (June 19).

Follett, Chelsea. 2017. “5 Charts That Will Shift Your Perspective on Poverty. Is the end of poverty in sight?” Fee.org (March 21).

DeGregori, Thomas R. 2005. “Quietly, Invisibly, Ominously Getting Healthier and Healthier.” HealthFactsAndFears.com (September 30).

Cohen, Patricia. 2011. “Technology Advances; Human Supersize.” The New York Times (April 26).

Kolata, Gina. 2006. “So Big and Healthy Grandpa Wouldn’t Even Know You.” The New York Times (July 30).

Rector, Robert and Rachel Sheffield. 2011. Air Conditioning, Cable TV, and an Xbox: What Is Poverty in the United States Today? Backgrounder #2575, Heritage Foundation (Executive Summary).

Maxim Pinkovskiy and Xavier Sala-i-Martin. 2010. “African Poverty is Falling… Much Faster than You Think.” Vox (December 6).

McMahon, Fred. 2018. “As the World Shifted to Free Markets, Poverty Rates Plummeted.” Fraser Forum (November 13).

Hughes, Charles. 2017. “We’re Seeing Massive Reductions in Global Poverty. Today, one person escapes extreme poverty every second.” Fee.org (June 19).

Follett, Chelsea. 2017. “5 Charts That Will Shift Your Perspective on Poverty. Is the end of poverty in sight?” Fee.org (March 21).

DeGregori, Thomas R. 2005. “Quietly, Invisibly, Ominously Getting Healthier and Healthier.” HealthFactsAndFears.com (September 30).

Cohen, Patricia. 2011. “Technology Advances; Human Supersize.” The New York Times (April 26).

Kolata, Gina. 2006. “So Big and Healthy Grandpa Wouldn’t Even Know You.” The New York Times (July 30).

Rector, Robert and Rachel Sheffield. 2011. Air Conditioning, Cable TV, and an Xbox: What Is Poverty in the United States Today? Backgrounder #2575, Heritage Foundation (Executive Summary).

Maxim Pinkovskiy and Xavier Sala-i-Martin. 2010. “African Poverty is Falling… Much Faster than You Think.” Vox (December 6).

McMahon, Fred. 2018. “As the World Shifted to Free Markets, Poverty Rates Plummeted.” Fraser Forum (November 13).

For Free(r) Trade
Mitchell, Dan. 2018. “7 Reasons to Support Free Trade. The bottom line is that Trump’s protectionism is bad policy. And risky policy.” Fee.org (September 26).

Boudreaux, Don. 2020. “Twelve Principles of International Trade.” American Institute for Economic Research
Part 4 (January 13, 2021)
Part 3 (December 28, 2020)
Part 2 (December 8, 2020)
Part 1 (December 3, 2020)

Williamson, Kevin. 2021. “Economic Nationalism 2.0.” (February 4).

Hammond, Alexander C.R. 2021. “Africa Tries Free Trade. Liberal ideas are beginning to gain traction on the world’s poorest continent.” Reason (April).

Boyer, Marcel. 2020. “Free Trade and Economic Policies: A Critique of Empirical Reason (The Working Paper Version).” CIRANO Cahier scientifique 2020S-56.

Against Free(r) Trade
Philipsen, Dirk. 2020. “Economics for the People.” Aeon (October 22).

Economic Helps. 2016. “Arguments against Free Trade.”

Culbertson, John M. 1986. “The Folly of Free Trade.” Harvard Business Review (September).

Regaining Our Balance – American Compass.


The Global Policy Forum on Globalization

The Global Transformations website

Marginal Revolution (MR) University on international trade 

American Compass | The New Conservative Flagship


Historical perspective
Around the World in 80 Day (1956 trailer)

USDA, Resettlement Administration. 1937. “Loading Cotton Bales On Steam Boat.” 

Ol’ Man River” from Showboat (1936) sung by Paul Robeson (A 20th Century classic hinting at what the logistics industry looked like in the late 19th Century.)

Song of the Volga Boatmen (Leonid Kharitonov and The Red Army Choir).

Bloomberg Quicktakes. 2019. “The Undersea Cable That Linked The World.” (April 16).

Modern logistics industry
Learn Liberty. 2017. The Most Important Invention you Never Thought About

UPS. 2011. We Love Logistics.

Financial Times. 2013. “Container Shipping. The World in a Box.”

Port of Long Beach. 2010. “Pulse of the Port: Refrigerated Containers.”

FleetMonCom. 2016. “Global ship traffic seen from space – FleetMon Satellite AIS and FleetMon Explorer.”

PolyMatter. 2018. “How Container Ships Work.”

Maersk. 2021. “Round-the-clock operation to deliver pineapples.” (September 24).

Vox. 2018. “China’s Trillion Dollar Plan to Dominate Global Trade.” 

Decosse, Ben. 2017. “Cargo under Sail.” TedX (December 20).

Vice News. 2017. “The Shipping Industry May Finally Be Turning To Wind Power (HBO).” (October 11).

Routley, Nick. 2019. “Wired World: 35 Years of Submarine Cables in One Map.” Visual Capitalist (December 2).

Powell, Ben. 2011. “Top Three Myths about Immigration.” LearnLiberty.org.

Powell, Ben. 2015. “Should We Let Them All In? How Immigration Helps the Economy.” LearnLiberty.org.



– History (Infrastructure and Goods)

Follett, Chelsea. 2020. “Centers of Progress, Pt. 9: Rome (Roads).” HumanProgress.org (August 13).

Staff Writer. Undated. “Inca Roads and Chasquis.” Discover Peru.

Medieval Trade Route Networks.”

Ruppenthal, Karl. M. 2015 (revised). “Transportation.” Canadian Encyclopedia

Rodrigue, Jean-Paul. 2013. The Geography of Transport Systems (5th edition) Routledge.
Chapter 1: Transportation and Geography

– Modern Logistics Industry
o Overview

Rodrigue, Jean-Paul. 2013. The Geography of Transport Systems (5th edition) Routledge.
Chapter 1: Transportation and Geography

Chapter 5 – Transportation Modes

World Shipping Council
About the Industry (browse)
Glossary of Industry Terms (browse)
History of Containerization
  * Before Container Shipping
  * The Birth of Intermodalism
  * Industry Globalization

Rentz, Michael. 2021. “The Supply Chain’s Inconvenient Truth.” Law and Liberty (December 6).

o History of container shipping

Gateway Container. Undated. “A Brief History of Shipping Containers.”

Hammond, Alexander C. 2019. “Heroes of Progress, Pt. 17: Malcom McLean.” HumanProgress.org (May 3).

Cudahy, Brian J. 2006. “The Containership Revolution. Malcom MacLean’s 1956 Innovation Goes Global.” TR News (The Transportation Research Board of the U.S. National Academies of Sciences) (September-October): 5-9.

Wang, Dan. 2016. “An Interview With Marc Levinson, Author of ‘The Box’.” Flexport Blog (March 29).

Hampstead, John Paul. 2017. “Panama Canal Expansion Pits East Coast vs. West Coast.” Freight Waves (November 13). 


o The cold chain

99% Invisible. 2015. “The Climate-Controlled Shipping Containers That Transport Our Food Are Called Reefers.” Slate (September 9).

Gill, Vijay. 2013. Fast and Fresh: A Recipe for Canada’s Food Supply Chain.s Conference Board of Canada (Executive Summary).

– Sail Cargo Movement
De Decker, Kris. 2021. “How to design a sailing ship for the 21st century?Low-tech Magazine (May).

De Beukaler, Christiann. 2018. “Plain Sailing: How traditional methods could deliver zero-emission shipping.” The Conversation (May 27).

Hurford, Hannah. 2020. Sail Cargo in the 21st Century.

New Dawn Traiders (Fair Trade by sail).

The Free Migration Debate

The History of Transportation

Powell, Ben. 2010. “An Economic Case for Immigration.” Library of Economics and Liberty (June 7). 

Yglesias, Matthew. 2017 (update). “Immigration Makes America Great. Current policy could be improved, but American progress depends on welcoming foreigners.” Vox (September 3).

Raviv, Shaun. 2013. “If People Could Immigrate Anywhere, Would Poverty Be Eliminated? Some Economists are Pushing for “Open Borders”.” The Atlantic (April 26).

Raviv, Shaun. 2014. “Why ‘Brain Drain’ Can Actually Benefit African Countries. A New Study Reveals that the Farther African Migrants Move, the More they Increase Exports in their Home Countries.” The Atlantic (February 11). 

Plants, Livestock and Diseases

Findlay, Ronald, and Kevin O’Rourke. 2006. “Mr Columbus’s Economic Bombshell.” BBC History, May, p. 41-43.

Price-Smith, Andrew. 2008. “Risky Trade: Infectious Disease in the Era of Global Trade.” Emerging Infectious Diseases 14 (10).


On Wikipedia.

Canadian Encyclopedia. “Transportation

Connors, Joseph, James D. Gwartney and Hugo M. Montesinos. 2020. “The Transportation?Communication Revolution: 50 Years of Dramatic Change in Economic Development.” Cato Journal (Winter).

Smil, Vaclav. 2010. Prime Movers of Globalization: The History and Impact of Diesel Engines and Gas Turbines. MIT Press.
Review by Nick Schulz, Wall Street Journal (December 1, 2010)
Review by Mark Reutter, Wilson Quarterly (Winter 2011)
Review by William Sjostrom, Eh.net (August 2012)

Lemieux, Pierre. 2021. “The Supply Chain Myth.” Econlog (November 18).

-Road and land infrastructure
On Wikipedia.

Encyclopedia Britannica. “Roads and Highways.”

Mr Pavement. 2015. “A Brief History of Asphalt.”

Hearfield, John. 2012. Roads in the 18th century.

Freightcourse. Undated.



-River and Maritime Transportation
o Historical Overview
On Wikipedia.

Marine Insight

Ancient Ports – Ports Antiques. “Ancient Merchant Ships.”

Lewandowski, Krzysztof. 2016. “Growth in the Size of Unit Loads and Shipping Containers from Antique to WWI.” Packaging Technology and Science 29 (8-9): 451-478.

Smil, Vaclav. 2018. “April 1838: Crossing the Atlantic.” IEEE Spectrum (April): 23. 

Historic England. 2016/2012. Ships and Boats 1840-1950. English Heritage.

Gordon, John Steele. 2014. “100 Years of the Panama Canal.” The American (August 15).

Editors (2020/2008). “Petroleum and Sea Power.” American Oil & Gas Historical Society.

Division of Naval Intelligence (US Navy). 1944. “Merchant Ship Shapes” US Government Printing Office.

Royal Museums Greenwich. 2012. “18th century sailing times between the English Channel and the Coast of America: How long did it take?” National Maritime Museum (November 8).

Anonymous. 1936. “Last Days of Sail. The twentieth century, with its remarkable scientific progress, its desire for speed and its overpowering economic forces, is now seeing the inevitable disappearance of the large sailing vessel.” Shipping Wonders of the World  Vol 2, part 28 (August 18).

o Cranes
Cargo-Partner. Undated. “History of Cranes

Freightcourse. Undated. “Port Cranes: Everything You Need to Know

Plant Planet. 2018. “A Brief History of Cranes

o Modern Cargo Shipping
– Overview


Marine Insight

Cruisemapper. 2017. “Largest Container Ships.” (March 16).

Freightcourse. Undated.

– Container shipping

Discover Containers. Undated.  Shipping Container History: Boxes to Buildings.

Desrochers, Pierre. Review of Marc Levinson’s The Box: How the Shipping Container Made the World Smaller and the World Economy Bigger (Princeton University Press, 2006), Independent Review, vol. 12, no. 1, (Summer 2007), pp. 146-149.

Candela, Rosolino, Peter Jacobsen and Kacey Reeves. 2020. Malcom McLean, Containerization and Entrepreneurship. SSRN.

Smil, Vaclav. 2019. “Electric Container Ships Are a Hard Sail.” IEEE Spectrum (March).

Nagurney, Anna. 2021. “Opinion: Container ships will keep getting bigger — even after the Ever Given becoming stuck in the Suez Canal.” Market Watch (April 5).

Corbett, James J. 2008. The Impacts of Globalisation on International Maritime Transport Activity. OECD and ITF.

Freightcourse. Undated.

o Ontario
Welland Canal

Rideau Canal

Trent-Severn Waterway

St. Lawrence Seaway

-The Sail Cargo Movement
Historical perspective and current context
Rotor Ship
– Turbosail
Windmill Ship

IMO 2020. Reduction of GHG Emissions from Ships. Fourth IMO GHG Study 2020 – Final report.

Peters, Adele. 2019. “Cargo Ships are Big Polluters. Can they go back to using sails?” Fast Company (July 17).

Melotti, Robert. 2018. “Trading under sail – could you make a living from transporting cargo on board?” PBO Magazine (February 21).

International Maritime Organization. Greenhouse Gas Emissions.

Anonymous. 2022. “Historic Sailing Ship to Start First North Sea Cargo Service.” The Maritime Executive (January 21).

Associated Press. 2018. “Sails make a comeback as shipping tries to go green. ‘Rotor sails’ can replace up to half a ship’s engine propulsion on a windy day, Norsepower says.” CBC (December 6).

Cutcher, Nicola. 2019. “Winds of Change: The sailing ships cleaning up sea transport.” The Guardian (October 23).

De Beukelaer, Christiaan (forthcoming). “Tack to the future: is wind propulsion an ecomodernist or degrowth way to decarbonise maritime cargo transport?” Climate Policy.

De Beukelaer, Christiaan. 2020. “Sail cargo: Charting a new path for emission-free shipping?” UNCTAD Transport and Trade Facilitation Newsletter N°88, article 65 (November 5).

Gibson, Mahonri. 2014. “Sail Freight Projects around the World.” Sailing Dog Sustainable Transportation.

Haller, Daniel. 2020. “Sail Cargo in the 21st Century.” Eco Clipper (June 9).

Jensen, Fred. 2015. “Updating the Sailing Cargo Ship.” Machine Design (February 12).

Peters, Adele. 2019 “Cargo ships are big polluters. can they go back to using sails?Fast Company (July 16).

Spross, Jeff. 2019. “Why cargo ships might (literally) sail the high seas again.” The Week (February 26).

Stone, Maddie. 2021. “The shipping industry faces a climate crisis reckoning – will it decarbonize?The Guardian (November 12).

Wetherall, Tyler. 2021. “Cargo shipping of yore returns to Hudson River Sailing vessel Schooner Apollonia delivers on dream of transporting goods by wind power.” Times-Union (April 22).

Willner, Andrew. 2021. “New age of sail looks to slash massive maritime carbon emissions.” Mongabay (March 15).

Woods, Steven. 2021. “Sail Freight Revival: Methods Of Calculating Fleet, Labor, And Cargo Needs For Supplying Cities By Sail.Prescott College (Capstone Project).

Trade association and corporations
International Windship Association


Sail Cargo Inc.



Classical (but bonified) approaches
Timperley, Jocelyn. 2020. “The futuristic cargo ship made of wood.” BBC (Future Planet) (November 17).

Trauthwein, Greg. 2021. “Sailing Cargo Ship ‘Ceiba’ Comes to Life in the ‘Jungle Shipyard’.” Marine Link Inc. (July 16).

Maritime Executive. 2021. “Large Sail Cargo Project Advances with Canadian Investment.” (November 12).

New designs and technologies
Taft, Molly. 2021. “Giant Kite Will Pull a Ship Across the Ocean Next Month.” Gizmodo (December 17).

Lewis, Nell. 2021. “Giant inflatable sails could make shipping greener.” CNN (October 4).

Gallucci, Maria. 2021. “Michelin Puts Puffy Sails on Cargo Ships. The move could boost a vessel’s fuel efficiency by 20 percent.” IEEE Spectrum (June).

Green Car Congress. 2021. Michelin to ship tires on sail-powered cargo ships (February 14).

Doyle, Alison. 2020.  “The Oceanbird: Swedish firm develops largest wind-driven cargo shop.” World Economic Forum (December 17).

Blain, Loz. 2020. “Oceanbird’s huge 80-meter sails reduce cargo shipping emissions by 90%.” New Atlas (September 14).

Kantharia, Raunek. 2019. “Top 7 Green Ship Concepts Using Wind Energy.” Marine Insight (October 7).

Bailey, Rob and and Laura Wellesley. 2017. Chokepoints and Vulnerabilities in Global Food Trade. Chatham House (Key Findings and Recommendations).

Rodrigue, Jean-Paul. 2013. The Geography of Transport Systems (5th edition) Routledge.
Chapter 11: Applications and Case Studies

-COVID 19 and transportation
Logistics Insights. 2020. “4 Big Logistics Challenges of COVID-19 – and How to Overcome Them.” (August 18).

IFC. 2020. The Impact of COVID-19 on Logistics. World Bank.

Kamall, Syad. 2020. Freight Expectations. Post-pandemic prospects for global trade. IEA.

Earle, Peter C. 2021. “An Armor Conspired: the Global Shipping Freeze.” American Institute for Economic Research (October 2).

Information and Communication

Intagliata, Christopher. 2018. “Drumming Beats Speech for Distant Communication.” Scientific American (April 25)

Conference Calls Unlimited. “The History of Communication Technology.”

Nam, Jong Kuk. 2016. “The Scarsella between the Mediterranean and the Atlantic in the 1400s.Mediterranean Review 9 (1): 53-75.

De Decker, Kris. 2007. « Email in the 18th Century: The optical telegraph.” Low-Tech Magazine.

Hearfield, Johh. The Chappe Semaphore Telegraph.

Madrigal, Alexis, C. 2010. “Before Underwater Internet Cables: The First Submarine Telegraph Line.” The Atlantic (November 30)

Witcher, T. R. 2020. “Perseverance pays off: The Transatlantic Telegraph Cable.” Civil Engineering Magazine (December 1)

Tranfield, M. Wynn. 2018. “Unspooling the Legacy of Submarine Cables.” DTTP  46 (3)

TeleGeography. “Submarine Cable Map.

Miller, Alex. 2019. “Satellite Communications: A brief history from Sputnik to ViaSat-3.” ViaSat (October 7)

The Free Migration Debate
Powell, Ben. 2013. “Immigration Reform — The Time for Free Trade.” Huffington Post (June 16).

Plants, Livestock and Diseases
Crosby, Alfred W. 2001. “The Columbian Exchange: Plants, Animals, and Disease between the Old and New Worlds.” National Humanities Center.

Tatem, A.J., D.J. Rogers and S.I. Hay. 2006. “Global Transport Networks and Infectious Disease Spread.” Advances in Parasitology 62: 293-343.

Nunn, Nathan and Nancy Qian. 2010. “The Columbian Exchange: A History of Diseases, Food and Ideas.” Journal of Economic Perspectives 24 (2): 163-188.


Transportation and Logistics
Rodrigue, Jean-Paul. 2020. The Geography of Transport Systems. The spatial organization of transportation and mobility. Routledge.

International Maritime Organization

International Labor Organization – Transport.

Wärtsilä Encyclopedia of Marine and Energy Technology

Chief Makoi – YouTube Channel.

International Transport Forum

One Ocean – Vessel Types Explained

Historical Perspective
Good Roads Movement

Mystic Seaport Museum. 19th Century American Merchant Marine Digital Library

Shipping Wonders of the World

Online Steamboat Museum

MeSEAum (Australia)
Tug boats

Modern logistics: Trade Associations and Industry News
International Maritime Organization

Marine Insight 


BBC News – The Box

Documentaries and TV Shows
Mighty Ships (videos)
Emma Maersk 
MV Becrux 
MV Paul R. Tregurtha 
MV Fairplayer 
North Star 
Umiak 1 

Open Borders: The Case


First hour of The Battle of Ideas, the first episode of The Commanding Heights trilogy (based on the book of the same name). The video is freely available on the PBS Website of the TV series and on YouTube. Please check Episode 1 and look up the transcript menu to help you answer some of the questions. 

Learn Liberty. 2013. “What do Prices Know that you Don’t?

The Conservative Online. 2017. “I Sandwich by Danial Hannan.”

Second hour of thee first episode of The Battle of Ideas. The video is freely available on the PBS Website of the TV series and on YouTube. Please check Episode 1 and look up the transcript menu to help you answer some of the questions.  

Fear the Boom and the Bust (2010)
Fight of the Century (2011)

Wall Street Journal. 2015. “Bernie Sanders Defines Democratic Socialism.” (November 19).

Velshi & Ruhle. 2018. “What is Democratic Socialism?” (June 28).

Mashable. 2016. “What is Democratic Socialism? | Mashable Explains.”

Bill Whittle. 2017. “Socialism is for Suckers: Venezuela.”

Bill Whittle. 2017. “2. Socialism.”


Older debates
– Socialism and interventionism
Reed, Lawrence. 2021. “The Dark Side of Paradise: A Brief History of America’s Utopian Experiments in Communal Living.” FEE.org (June 13).

Heilbroner, Robert L. “Socialism.” The Concise Encyclopedia of Economics.

Blinder, Alan S. “Keynesian Economics.” The Concise Encyclopedia of Economics.

MacKenzie, Richard. “Industrial Policy.” The Concise Encyclopedia of Economics.

– Free-markets
Rothbard, Murray N. “Free Market.” The Concise Encyclopedia of Economics.

Boettke, Pete. “Austrian Economics.” The Concise Encyclopedia of Economics.

Tupy, Marian L. 2016. “Is Hostility Really at the Root of Capitalism?CapX (September 2).

Boudreaux, Don. 2020. “The Remarkable Blessings of the Price System.” AIER (May 18).

Ebeling, Richard. 2018. “Karl Marx and Marxism at Two Hundred.” Fee.org (May 9).

Ridley, Matt. 2017. “A Century of Marxism-Leninism.” The Rational Optimist (January 3).

DeLong, J. Bradford. 1999. “Forests, Trees, and Intellectual Roots…” Review of James Scott’s Seeing Like a State: How Certain Schemes to Improve the Human Condition have Failed.

-Socialist/interventionist perspective
George, Susan. 1999. “A Short History of Neoliberalism.” Conference on Economic Sovereignty in a Globalising World, March 24-26.

Metcalf, Stephen. 2017. “Neoliberalism: The Idea that Swallowed the World.” The Guardian (August 18).

Jonathan D. Ostry, Jonathan D., Prakash Loungani, and Davide Furceri. 2016. “Neoliberalism: Oversold?Finance & Development 53 (2): 38-41.

Clune, Michael. W. 2013. “When Neoliberalism Exploded. Historian Daniel Steadman Jones traces the origins of the right’s fascination with privatization and deregulation.” Salon (March 9).

-Free-market/liberalization perspective
Gregg, Samuel. 2018. “Miracle Men: How Market Liberals Saved Germany from Economic Catastrophe.” Law and Liberty (June 20).

Pirie, Madsen. “Privatization.” The Concise Encyclopedia of Economics.

Poole, Robert W. “Privatization” Concise Encyclopedia of Economics, 2nd edition.

O’Sullivan, John. 2014. “Today’s Tories have forgotten the Need for Hard Thinking.” The Telegraph (June 15).

Tupy, Marian L. 2017. “The Man Behind the Hong Kong Miracle.” CapX (August 18).

Edwards, Lee. 2020. “The Case for Capitalism.” Law & Liberty (Mary 19).

Phelan, John. 2019. “The Three Phases of Socialism.” Fee.org (May 8).

Zitelman, Rainer. 2019. “Why Socialism Is the Failed Idea That Never Dies.” Fee.org (August 31).

In the News: Recent Controversies
Democratic Socialism

Baker, Hunter. 2019. “9 Big Questions About Democratic Socialism.” Fee.org (February 10).

Day, Meagan. 2018. “Democratic Socialism, Explained by a Democratic Socialist. It’s not just New Deal Liberalism.” Vox (August 1).

Haltiwanger, John. 2020. “Here’s the Difference Between a ‘Socialist’ and a ‘Democratic Socialist’.” Business Insider (June 28).

Related Topics
Niemietz, Kristian. 2017. “Socialism – not Oil Prices – is to Blame for Venezuela’s Woes.” CapX (August 16).

Roberts, Russ. 2017. “The Three Blind Spots of Politics.” Medium (June 25).

Wess, Kai and Jeffrey Tucker.2017. “It’s Not Just Socialists We Need to Worry About. FEE’s Jeffrey Tucker speaks about his latest book and the pervasive threat to liberty that is right-wing collectivism. on right-wing collectivism.” Fee.org (December 14).


Jerusalem, the Anthem, with simultaneous lyrics.”

2009. The Shock Doctrine (Watch the video documentary here)

Globalisation is Good by Johan Norberg (2003) (Watch it here)

The Nation. 2007. “Naomi Klein: Disaster Capitalism.”

PBS Foreign Exchange. 2008. “The Real News: Naomi Klein.”

Reason TV. 2008. “Johan Norberg Vs Naomi Klein and the Shock Doctrine.”

F.A. Hayek Interviewed By John O’Sullivan

Victims of Communism Memorial Foundation channel

Capitalism Vs Communism (old cartoon)

Cato Institute Policy Forum. 2016. “Socialism and Human Nature” (September 14)


Robert Owen

Gunderman, Richard. 2021. “The Failure of a Socialist Dreamer.” Law and Liberty (may 14).

Claude Henri de Rouvroy Comte de Saint-Simon
Abidor, Mitchell. 2021. “Socialism Without Antisemitism.” Tablet (October 15).

Karl Marx
Biography of Karl Marx. The Concise Encyclopedia of Economics.

Williamson, Kevin D. 2020. “The Celestial Afterlife of Karl Marx.” National Review (August 6).

Marx Engels Selected Works (Marxists.org).

Eugene Richter
Caplan, Bryan. 2016. “The Dystopian Novel that Foresaw the Nightmares of Socialism.” Learn Liberty (October 27).

Ludwig von Mises
Biography of Ludwig Edler Von Mises. The Concise Encyclopedia of Economics.

Butler, Eamonn. 2010. Ludwig von Mises – A Primer. London: IEA.

Horwitz, Steven. 2012. “On Human Action. We owe a debt to Ludwig von Mises.” The Freeman (September 13).

An Introduction to the Major Writings of Ludwig von Mises (Online Library of Liberty – Liberty Fund).

Ludwig von Mises books (Mises Institute).

Mises, Ludwig von. 1920. “Economic Calculation in the Socialist Commonwealth.”

Mises, Ludwig von. 1951/1922. Socialism: An Economic and Sociological Analysis. Yale University Press.

Boettke, Peter J. 2016. “The Significance of Mises’s “Socialism’.” Fee.org (September 1).

Boudreaux, Donald J. 2021. “The Inevitable Failure of Socialism.” AIER (September 18).

John Maynard Keynes
Biography of John Maynard Keynes. The Concise Encyclopedia of Economics.

Mises, Ludwig Edler von. 1951. “The Symptomatic Keynes.” The Freeman, June 18.

Judis, John B. 2009. “A Man for All Seasons – The misunderstood John Maynard Keynes.” The New Republic, February 04.

Keynes, John. 1920. The Economic Consequences of the Peace. Harcourt, Brace, and Howe.

Judis, John B. 2009. “A Man for All Seasons – The misunderstood John Maynard Keynes.” The New Republic, February 04.

Wilhelm Röpke
Ebeling, Richard. 2016. “Wilhelm Röpke: The Economist Who Stood Up to Hitler.” Future of Freedom Foundation (March 2).

Gregg, Samuel. 2022. “Wilhelm Röpke’s Civilization of Liberty.” Law and Liberty (January 22).

Friedrich Hayek
Biography of Friedrich August Hayek. The Concise Encyclopedia of Economics.

Hayek, Friedrich. 2001/1945. The Reader’s Digest Condensed Version of the Road to Serfdom. London: Institute of Economic Affairs.

Boudreaux, Donald J. 2021. “The Enduring Relevance of Mises and Hayek’s Critique of Socialism.” AIER (September 25).

Milton Friedman and the Chicago School of Economics

The Chicago School of Economics” on the History of Economic Thought Website.

Biography of Milton Friedman. The Concise Encyclopedia of Economics.

Ebeling, Richard M., and Sheldon Richman. “Milton Friedman (1912-2006).” The Freeman: Ideas on Liberty, December 2006, Vol. 56 No. 10.

Free Markets and the End of History.” Interview with Milton Friedman, New Perspectives Quarterly, Volume 23 (1) Winter 2006.

Sahlins, Marshall. 2008. “Institute Will Give the U. of Chicago a Bad Name.” Chronicle.com, August 18.

Sorman, Guy. 2008. “Cheers for Chile’s Chicago Boys.” City Journal, vol. 18, no. 2 (Winter).

Sorman, Guy. 2007. “The Market Revolution.” City Journal, August 24.

Warsh, David. 2008. “The Chicago School (and the Russert Wing).” Economic Principals, June 22.

–. 2008. “University of Chicago Faculty Letter on The Milton Friedman Institute.” naomiklein.org, June 6.

Economist Milton Friedman’s Free to Choose on the web (also on Idea Channel TV)

Interviews on the Charlie Rose Show: Milton Friedman (26-12-2005).

Postmodernism and Intersectionality
Hicks, Stephen C. 2004. Explaining Postmodernism: Skepticism and Socialism from Rousseau to Foucault. Scholargy Publishing.

Ebeling, Richard M. 2018. “Collectivism’s Progress: From Marxism to Race and Gender Intersectionality.” FFF Articles (March 19).

Philipp, Joshua. 2018 (update). “Jordan Peterson Exposes the Postmodernist Agenda. Communist principles in postmodernism were spread under the guise of identity politics.” The Epoch Times (June 4).

Thomas Piketty
—. 2014. “Thomas Piketty’s “Capital”, Summarised in Four Paragraphs.” The Economist Explains (May 4).

McCloskey, Deirdre. 2015. “How Piketty Misses the Point.” Cato Policy Report (July/August).

McManus, Matt. 2020. “Thomas Piketty’s “Capitalism and Ideology.” Book Review.” Areo (May 14).

Critics of free-market economics
Solow, Robert M. 2012. “Hayek, Friedman, and the Illusions of Conservative Economics.” The New Republic, November 16 (comments on this piece by Tyler Cowen).

Larner, Jesse. 2008. “Who’s Afraid of Friedrich Hayek? The Obvious Truths and Mystical Fallacies of a Hero of the Right.” Dissent Magazine, Winter.

Supporters of free-markets
Carlton, Chris. 2021. “How the Progressives Conquered Corporate America.” Mises Wire (February 5).

Jones, Daniel G. 2017. “Capitalism’s Gotta Go.” American Thinker (December 27).

Perry, Mark J. 2018. “‘Why Socialism Failed: A 2018 Update,’ Part I.” AEIdeas (August 21).

Mitchell, Dan. 2016. “Free Markets and Small Government vs. Redistributionism and State Planning.” International Liberty (July 19).

Mitchell, Dan. 2018. “Most Socialists Can’t Even Define Their Own Ideology. Claims that “socialism is freedom” sound bizarre. Because they are.” Fee.org (September 21).

Mitchell, Dan. 2019. “The Battle Isn’t Right vs. Left. It’s Statism vs. Individualism – Foundation for Economic Education” FEE.org (April 6)

Mitchell, Dan. 2019. Nazis, Communists, Fascists, Socialists, and other Flavors of Collectivism and Authoritarianism (March 26)

Gregg, Samuel. 2021. “Industrial Policy Mythology Confronts Economic Reality .” Law and Liberty (September 3).

Winston, Alexander. 1971. “Utopia: Dream into Nightmare.” The William Feather Magazine (November).

Substantial Pieces
Berger, Suzanne. 2000. “Globalization and Politics.” Annual Review of Political Science 3: 43-62.

Milner, Helen V. 1999. “The Political Economy of International Trade.” Annual Review of Political Science 2: 91-114.

Places and Movements
—. 2016. “City of the Century: How Vienna Produced Ideas that Shaped the West.” The Economist (December 24).

Dekker, Irwin. 2016. “How Viennese Culture Shaped Austrian Economics.” Fee.org (July 31).

Hoover Institution. 2020. The Mont Pelerin Society. From the Past to the Future: Ideas and Actions for a Free Society.

– Russia/Soviet Union
Rassin, Boris. 2022. “The seductive beauty of classroom socialism is a sham—Lessons from a former Soviet citizen.” The Hub (February 23).

Spliet, Bas. 2022. “Socialist Economies Are Impossible: Lessons from Russia, 1917–22.” Mises Wire (February 15).

Ebeling, Richard M. 2021. “Socialism-in-Practice Was a Nightmare, Not Utopia.” AIER (February 23).

Young, Cathy. 2021. “Yes, It Was An ‘Evil Empire.’ Nearly every form of Soviet nostalgia gets the facts wrong.” Reason (2021).

United States
Flynn, Daniel J. 2008. “The Right Gifts.” City Journal, 12 December.

United Kingdom
Pirie, Madsen. 2013. “Ten Myths about Margaret Thatcher.” Adamd Smith Institute (April 15).

Reed, Lawrence R. 2020. “Margaret Thatcher on Socialism: 20 of Her Best Quotes.” Fee.org (February 8).

Henderson, David R. “The German Economic Miracle.” The Concise Encyclopedia of Economics.

Reed, Lawrence W. 2015. “Ludwig Erhard: Architect of a Miracle.” Fee.org (May 7).

Ebeling, Richard. M. 2016. “Wilhelm Röpke: The Economist Who Stood Up to Hitler.” Future of Freedom Foundation (March 2).

Innset. Ola. 2017. Reinventing Liberalism Early Neoliberalism in Context, 1920 – 1947. European University Institute (PhD Thesis).

Latin America
Piñera, José. 2003. “How Chile was Saved.” The Objectivist Center, September 1.

Kaiser, Axel. 2020. “The Fall of Chile.” Cato Journal (Fall).

Thomson, Andrés Figueredo. 2021. “How Socialism Wiped Out Venezuela’s Spectacular Oil Wealth. Venezuela has the world’s largest proven oil reserves. It’s out of gasoline.” Reason (February 1).

Powell, Benjamin. 2004. “State Development Planning: Did it Create an East Asian Miracle?” Independent Institute, Septermber 28.

– Fascism
Cohen, Lynne. 2022. “Left-Wing Fascism and its War Against Conservatives.” C2C (January 5).

Recent History
World Events
Hammes, David and Douglas Wills, “Black Gold: The End of Bretton Woods and the Oil-Price Shocks of the 1970s.” The Independent Review 9 (Spring 2005): 501-11.

Lasswell, Mark. 2005. “Investing in Ideas – How John Olin and William Simon helped create the conservative counterintelligentsia.” The Wall Street Journal, December 28.

Recent authors and ideological debates
Naomi Klein
—. 2008. “Naomi Klein: ‘We can’t lose this moment’” Rabble.ca (December 12).

– Klein’s writings
Journalist and activist Naomi Klein’s website

The Shock Doctrine.” Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Kein, Naomi. 2008. “One Year After the Publication of The Shock Doctrine, A Response to the Attacks.” NaomiKlein.org, September 2.

Klein, Naomi. 2008. “Why the Right Loves a Disaster.” Naomiklein.org (January 27).

– Interviews
Renegade Pictures / Revolution Films. 2009. The Shock Doctrine: The Rise of Disaster Capitalism. (Video)

Interviews on the Charlie Rose Show: Naomi Klein (02-01-2008).

– Reviews of Klein’s writings
Chait, Jonathan. 2008. “Dead Left.” The New Republic, July 30.

MacFarquhar, Larissa. 2008. “Outside Agitator – Naomi Klein and the New New Left.” The New Yorker, December 8.

Stromberg, Joseph. 2008. “Review of The Shock Doctrine: The Rise of Disaster Capitalism by Naomi Klein.” The Freeman, vol. 58, no. 8 (October): 43-44.

– Critics
Boaz, David. 2009. “Obama’s shock doctrine – On the economy, Obama is trying to scare the American people in order to ram through a progressive agenda.” guardian.co.uk, February 12.

Carden, Art. forthcoming. 2009. “Shock and Awe: Institutional Change, Neoliberalism, and Disaster Capitalism.” Journal of Lutheran Ethics 9 (6).

Heath, Joseph. 2014. “Bad Arguments against Capitalism, vol. 1.” In Due Course (November 22).

Brennan, Jason. 2011. “Dear Left: Corporatism Is Your Fault.” Bleeding Heart Libertarians (November 29).

Naomi Klein Vs Johan Norberg
Kein, Naomi. 2008. “One Year After the Publication of The Shock Doctrine, A Response to the Attacks.” NaomiKlein.org, September 2.

Johan Norberg Vs. Naomi Klein and The Shock Doctrine.” Reason TV, September 29, 2008.

Boaz, David. 2008. “Johan Norberg vs. Naomi Klein, Round 3.” Cato-at-liberty, September 5.

Norberg, Johan. 2008. “Defaming Milton Friedman.” Reason Online, October.

Norberg, Johan. 2008. “The Klein Doctrine – The Rise of Disaster Polemics.” Cato Institute Briefing Papers, No. 102, May 14.

Norberg, Johan. 2008. “Three Days after Klein’s Response, Another Attack.” Cato.org (September 4).

– On Democratic Socialism
Meyerson, Harold. 2019. “Why Michael Harrington Matters.” Jacobin (July 31).

Schwartz, Joseph and Jason Schulman. 2012. “Toward Freedom: Democratic Socialist Theory and Practice.” DSA (December 21).

Democratic Socialists of America. “What is Democratic Socialism?

Gude, Shawn. 2018. “Democratic Socialism Is About Democracy.” Jacobin (July 25).

Ingemarson, Anders. 2018. “How ‘Democratic Socialism’ Wreaked Havoc On My Native Sweden.” The Federalist (September 5).

Anderson, William L. 2018. “The Key Word in ‘Democratic Socialism’ is ‘Socialism’.” Mises Wire (August 8).

Harwood Economic Review, Volume 2, Issue 3 (Fall 2018) (Socialism Issue).

Mueller, Antony. 2018. “4 Reasons Why Socialism Fails.” Mises Wire (September 10).


The History of Economic Thought Website.

McMaster Archive of the History of Economic Thought.

The Road to Serfdom, the movie.

The Mont Pelerin Society

OLL Guide to Socialism

Professor Stefan Kolev’s (University of Applied Sciences Zwickau) Google Page (History of Thought – ordoliberalism, Mont Pelerin Society and related topics).

Hamowy, Ronald (ed.). 2008. The Encyclopedia of Libertarianism. Cato Institute and SAGE.

Naomi Klein
Naomi Klein “The Shock Doctrine” & “No Logo” interview

Milton Friedman debates Naomi Klein
Milton Friedman Debates Naomi Klein

Milton Friedman Debates Naomi Klein Part 2

Taylor & Francis freely available research on Millenium Development Goals.


Biomimicry (or copying from nature)
Biomimicry Institute. “What is Biomimicry?” 

Vox. 2017. “The World is Poorly Designed. But Copying Nature Helps.” (Facebook link).

Diffusion of religions
Business Insider. 2015. “Animated Map Shows how Religion Spread around the World.”

Musical inspiration
The Story of “Break on Through” by the Doors

The House of the Rising Sun trough History (1933-2016). 

The Irish Rovers, Whiskey in the Jar (w/ lyrics).

Ray Manzarek & Robby Krieger – Light My Fire (The Doors) | The Story Behind The Song.

Movie inspiration
The Art of Film. 2019. “How Quentin Tarantino Steals From Other Movies.” 

Cultural Appropriation Debate
Ramsey, Franchesca. 2015. “The 7 Most Commonly Believed Myths About Cultural Appropriation – Busted.” MTV Decoded (December 6). 

CBC. 2016. “Cultural Appropriation vs Appreciation” (October 27).

Rebel Media. 2017. “UN Set to Outlaw “Cultural Appropriation.” (June 14).


Historical Perspective
Davies, Stephen. 2007. “Our Economic Past ~ Trade and Diversity.” The Freeman: Ideas on Liberty (May).

Boudreaux, Don. 2010. “Free Trade and Globalization: More than ‘Just Stuff’.” Library of Economics and Liberty (November 1).

Follett, Chelsea. 2020. “Centers of Progress, Pt. 10: Chang’an (Trade).HumanProgress.org (August 27).

Food and Drinks
– Indian Cuisine
Dutta, Nayantara. 2020. “Reclaiming Indian Food from the White Gaze.” Eater (June 30).

Ladage, Rutu. 2014. “The Heartbreaking Truth About Indian Foods That Are Not Indian at All.” India Times (September 12).

Sonnad, Nikhil. 2018. “Tea if by Sea, Cha if by Land: Why the World only has Two Words for Tea.” Quartz (January 11).

Sampathkumar, Yasaswini. 2019. “The Surprising Truth about Indian Food. Many of the most famous ingredients used to make typical ‘Indian’ cuisine aren’t actually native to India.” BBC.com (June 10).

– Whiskey / Whisky
Trowbridge Filippone, Peggy. 2019. “What Is Whiskey? Production, Types, and Recipes.” The Spruce Eats (July 21).

Todd + Diane. 2018. “Simple Guide to Types of Whisk(e)y: Bourbon, Scotch, Rye.” White on Rice Couple (December 28).

Whiskey Muse. 2016. “Japanese Whisky 101: The Complete Beginner’s Guide.”

Nosowitz, Dan. 2020. “Why the World Overlooked Canadian Whisky. A preference for blending put the Great White North on the wrong side of industry standards.” Gastro Obscura (March 23).

– Whiskey in the Jar
Wikipedia. “Whiskey in the Jar.”

O’Dowd, Niall. 2020. “The Amazing Origins of “Whiskey in the Jar” One of the Best-loved Irish Ballads.” Irish Central (December 21).

The Lip Weasels. 2017. “Whiskey in the Jar.”

PBS. 2009. “King Lear: Adaptations in FilmGreat Performances (March 25)

West, Patrick. 2015. “The Secret to Star Wars’ Success? Unoriginality.” Spiked! (December 18).

The Cultural Appropriation Controversy

Cambridge Dictionary. “Cultural Appropriation.”

Estrada, Meera Solanki. 2017. “The Fine Line Between Cultural Appropriation And Appreciation.” Huffington Post Canada (June 28).

-Cultural appropriation is bad
Johnson, Maisha. 2015. “What’s Wrong with Cultural Appropriation? These 9 Answers Reveal Its Harm.” Everyday Feminism (June 14).

Ratchford, Sarah. 2015. “Is Western Yoga Cultural Appropriation? Yes, but That Doesn’t Mean White People Can’t Practice It.” Vice (November 25).

Jaschik, Scott. 2017. “Dispute on Cultural Appropriation Leads to Assault Charges. Hampshire students accused of attacking Central Maine Community College students over braids in their hair.” Inside Higher Education (March 20).

-Cultural appropriation is good
Holdsworth, Candace. 2018. “What’s so Bad about “Cultural Appropriation’?Spiked! (March 16).

Kay, Jonathan. 2017. “Making a Stand for Cultural Universalism.” Quillette (December 8).

Milke, Mark. 2018. “Another Name for Cultural Appropriation: Sharing.” C2C Journal (June 15). 

Kling, Arnold. 2018. “Let’s Celebrate Cultural Appropriation in Dance.” Medium (February 9).

Whelan, Ella. 2020. “Irish dancing isn’t just for the Irish.” Spiked (July 22).

Zushi, Yo. 2015. “In Defence of Cultural Appropriation.” New Statesman (October 12).


Creative Process
Professor of Rock. 2021. “2 Legends On The Story Of A #1 Hit From The 60s That Is Over 2000 Years Old.” (October 6).

Norm Macdonald Explains Moth Joke to Canadian Public Radio (2016).

Moth Joke (2009)

The Story Behind the Moth Joke

Norm Macdonald Explains Moth Joke to Canadian Public Radio (2016)

Conan Tells the Story behind Norm Macdonald’s Moth Joke (2021)

Cultural Appropriation Controversy
TVO. The Agenda with Steve Paikin. 2016. “The Trouble with Cultural Appropriation.” (October 31).

Rebel Media. 2017. “Will SJWs Complain About “Indigenized” Star Wars Artwork?” (January 6).

L. Studio. 2009. Break It Down: Ray Manzarek (Supplemental clip: “The Story of ‘Light My Fire’ by The Doors“).


General Interest
Does Globalization Diminish Cultural Diversity?” on The Globalization Website.

Bornon, Julien, & Jacques Delacroix. 2005. “Can Protectionism Ever Be Respectable? A Skeptic’s Case for the Cultural Exception, with Special Reference to French Movies.” The Independent Review, Vol. 9, No. 3 (Winter).

Carden, Art. 2008. “Does Globalization Destroy Culture?Daily Sun News, July 8. 

Evans, Stephan. 2003. “Myths of our Time: Globalization”. BBC News, December 23.

Legrain, Philippe. 2003. “Cultural Globalization is Not Americanization.” Chronicles of Higher Education 49 (35), May 9.

Lieber, Robert J. & Ruth E. Weisberg. 2002. “Globalization, Culture, and Identities in Crisis.” International Journal of Politics, Culture and Society 16(2).

Palmer, Tom G. “Globalization and Culture: Homogeneity, Diversity, Identity, Liberty.” Occasional Paper 2, 2004.

Porter, Keith. 2004. “Americanization vs. Globalization.” Global Envision, November 11.

Riding, Alan. 2006. “A French Author’s Singular Take on America’s Pluralistic Cultural Life.” International Herald Tribune, December 27.

Richland, Justin. 2013. “Tribal Culture and Economic Growth.” PERC Report 32 (2).

Tomlison, John. 2003. “Globalization and Cultural Identity.

Vargas Llosa, Alvaro. 2010. “A Nobel Laureate in the Family.” The Independent Institute, October 13.

Balko, Radley. 2003. “Globalization and Culture” Global Policy Forum.

Cultural appropriation
– Overview
Wikipedia. Cultural Appropriation.

– Food
McCann, Shana. 2019. “The cultural appropriation of food.” Solid Ground (April 15).

Mohan, Megha. 2017. “Are Food Bloggers Fuelling Racist Stereotypes?BBC News (March 3).

Zimmerman, Jonathan. 2017. “On ‘Maybellene’ and General Tso’s Chicken.” The Chronicle of Higher Education (March 28).

Kapadia, Jess. 2017. “I Still Don’t Understand The Cultural Appropriation Of Food.” Food Republic (July 7).

-Case Studies
Miller, H. D. 2022. “Pizza Isn’t Italian. It’s as American as Dixieland Jazz.” An Eccentric Culinary History (January 21).

Laudan, Rachel. 2017. “What’s the True History of Pizza? Consider Argentina.” Rachel Laudan (October 25).

– Asian Fashion

Cai, Anna. 2019. “Why I Won’t Wear Hanfu.” Medium (April 8).

Gao, Sally. 2016. “A Brief History of the Cheongsam.” Culture Trip (December 9).

Traditional Chinese Clothing. 2016. “Kimono vs. Hanfu.” (January 12).

– Cultural Appropriation is Bad
Bradford, K. Tempest. 2018. “The Cultural Appropriation Primer.” Writing the Other (August 27).

Avins, Jenni and Quartz. 2015. “The Dos and Don’ts of Cultural Appropriation.” The Atlantic (October 20).

Wilcove, Hannah. 2017. “What You Need to Know About Cultural Appropriation.” Critical Social Justice (October 11).

Bradford, K. Tempest. 2017. “Commentary: Cultural Appropriation Is, In Fact, Indefensible.” NPR.org Code Switch (June 28).

Domise, Andray. 2017. “How Some People are Missing the Point on Cultural Appropriation.” MacLean’s (May 22).

Murphy, Colleen. 2021. “What Is Cultural Appropriation? Here’s Why the Practice Is So Harmful—and How You Can Avoid Doing It. From TikTok to music festivals, cultural appropriation is everywhere.” Health.com (August 20).

Chen, Emily, Edric Huang and Jenny Dorsey. 2021. “Understanding… Cultural Appropriation.” Studio ATAO (February 15).

– Cultural appropriation is unavoidable/good
Brown, T. J. 2016. “A world without cultural appropriation is a world without learning and emulation.” Fee.org (October 31).

Veer, Pierre-Guy. 2017. “Cultural Appropriation Is Intellectual Property on Stilts. When a culture’s ideas don’t get adopted into wider society, they die.” Fee.org (June 29).

Will, George S. 2017. “The Left’s Misguided Obsession with ‘Cultural Appropriation’ on Cultural Appropriation.” The Washington Post (May 12).

Zmirak, John. 2017. “How Really To Stop Cultural Appropriation. If we are going to draw bright lines around cultures, and bar borrowings, let’s get really serious about it and see what happens.” Fee.org (May 29).

Malik, Kenan. 2017 “In Defense of Cultural Appropriation.” New York Times (June 14).

Holiday, Ryan. 2017. “Unpacking the Absurd Logic of Cultural Appropriation-and What It Will Cost Us.” The Observer (July 31).

Weiss, Bari. 2017. “Three Cheers for Cultural Appropriation.” The New York Times (August 30).

Parvini, Neema. 2018. “Rejecting Progress in the Name of ‘Cultural Appropriation’.” Quillette (August 22).

Van Noord, Jack. 2018. “Commentary: My Nephew Tried to School Me on Cultural Appropriation. It Didn’t End Well.” Chicago Tribune (August 29). 

Scott, Mason. 2019. “The Progressive Case For Cultural Appropriation.” (July 23).

Patterson, Steve. 2015. “Why Progressives Are Wrong to Argue Against Cultural Appropriation.” Observer (November 11).

– Inuits vs Other Indigenous Groups (Canada)
Monkman, Lenard. 2019. “Artists boycott Indigenous Music Awards over cultural appropriation concerns. Boycott spurred by the IMA’s nomination of a non-Inuk artist who performs throat singing.”  CBC News (April 1).

CBC News. 2019. “Inuit artists in Ottawa keeping eye on awards controversy. Artists concerned over nomination of non-Inuk artist who performs throat singing.” (April 9).

Gray, Neil. 2019. “How The Campaign Against Cultural Appropriation Came Back to Haunt Canada’s Indigenous Peoples.” Quillette (April 8).

Benjamin Barber vs Tyler Cowen

Summary: Does Globalization Thwart Cultural Diversity?” World Bank.

A debate between Tyler Cowen and Benjamin Barber, Cato Policy Report, May-June 2003.

-Benjamin Barber
Barber, Benjamin. 1992. “Jihad vs McWorld.” The Atlantic. (March).

Barber, Benjamin. 2002. “Beyond Jihad vs McWorld.” The Nation (January 21).

Barber, Benjamin. 2003. “Brave new McWorld.” Los Angeles Times (February 2).

Barber, Benjamin. 2007. “Consumed by Capitalism.” Brookings Institution.

Wikipedia – Jihad vs McWorld.

-Tyler Cowen
Cowen, Tyler. 2005. “The Future of Culture in a Globalised World.” The Sir Ronald Trotter Lecture, New Zealand Business Roundtable.

Caplan, Bryan and Tyler Cowen. 2004. “Do We Underestimate the Benefits of Cultural Competition?” American Economic Review 94 (2): 402-407.

Gillespie, Nick. 2003. “Really Creative Destruction. Economist Tyler Cowen argues for the cultural benefits of globalization.” Reason (August/September).

Cowen, Tyler. 2003. “Globalization and Diversity: Friends or Foes?” Independent Institute, May 27.

Cowen, Tyler. 2003. “Commerce, culture and diversity: some Friedmanesque themes in trade and the arts,” Proceedings, Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas (October): 123-136.


General Interest
Globalization and Culture” on the Global Policy Forum.

Creative Process
Reverb. 2016. “Robby Krieger on the Origin of “Peace Frog” & “Light My Fire.”” (June 17).

Cultural Appropriation (Interviews, Podcasts)
CBC Metro Morning with Matt Galloway. 2017. “Susur Lee on Fusion Food.” (November 6).

Patterson in Pursuit. 2016. The Case for Cultural Appropriation. (Near-verbatim transcript, also posted as an article in the Observer).


Market Liberalization vs Fair Trade
W. P. Carey School of Business (Arizona State University). 2010. “What is Supply Chain Management.”

Financial Post staff. 2018. “How Canada’s Controversial Dairy Supply Management System Works.” Financial Post (June 20).

Global News. 2018. “While Ottawa is Fully Supportive of Canada’s Supply Management System, Others Want to Get Rid of It. David Akin Explains Why.” (August 23).

Learn Liberty. 2013. Combating Global Poverty with a Cup of Coffee (Colleen Haight) (July 16).

PhD Comics. 2013. How Coffee affects your Brain.

Sweatshops and Child Labor
Stossel, John. 2003. “Sweatshops” Give me a Break! (ABC News) (Transcript).

Learn Liberty. 2011. ” The Unbelievable Truth about Sweatshops (Ben Powell).”

Free to Choose Network. 2016. “Dead Wrong with Johan Norberg – Child Labor and Globalization.”


Free Trade Vs Fair Trade

-Traditional Arguments for Free Trade, revisited
Lemieux, Pierre. 2017. The Benefits of Trade. AIMS Policy Paper.

Mitchell, Dan. 2018. “No, Mr. President, Tariffs Are Not What Made America Great. America grew wealthy not because we had tariffs in place, but because we didn’t have most other taxes and barriers.” International Liberty (August 17).

Ridley, Matt. 2017 “Montequieu’s ‘Sweet Commerce” and Cobden’s “God’s Diplomacy.” Rational Optimist (October 6).

Klein, Peter G. 2017. “Free trade vs “Free Trade.” Mises Wire (January 23).

Rodrik, Dani. 2017. “It’s Time to Think for Yourself on Free Trade. What economists and populists both get wrong about the international economy.” Foreign Policy (January 27).

Munger, Michael. 2015. ” Comparative Advantage: An Idea Whose Time Has Passed.” Fee.org (December 28).

-Recent Trade Deals, Overview
DeLong, J. Bradford. 2017. “NAFTA and Other Trade Deals have not Gutted American Manufacturing – Period.” Vox (January 24).

Fair Trade
– Overview
–. 2006. “Voting with Your Trolley – Can you really change the world just by buying certain foods?The Economist (December 7).

Vander Weyer, Martin. 2005. “Can Free Trade be Fair Trade?New Statesman (February 28).

Booth, Philip and Linda Whetstone. 2007. “Half a Cheer for Fair Trade.” Economics Affairs 27 (2): 29-36.

Raluca Dragusanu, Raluca and Nathan Nunn. 2018. “Does Fair Trade work?VoxDev (September 2).

Tarnoff, Richard. 2004. “Fair Trade vs. Free Trade.” Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives (October).

Baobab. 2014. “Not so Fair Trade. Agriculture in Ethiopia and Uganda.” The Economist (May 19).

Chambers, Andrew. 2009. “Not so fair trade.” The Guardian (December 12).

Minogue, Rossa. 2014. “It’s Official: Fairtrade Screws over Labourers.” Spiked! (May 30).

Rohac, Dalibor. 2011. “‘Fair Trade’ Is a Crock.” New York Post (May 13).

Sidwell, Marc. 2008. Unfair Trade. Adam Smith Institute (Executive Summary).

Case study: Coffee
James, Deborah. 2000. “Justice and Java: Coffee in a Fair Trade Market.” NACLA (Sept/Oct).

Singer, Peter. 2006. “Why pay more for fairness?Webdiary.com.

Claar, Victor V. and Colleen E. Haight. 2015. “Fair Trade Coffee: Correspondence.” Journal of Economic Perspectives 29(1): 215-16.

Callahan, Gene. 2008. “Is Fair Trade a Fair Deal?The Freeman: Ideas on Liberty 58 (2).

Haight, Colleen. 2011. “The Problem with Fair Trade Coffee.” Stanford Social Innovation Review (May 18).

Case Study: Canada – Supply Management
– Overview

Heminthavong, Khamla. 2015. In Brief: Canada’s Supply Management System. Publication No. 2015-138-E. Parliamentary Information and Research Service. Ottawa: Library of Parliament.

– Supporters
Fast, Ed. 2017. “Make it Clear, Prime Minister – Supply Management is Here to Stay.” IPolitics (August 28).

Elton, Sarah and Rod MacRae. 2018. “Don’t Let Supply Management Myths Spoil the Milk.” The Globe & Mail (June 20).

– Opponents
Geloso, Vincent and Alexandre Moreau. 2016. “Supply Management is Literally Driving Tens of Thousands of Canadians into Poverty.” National Post (August 31).

Bernier, Maxime. 2016-17 Leadership Race Platform: Phase Out Supply Management.

Coyne, Andrew. 2018. “We All Pay for Supply Management, but Bernier Pays the Political Price.” National Post (June 13).

Oxley, Alan and Dan Leroy. 2018. “End Supply Management like Aussies.” The Western Producer (August 9).

Sweatshops and Child Labor
– Opponents

Bachman, Sarah. 2003. “The (Limited) Case for Boycott Threats, Boycotts, and Selective Purchasing.” Ethics and Economics 1(1) (December).

Edmonds, Eric. 2003. “Should We Boycott Child Labor?Ethics and Economics 1(1), December.

– Supporters
Powell, Benjamin. 2008. “In defense of ‘Sweatshops’.” Library of Economics and Liberty (June 02).

Follett, Chelsea. 2017. “Student Activists Hurt the Workers They Try to Help.” Intercollegiate Review (Spring).

Blattman, Christopher and Stefan Dercon. 2017. “Everything We Knew about Sweatshops was Wrong.” New York Times (April 27).

Tupy, Marian. 2018. “Growth is the Ultimate Weapon in the Fight to End Child Labour.” CapX (November 13).

Horwitz, Steven. 2016. “We Didn’t Humanize Markets, Markets Humanized Us.” Fee.org (September 8).


-On Job Destruction
That Which is Seen, and That Which is Not Seen by Frederic Bastiat, 1850.

Substantial Pieces

Amiti, Mary, and Wei, Shang-Jin. 2004. “Fear of Service Outsourcing: Is it Justified?NBER Working Paper 10808.

Balaker, Ted and Adrian Moore. 2005. “Offshoring and Public Fear: Assessing the Real Threat to Jobs.” Reason Foundation, Policy Study 333.

Bartel, Ann, Saul Lach and Nachum Sicherman. 2005. “Outsourcing and Technological Change.” NBER Working Paper 11158.

Blinder, Alan S. 2006. “Fear of Offshoring.” Princeton University.

Lindsey, Brink. 2004. “Job Losses and Trade: A Reality Check.” Center for Trade Policy Studies, Briefing Paper No. 19.

Mankiw, N. Gregory and Phillip Swagel. 2006. “The Politics and Economics of Offshore Outsourcing.” NBER WP 12398.

Overby, Stephanie. 2003. “The Hidden Costs of Offshore Outsourcing.” CIO.com, Sept. 1.

Paul Craig Roberts Vs Jagdish Bhagwati on Outsourcing (originally published in The Wall Street Journal, May 10, 2004).

Shorter Pieces
Offshoring” and “Offshore outsourcing” on Wikipedia

Anderson, William L. 2003. “The Myth of ‘Exporting Jobs.’” Mises Institute Website, June 27.

Boland, Brian, and Block, Walter. “The Benefits of Outsourcing.” The Freeman: Ideas on Libety, January 1997.

Bartlett, Bruce. “India May Have Solved the Outsourcing Issue for Us,” Townhall, May 18, 2004.

Cowen, Tyler, and Irons, John. 2004. “The Rise of Outsourcing.” The Wall Street Journal, November 9.

Holodnak, Stas. 2008. “Downward Dollar Delivers Blow to Outsourcing.” Ludwig von Mises Institute, February 13.

Irwin, Douglas A. 2004. “‘Outsourcing’ is Good for America.” The Wall Street Journal, January 28, p. A16.

Irwin, Douglas A. 2004. “Free-Trade Worriers.” The Wall Street Journal, August 9, p. A12.

Landsburg, Steven E. 2008. “What to Expect When You’re Free Trading.” The New York Times, January 16.

Mankiw, N. Gregory, and Phillip Swagel. “The Politics and Economics of Offshore Outsourcing.” March 2006.

McKay, John. 2004. “Outsourcing: Separating Fact from Hysteria.” TCS Daily, December 23.

Mihlar, Fazil. 2008. “Saint Wal-Mart? Well, Let’s Look at the Record.” Vancouver Sun, February 9.

Reh, F. John. “Offshoring – Outsourcing to Extreme.” About.com.

Roberts, Russell. 2004. “The Great Outsourcing Scare of 2004.” Hoover Digest no 2, Spring Issue.

Rockwell, Lew. 2003. “Job Overseas? Another Attempt to Explain.” Mises.org, November 27.

Williams, Walter. 2006. “Foreign Trade Angst.” Jewish World Review, October 18.

Ikenson, Daniel. 2007. “Thriving in a Global Economy. The Truth about U.S. Manufacturing and Trade.” Trade Policy Analysis no. 35, Cato Institute.

Elder, Larry. 2005. “Lou Dobbs to outsourcing: Drop dead.” World Net Daily, March 10.

Balaker, Ted, & Adrian T. Moore. 2005. “Offshoring and Public Fear: Assessing the Real Threat to Jobs.” Policy Summary of Study 333, Reason Foundation. (Policy Summary | Executive Summary)

Bartlett, Bruce. 2004. “The debate over outsourcing needs some facts,” www.townhall.com, October 12.

Drezner, Daniel. 2004. “The Outsourcing Bogeyman.” Foreign Affairs, May/June.

Gumpert, David E. 2004. “An Atlas of Offshore Outsourcing.” Business Week, February 18.

Hazlitt, Henry. 1948. “The Curse of Machinery” in Economics in One Lesson.

Mankiw, Gregory. 2006. “Outsourcing Redux.” Greg Mankiw’s Blog. May 7.

Roberts, Russell. 2007. “Remember When They Were Going to Take All Our Jobs?Café Hayek, April 08.

Stossel, John. 2005. “Truth trumps outsourcing hysteria – Clueless claims about job losses from Lou Dobbs, unions don’t stand up.” The Orange County Register, February 27.

Strong, Michael. 2006. “Forget the World Bank, Try Wal-Mart.” TCS Daily – TCS Daily, August 22.

The Jobs Of Yesteryear: Obsolete Occupations.” NPR.

Barriers to Development
Bureaucratic Barriers to Entrepreneurship,” part of an interview with Peruvian economist and social thinker Hernando de Soto.

Harford, Tim. 2005. “Yes, We Have Bananas. We Just Can’t Ship Them.” The New York Times (December 16).

Sweatshops and Child Labor
-Overview and Historical Perspective
“Sweatshop,” on Wikipedia.

Tuttle, Carolyn. 2001. “Child Labor during the British Industrial Revolution.” EH.Net Encyclopedia, August 15.

Babbage, Charles. 1832. On the Economy of Machinery and Manufactures. Chapter 1, sections 1-3 and note 3.

Levinson, Mark. 1997. “Economists and Sweatshops.” Dissent, New York: 44 (4): 11-13.

Horwitz, Steven. 2016. “We Didn’t Humanize Markets, Markets Humanized Us.” Fee.org (September 8).

-Substantial Pieces
OECD. 2003. Child Labour: A Review of Policies (available as e-resouce on UofT library website, online resource #215923)

Drusilla K. Brown, Alan V. Deardorff and Robert M. Stern. 2003. The Effects of Multinational Production on Wages and Working Conditions in Developing Countries. NBER Working Paper No.w9669.

-Shorter Pieces
What You Need to Know About Sweatshops,” on Global Exchange.

Hightower, Jim. 2003. “Going Down the Road.”

Kristof, Nicholas D. and Sheryl Wudunn. 2000. “Two Cheers for Sweatshops.” New York Times Magazine, September 24.

Powell, Benjamin, and David Skarbek. 2005. “Don’t Get Into a Lather Over Sweatshops.” The Christian Science Monitor, August 02.

Powell, Benjamin & David Skarbek. 2005. “Third World Work in the Apparel Industry: No Sweat?” The Independent Institute, June 2.

Samida, Dexter. 2002. “A Child’s Burden: Reducing Child Labour by Increasing Trade.” Fraser Forum, May: 10-11.

Spath, Stefan. 2002. “The Virtues of Sweatshops.” The Freeman, March.

Edmonds, Eric. 2003. “Should We Boycott Child Labor?Ethics and Economics 1(1), December.

Kristof, Nicolas D. 2009. “Where Sweatshops Are a Dream.” The New York Times, January 15.

Krugman, Paul. 1997. “In Praise of Cheap Labor.” Slate, March 20.

Levinson, Mark. 1997. “Economists and Sweatshops.” Dissent, New York: 44 (4): 11-13.

Free Trade Vs Fair Trade
-Fair Trade
– Overview

Shoenthal, Amy. 2018. “What exactly is fair trade, and why should we
Forbes (December 24).

Le Mare, Ann. 2008. “The Impact of Fair Trade on Social and Economic Development: A Review of the Literature.” Geography Compass 2/6 (2008): 1922-1942.

– Historical perspective
Doherty, Bob, Iain A. Davies & Sophi Tranchell. 2013. “Where Now for Fair Trade?Business History 55 (2): 161-189.

– Recent developments
Subramanian, Samanth (2019). “Is fair trade finished?” The Guardian (July 23).

– Substantial pieces
Harris, Jamie. 2021. Social Movement Lessons from the Fair Trade Movement. Sentience Institute (April 1)

Cristina Ribeiro-Duthie, Ana, Fred Gale and Hannah Murphy-Gregoryc. 2021. “Fair trade and staple foods: A systematic review.” Journal of Cleaner Production 279: 123586.

Nunn, Nathan. 2019. “The Economics of Fair Trade.” The Reporter (NBER) no. 2 (June)

Fairtrade International. 2017. The Impact of Fairtrade: A Review of Research Evidence 2009- 2015.

Dragusanu, Raluca, Daniele Giovannucci and Nathan Nunn. 2014. “The Economics of Fair Trade.” Journal of Economic Perspectives 28 (3): 217-36.

Transfair Germany and Max Havelaar Foundation. 2012 Fair Trade Impact Study: Summary of Results.

Raynolds, Laura T. 2012. “Fair Trade: Social regulation in global food markets.” Journal of Rural Studies 28: 276-287.

Nelson, Valerie and Nelson Barry Pound. 2009. The Last Ten Years: A Comprehensive Review of the Literature on the Impact of Fairtrade. Natural Resources Institute (University of Greenwich).

Smith, Alastair M. 2009. “Evaluating the Criticisms of Fair Trade.” Economic Affairs 29 (4): 29-36.

James, Sallie. 2008. “Food Fight.” Center for Trade Policy Studies, Free Trade Bulletin, No. 31, January 31.

Morris, Julian. 2005. “Just Trade: The Moral Imperative of Eliminating Barriers to Trade.” IPN Trade Briefing Papers.

Welford, Richard, Julia Meaton and William Young. 2003. “Fair Trade as a Strategy for International Competitiveness.” International Journal of Sustainable Development and World Ecology 10 (1): 1-13.

Yanchus, Dennis, and Xavier de Vanssay. 2003. “The Myth of Fair Prices: A Graphical Analysis.” Journal of Economic Education, Vol. 34, No. 3, Summer, p. 235-240.

– Promoters
Martin, Kasi. 2021. “The Case for Fair Trade is Clearer Than Ever.” Global Retail Brands (March 23)

OXFAM. 2020. The world fair trade organization. Scaling equitable business models.

– Critics
Sylla, Ndongo Samba. Undated. The Fair Trade Scandal. Marketing Poverty to Benefit the Rich. Ohio University Press.

Wydick, Bruce. 2016. “10 Reasons Fair-Trade Coffee Doesn’t Work.” HuffPost (July 8).

Boudreaux, Don. 2007. “Perspective on Trade.” Café Hayek, December 29.

Giberson, Michael. 2005, “Taking Advantage of the Fair Trade Buzz.” Knowledge Problem, December 21.

Callahan, Gene. 2003. “Fair Trade… or Foul?LewRockwell.Com.

-Case Study: Coffee

Coffee with a Conscience” CBC Marketplace, February 15, 2000.

Berndt, Colleen E. H. 2007. “Does Fair Trade Coffee Help the Poor? Evidence from Costa Rica and Guatemala.” Mercatus Policy Series, July 2.

Boudreaux, Karol. 2007. “State Power, Entrepreneurship, and Coffee: The Rwandan Experience.” Enterprise Africa, October 31.

Boudreaux, Donald J. & Karol C. Boudreaux. 2007. “Economics in many lessons: A better brew for Rwanda.” Pittsburgh Tribune-Review, November 20.

Henderson, David R. 2008. “Fair Trade is Counter-Productive – and Unfair.” Economic Affairs 28 (3): 62-64.

Howley, Kerry. 2006. “Absolution in your Cup. The Real Meaning of Fair Trade Coffee.” Reason Magazine, March.

La Giorgia, Gian Carlo. 2002. “In Search of a Compassionate Cup.” The Manitoban, September 18.

Levi, Margaret and April Linton. 2003. “Fair Trade: A Cup at a Time?” Politics and Society 31(3): 407-432.

Rogers, Tim. 2004. “Small Coffee Brewers Try to Redefine Fair Trade.” Christian Science Monitor. April 13.

Ross, Oakland. 2002. “A Bitter Brew for Coffee Farmers.” Toronto Star, August 4.

Solomon, Lawrence. 2011. “Fair-trade coffee fix.” National Post, May 13.

Taussig, Doron. 2007. “Drip Grind – Taylor Clark’s weak case against Starbucks.” Washington Monthly, December.

Veeser, Cyrus. 2004. “Review of The Global Coffee Economy in Africa, Asia, and Latin America, 1500-1989.” Edited by William Gervase Clarence-Smith and Steven Topik. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2003. Business History Review, Spring.

Cato Institute Podcast. 2016. “Haitian Coffee Grows on Trees.”

Watkins, Tate. 2017. Haitian Coffee Grows on Trees. Independently published.

-Various entries on the Second Cup Controversy

Canadian coffee chain under attack.” Catholic New Times, March 21, 2004.

Demanding Fair Trade Coffee at SECOND CUP (Petition)

Fair Trade Coffee Sale (Petition)

Second Cup’s statement on fair trade coffee (CBC)

-Case Study: Canada – Supply Management
Findlay, Martha Hall (with assistance from Margarita Gres). 2012. “Supply Management: Problems, Politics – and Possibilities,” The School of Public Policy, University of Calgary, June 2012.

Hedley, Douglas D. 2015. “The Evolution of Agricultural Support Policy in Canada.” CAES Fellows Paper 2015-1.

Bernier, Maxime. 2018. “My Chapter on Supply Management.” Maximebernier.com (June 5).

Byers-Lane, Brett. 2018. “Inside Policy: It’s Time to Kill Canada’s Sacred Cow – Supply Management.” McDonald-Laurier Institute (July 24).

Hains, Brigid. Undated. “Cows might Fly.” Aeon.


Economic Policy Institute on Offshoring

Reason Public Policy Institute’s Offshore Outsourcing Resource Center.

The Facts about Insourcing, Organization for International Investment

Bringing the Jobs Home: How the Left Created the Outsourcing Crisis, and How We Can Fix It. Heritage Foundation. March 9, 2005.

Eric Edmonds of Darmouth College has written a lot on child labor

Economist Benjamin Powell of Suffolk University has written much on sweatshops

Global exchange against sweatshops

The UNICEF and the International Labour Organization have published several statistics and studies on this topic.

Initiative for Free Trade 

Free Trade Vs Fair Trade

Global Exchange on Fair Trade

Fair Trade Federation on Fair Trade

The Fair Trade Research Group at Colorado State University.

The Copenhagen Consensus on Subsidies and Trade Barriers

Black Coffee

Coffee @ nationalgeographic.com

Vanderbilt University Institute For Coffee

University of London (SOAS). Fair Trade, Employment & Poverty Reduction Research 
Response to Fair Trade statement 

Fair trade Foundation 
Response to SOAS report 

Fair Trade Initiative


June Arunga on
NGOs, African Business and Human Resource Diversion
Western Attitudes Towards Business in Africa

Knopfdoubleday. “Nina Munk’s The Idealist: Jeffrey Sachs and the Quest to End Poverty” (August 19, 2013).

CSPAN2. Book TV: “The Idealist: Jeffrey Sachs and the Quest to End Poverty by Nina Munk” (September-October 2013), 27:00 to 46:00.

Festival of Dangerous Ideas. 2012. “Jane Bussmann Interview ‘Bono and Bob Get Out of Africa’.”

Learn Liberty. 2012. “Why not Print More Money? (Antony Davies)” 

Learn Liberty. 2013. “How to Fight Global Poverty. (Stephen Davies)” 

Bill Whittle. 2017. “1. Money

Boudreaux, Don. 2015. “An Orgy of Innovation.” MR University: Everyday Economics.

TED Talks. 2010. Hans Rosling: The Magic Washing Machine

Jack Webb Dragnet – The Big Departure Speech (1968).



Global Institutions
-Historical Perspective
Luther, William J. 2014. Review of “The Battle of Bretton Woods: John Maynard Keynes, Harry Dexter White, and the Making of a New World Order (Princeton University Press, 2013)” by Benn SteilIndependent Review 18 (3) (Winter 2014).

-In their own words
What is the WTO?
– WTO. 2011. Making Globalization Socially Sustainable (Brochure) (Note: Full report and other material available here)

IMF at a Glance
– IMF 2008. Globalization: A Brief Overview

About the World Bank
– WB. Trade and Globalization

What do others think?
– IMF and World Bank
Karlin, Mark. 2007. “Naomi Klein: Shocking the World Bank and IMF Crowd with her Analysis of ‘Disaster Capitalism.” BuzzFlash (October 16).

Mitchell, Daniel J. 2021. “The IMF Should Be Eliminated, Not Expanded.” AIER (October 12)

– World Bank
Bovard, James. 2009. “McNamara’s Other Debacle.” LewRockwell.com (July 10).

Bovard, James. 2021. “Raiding the World Bank: Exposing a Fondness for Dictators.” Mises Wire (December 13)

Bate, Roger and Benjamin Schwab. 2004. “McNamara’s Bank.” TCS Daily (July 29). (Note: I have changed the link)

Klein, Naomi. 2007. “The World Bank has the Perfect Standard Bearer.” The Guardian (April 27).

Murray, Iain. 2015. “World Bank Increases Number of Poor.” CEI Blog (September 25).

Rockwell, Lew. 2018/2004. “Decentralize Global Trade Policy.” Mises Institute Daily Commentary (January 6; originally published as “Cotton Candy” on April 29, 2004.).

Nader, Ralph and Lori Wallach. “GATT, NAFTA, and the Subversion of the Democratic Process: WTO, The Global Enforcer” (excerpted from the book The Case Against the Global Economy edited by Jerry Mander and Edward Goldsmith, Sierra Club Books, 1997).

Griswold, Dan. 2000. “WTO Critics Trade Away Truth for a Sound Bite.” Cato Institute Commentary (January 2).

Lester, Simon. 2014 “The WTO vs. the TPP.” Cato Institute Commentary (May 2).


Foreign Aid
– Overview
Rieff, David. 2010. “Bono Can’t Save The World, Neither Can We.” The New Republic (October 19).

– Generally supportive
Waldrop, M. Mitchell. 2021. “Can science solve the poverty problem? An evidence-based policy movement is arming the fight with tools and programs that are more effective than ever before.” Knowable Magazine (December 10).

– Generally Critical
Ridley, Matt. 2014. “The Tyranny of Experts.” The Rational Optimist (March 21).

Hobbes, Michael. 2014. “Stop Trying to Save the World. Big ideas are Destroying International Development.” New Republic (November 17).

Mitchell, Dan. 2012. “American Politicians Should Learn Some Policy Lessons from Hong Kong and Singapore.” International Liberty (May 19).

Duren, Tirzah. 2018. “Food Aid Feeds Conflict and Dependence. Spending more on aid is only a positive if current programs are working, which they are not.” Fee.org (February 5).

Jeffrey Sachs and his (recent) critics
Sachs, Jeffrey D. 2013. “The End of Poverty, Soon.” The New York Times (September 24).

Sachs, Jeffrey. 2014. “The Case for Aid.” Foreign Policy (January 21).

Gates, Bill. 2014. “Why Jeffrey Sachs Matters.” Project Syndicate (May 21).

Munk, Nina. 2013. “The Idealist: Jeffrey Sachs and the Quest to End Poverty (Book Excerpts).” Huffington Post.
Part 1
Part 2
Part 3

Starobin, Paul. 2013. “Does It Take a Village.” Foreign Policy (June 24).

Foster, Peter. 2013. “Jeffrey Sachs meets Hayek.” National Post (September 18).

Handy, Bruce. 2013. “Nina Munk on Her New Book: Can ‘Bono’s Africa Guru’ Jeffrey Sachs Truly End Poverty?Vanity Fair (September 20).

Easterly, William. 2013. “The Big Aid Debate is Over.” Reason (October 4).

Odious Debt
Probe International on Odious Debts


Globalization and the Environment
– Overview
Gallagher, Kevin P. 2009. “Economic Globalization and the Environment.” Annual Review of Environment and Resources 34: 279-304.

Tupy, Marian. 2017. “There’s Nothing Green about Socialism.” CapX (December 1).

Johnson, Stephen. 2018. “Scientists to U.N.: To stop climate change, modern capitalism needs to die.” Big Think (August 29). 

Yeatman, William. 2018. “The Myth of the Environmental “Race to the Bottom. Debunking a highly influential regulatory theory.” FEE.org (February 10).

Ives, Eamonn. 2019. “Why Globalisation is Good for the Environment.” CapX (December 1). 

– Case Study: Synthetic Dyes, International Trade and the Environment
Morris, Peter J.T. and Anthony S. Travis. 1992. “A History of the International Dyestuff Industry.” American Dyestuff Reporter 81 (11) (November).

Desrochers, Pierre. 2014. “A Colourful History of Progress: The development of synthetic dyes was a mini industrial revolution.” Spiked! (November 18).

– Concluding Thoughts: COVID and the Global Supply Chain
Kotkin, Joel. 2021. “Confronting the Supply Chain Crisis.” Quillette (October 13).

Taylor, Peter Shawn. 2020. “Our Next Pandemic Policy Mistake: Self-Sufficiency in All Things.” C2C (December 23).


Poverty IncTrailer

Foundation for Economic Foundation. 2015. “Myth Busting African Poverty” (Magatte Wade).


Global Institutions
-Historical Perspective
Luther, William J. 2014. Review of “The Battle of Bretton Woods: John Maynard Keynes, Harry Dexter White, and the Making of a New World Order (Princeton University Press, 2013)” by Benn Steil, Independent Review 18 (3) (Winter 2014).

-In their own words
What is the WTO?
– WTO. 2011. Making Globalization Socially Sustainable (Brochure) (Note: Full report and other material available here)

What is the IMF?
– IMF 2008. Globalization: A Brief Overview

About us (the World Bank).
– WB. Youthink! Issues – Globalization

Aid” on Wikipedia

-Social, Economic and Policy Background
The New Foreign Aid (Los Angeles Times on the money sent back to home countries by migrant workers.)

–, “Millions of children dying needlessly.” BBC News, June 26, 2003.

–, “Poverty” on the Earth Institute’s Website.

Ammann, Melinda. 2005. “Cry the Beloved Continent – Africans are poor because they’re poorly governed.” Reason, July.

Bhandari, Jayant. 2005. “The Polluting State.” The Mises Institute. July 20.

Borders, Max and H. Sterling Burnett. 2006. “Farm Subsidies: Devastating the World’s Poor and the Environment.” National Center for Policy Analysis, Brief Analysis No. 547, March 24.

Bovard, James. 2005. “Bush’s Foreign-Aid Fraud.” LewRockwell.com, October 25.

Glassman, James K. 2005. “Poor Countries, Tear Down this Wall!” Frontier Center for Public Policy. December 09.

Gwartney, James & Robert Lawson. 2002. “Trade Openness, Sound Policies, & Prosperity.” Fraser Forum, May: 8-9.

Ferguson, Niall. 2007. “The Least Among Us.” The New York Times (July 1st).

Institute of Economic Affairs. 2016. The Economics of International Development. (Summary).

Innovation, Entrepreneurship and the Global Marketplace.” Alexis de Tocqueville Ceremony, Independent Institute, April 21 2004 (Some famous entrepreneurs’ personal take on globalization).

Kasper, Wolfgang. 2006. “Make Poverty History: Tackle Corruption.” Issue Analysis, Centre for Independent Studies, January 26.

Labs, Eric J. 1997. The Role of Foreign Aid in Development. Congressional Budget Office.

Mbeki, Moeletsi. 2005. “Underdevelopment in Sub-Saharan Africa: The Role of the Private Sector and Political Elites.” Foreign Policy Briefing no. 85, Cato Institute, April 15.

Palda, Filip. 2003. “The High Price of Natural Wealth.” Fraser Forum, January, 30-31.

Parris, Matthew. 2005. “We must all sneer and scoff at the corrupt, cruel jackasses of Africa.” The Sunday Times, July 02.

Williams, Walter. “Self-Inflicted Poverty.” Cato Institute Daily Commentary, July 12, 2004.

Vásquez, Ian. 2005. “Exploiting the Asian Disaster to Increase Foreign Aid.” Cato Institute, January 19.

Doing Business in 2006: Creating Jobs.” World Bank and International Finance Corporation, 2006.

-Theory and History
Adamson, Michael. 2002. “Social Scientists as Policy Makers.” Review Essay of Charles Kimber Pearce “Rostow, Kennedy, and the Rhetoric of Foreign Aid.” Michigan University Press, 2001. Humane Studies Review 14 (3).

Banerjee, Abhijit Vinayak. 2007. “Inside the Machine – Toward a New Development Economics.” Boston Review, March-April.

Blundell, John et al. 2002. A Tribute to Peter Bauer. London: Institute of Economic Affairs.

Djankov, Simeon, Jose G. Montalvo and Marta Reynal-Querol. “The Curse of Aid.” April 2005.

Haber, Stephen, Douglass C. North, and Barry R. Weingast. 2003. “If Economists Are So Smart, Why Is Africa So Poor?“, Hoover Digest no 4, Fall Issue.

Mary M. Shirley. 2004. “Review of The Institutional Economics of Foreign Aid by Bertin Martens, Uwe Mummert, Peter Murrell, and Paul Seabright, Cambridge University Press, 2002.” The Independent Review 9 (2): 299-302.

Remmer, Karen L. 2004. “Does Foreign Aid Promote the Expansion of Government?American Journal of Political Science 48(1): 77-92.

Shleifer, Andrei. 2009. “Peter Bauer and the Failure of Foreign Aid.” Cato Journal, Vol. 29, No. 3, pp 379-390.

Vasquez, Ian. 2007. “Peter Bauer: Blazing the Trail of Development.” Econ Journal Watch, Vol. 4, No. 2, pp 197-212.

-Historical Perspective and Recent Developments
Erixon, Fredrik. 2003. “Poverty and Recovery: The History of Aid and Development in East Africa.” Economic Affairs 23 (4): 27-33.

Dichter, Thomas. 2007. “A Second Look at Microfinance: The Sequence of Growth and Credit in Economic History.” Development Briefing Paper no. 1, February 15.

Kling, Arnold. 2006. “The Materialism Fallacy.” TCS Daily – TCS Daily, January 5.

Llosa, Alvaro Vargas. 2005. “Millennium Flop.” The Independent Institute, September 16.

Muzinich, Justin, and Eric Werker. 2008. “A Better Approach To Foreign Aid Private development finance is vital.” Policy Review, June & July.

Webster, Paul. 2006. “It’s The Pneumonia, Stupid.” Toronto Star, February 23.

Perspectives on Foreign Aid
A New Democracy Forum on “Making Aid Work.” Boston Review, July/August 2006.

Chowdhury, Abdur and Paolo Gharona. 2007. “Effective Foreign Aid, Economic Integration and Subsidiarity: Lessons from Europe.” Discussion Paper 2007-2, UNECE.

Special issue on Foreign Aid in the Journal of Development Studies vol. 37, No. 6, August 2001. especially, Hermes, Niels and Robert Lensink. 2001. “Changing the Conditions for Development Aid: A New Paradigm.” Journal of Development Studies 37 (6): 1-16.

Surowiecki, James. 2005. “A Farewell To Alms?The New Yorker, July 25.

Andrews, Fred. 2013. “A Surprising Case against Foreign Aid (Review of Angus Deaton’s The Great Escape, Princeton University Press, 2013).” The New York Times (October 12).

Bhagwati, Jagdish. 2010. “Review of Dead Aid: Why Aid Is Not Working and How There Is a Better.” Foreigh Affairs (January/February).

Bandow, Doug. 1998. “Foreign Aid, Help or Hindrance?Freedom Daily, February.

Brea, Jennifer. 2007. “Africans to Bono: ‘For God’s sake please stop!‘” The American, July 3.

Coyne, Christopher. 2008. “With Friends Like These, Who Needs Enemies? Aiding the World’s Worst Dictators.” Working Paper, Mercatus Center at George Mason University, September 24.

Dichter, Thomas. Time to Stop Fooling Ourselves about Foreign Aid. A Practitioner’s View. Cato Institute Foreign Policy Briefing No. 86.

O’Grady, Mary Anastasia. 2008. “The Real Key to Development.” The Wall Street Journal, January 15.

Powell, Benjamin and Matt Ryan. “Does Development Aid Lead To Economic Freedom?Journal of Private Enterprise. Vol. 22. No. 1. Fall 2006.

Sacks, Daniel, and Karol Boudreaux. 2008. “Starving for Change.” Mercatus On Policy, No. 30, November 3.

Shaw, Jane. 2004. “Overlooking the Obvious in Africa.” Econ Journal Watch 1 (1): 1-10.

Stossell, John and Gena Binkley. 2007. “Are Americans Cheap? Or Charitable?ABC 20/20, August 21.

2006-7 Olive W. Garvey Fellowships Winners on “Is foreign aid the solution to global poverty?”

Theroux, Paul. 2013. “Africa’s Aid Mess.” Barron’s (November 30).

The Easterly-Sachs Debate
Bate, Roger. 2006. “Planners vs. Searchers.” TCS Daily – TCS Daily, April 28.

Labohm, Hans. 2006. “‘For God’s Sake, Please Just Stop Aid’.” TCS Daily, March 6.

Schiffrin, Anya. 2009. “Moyo Joins the Frey” (Review of Dambisa Moyo’s Dead Aid). The Whitehead Journal of Diplomacy and International Relations. 10 (1): 167-169.

Burnham, James B. 2007. “The White Man’s Burden: Why the West’s Efforts to Aid the Rest Have Done So Much Ill and So Little Good.” The Independent Review, Volume 11, Number 4, Spring 2007.

Easterly, William. 2008. “Trust the Development Experts – All 7bn of Them.” Financial Times, May 29.

Easterly, William. 2007. “Africa’s Poverty Trap.” The Wall Street Journal, March 23, p. A-11.

Easterly, William. 2006. “The West Can’t Save Africa.” The Washington Post, February 13, p. A-21.

Easterly, William. 2005 “The End Of Poverty: Economic Possibilities for Our Time.” The Washington Post, March 13. (Sachs’ reply to Easterly’s criticism can be found here)

Giles, Chris. 2007. “Lunch with the FT: Jeffrey Sachs.” Financial Times, April 6.

Nolen, Stephanie. 2006. “Millennium Man.” The Globe and Mail, March 11.

Rich, Sam. 2007. “Africa’s Village of Dreams.” The Wilson Quarterly, Spring edition.

Cassidy, John. 2005. “Always with us – Jeffrey Sachs’s plan to eradicate world poverty.” The New Yorker, April 11.

Sachs, Jeffrey. 2009. “Aid Ironies.” The Huffington Post, May 24.

Sachs, Jeffrey. 2006. “Foreign Aid Skeptics Thrive on Pessimism.” Los Angeles Times, May 7

Sachs, Jeffrey. 2006. “Foreign Aid is in Everyone’s Interest.” Christian Science Monitor, May 10.

Wanjala, Bernadette. 2016. “Can the Big Push Approach End Rural Poverty in Africa? Insights from Sauri Millennium Village in Kenya.” PhD Thesis, Tilburg University (See also Clemens, Michael. 2011. “Kenyan Economist Offers First Independent Evaluation of Millennium Villages Project.” Centre for Global Development (November 28).

Roberts, Russ. 2014. Econtalk
Nina Munk on Poverty, Development, and the Idealist” (January 27)
Jeffrey Sachs on the Millennium Villages Project” (March 17)
Postmortem on Sachs Episode” (March 21)

Ben-Ami, Daniel. 2005. “Postponing the ‘End of Poverty’Spiked, May 6.

Cassidy, John. 2005. “Always with us – Jeffrey Sachs’s plan to eradicate world poverty.” The New Yorker, April 11.

Easterly, William R. 2008. “Why Bill Gates Hates My Book.” The Wall Street Journal, February 7.

Erixon, Fredrik. 2005. “Aid and development: Will it work this time?” International Policy Network, June 10.

Kristoff, Nicholas. 2006. “Aid: Can it Work?The New York Review of Books 53 (15). (Sachs’ comments; Easterly’s comments.)

Loungani, Prakash. 2006. “Review of William Easterly’s The White Me’s Burden (Penguin Press, 2006).” Cato Journal 26 (2): 382-382.

Martinez, Ibsen. 2007. “Reflections from Latin America – Latin America and the Ideology of Development.” The Library of Economics and Liberty, August 6.

Pardo, Pablo. 2005. “Has Foreign Aid ever Lifted a Country out of Poverty?El Mundo, May 26.

Parker, Star. 2005. “Philanthropy is the best foreign aid.” Naples Daily News, March 15.

Powell, Benjamin. 2005. “Doubling Aid Will Not Help World’s Poor.” Independent Institute, January 31.

Sen, Amartya. 2006. “the full review”>The Man Without a Plan.” Foreign Affairs, March/April.

Tupy, Marian L. 2005. “Poverty That Defies Aid,” Washington Times, June 19.

Copenhagen Consensus
Strassel, Kimberly A. 2006. “Get Your Priorities Right – A Rationalist Crusader Does the Math on Global Warming.” The Wall Street Journal, July 6.

Website of the Copenhagen Consensus

Wikipedia on the Copenhagen Consensus

Odious Debt Perspective
Several short articles on the “odious debt” perspective can be found here.

Boudreaux, Karol, and Tyler Cowen. 2008. “The Micromagic of Microcredit.” Wilson Quarterly, Winter.

Sautet, Frederic. 2008. “The Micromagic of Microcredit.” The Austrian Economists, February 7.

Surowiecki, James. 2008. “What Microloans Miss.” The New Yorker, March 17.

Tucker, Jeffrey. 2006. “Microcredit or Macrowelfare: The Myth of Grameen.” Mises.org, November 8.

Canada and Foreign Aid
Foreign Aid” in the Canadian Encyclopedia

What do others think?
– IMF and World Bank
Bovard, James. 2009. “McNamara’s Other Debacle.” LewRockwell.com (July 10).

Bate, Roger and Benjamin Schwab. 2004. “McNamara’s Bank.” TCS Daily (July 29).

Karlin, Mark. 2007. “Naomi Klein: Shocking the World Bank and IMF Crowd with her Analysis of ‘Disaster Capitalism.” BuzzFlash (October 16).

Klein, Naomi. 2007. “The World Bank has the Perfect Standard Bearer.” The Guardian (April 27).

Rockwell, Lew. 2004. “Cotton Candy.” Mises Institute Daily Commentary (April 29).

Nader, Ralph and Lori Wallach. “GATT, NAFTA, and the Subversion of the Democratic Process: WTO, The Global Enforcer” (excerpted from the book The Case Against the Global Economy edited by Jerry Mander and Edward Goldsmith, Sierra Club Books, 1997).

Griswold, Dan. 2000. “WTO Critics Trade Away Truth for a Sound Bite.” Cato Institute Commentary (January 2).

Lester, Simon. 2014 “The WTO vs. the TPP.” Cato Institute Commentary (May 2).

Globalization and the Environment
–. 2004. “Improvement of the World Environment: The Skeptical Environmentalist,” Economic Note, January, Institut Économique Molinari.

Cole, Matthew A., Robert J.R. Elliott, and Liyun Zhang. 2017. “Foreign Direct Investment and the Environment.” Annual Review of Environment and Resources 42, pp. 465-487.

Cherniwchan, Jevan, Brian R. Copeland, M. Scott Taylor. 2017. “Trade and the Environment: New Methods, Measurements, and Results.” Annual Review of Economics 9, pp. 59-85.

Bretschger, Lucas. 2017. “Is the Environment Compatible with Growth? Adopting an Integrated Framework for Sustainability.” Annual Review of Resource Economics 9, pp. 185-207

Chua, Swee. 1999. “Economic Growth, Liberalization, and the Environment: A Review of the Economic Evidence.” Annual Review of Energy and the Environment 24: 391-430.

Copeland, Brian R. and M. Scott Taylor. 2004. “Trade, Growth, and the Environment.” Journal of Economic Literature 42 (1): 7-72.

Driesen, David. 2003. “Markets are Not Magic.” Environmental Forum, November-December: 19-27.

Gardner, B. Delworth. 2004. “Globalization, Free Trade, and Environmental Quality.” in Terry Anderson (ed). You Have to Admit It’s Getting Better: From Economic Prosperity to Environmental Quality. Stanford: Hoover Institution Press.

Goklany, Indur. 2004. “Economic Growth, Technological Change and Human Well-Being.” In Anderson, Terry (ed.) You Have to Admit It’s Getting Better. Hoover Institution Press, p. 53-81.

Gowdy, John M. 1995. “Trade and Environmental Sustainability: An Evolutionary Perspective.” Review of Social Economy 53 (4): 493-510.

Griswold, Daniel T. 2001. Trade, Labor and the Environment. Trade Policy Analysis No. 15, August 2. Center for Trade Policy Analysis, Cato Institute.

Hayward, Steven F. 2005. “The China Syndrome and the Environmental Kuznets Curve.” Environmental Policy Outlook, December 21.

International Institute for Sustainable Development and United Nations Program for the Environment. 2000. Environment and Trade: A Handbook.

Karp, Larry. 2011. “The Environment and Trade.” Annual Review of Resource Economics 3: 397-417.

Nordstrom, Hakan and Scott Vaughn. 1999. “Special Studies 4: Trade and Environment“, World Trade Organisation.
Oxley Alan. 2005. “Blair’s Global Environment Failures: It’s Not Just Climate Change.” TCS Daily, June 22.

Pearce, David, Neil Adger, David Maddison and Dominic Moran. 1995. “Debt and the Environment.” Scientific American 272 (6): 52-56.

Reed, David. 2002. “Poverty and the Environment: Can Sustainable Development Survive Globalization?” Natural Resources Forums 26: 176-184.

Stroup, Richard. 2003. “Economic Freedom and Environmental Quality.” Paper presented at the Conference “Milton and Rose Friedman’s Liberalism at the Turn of the 21st Century.” Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas, October 23-24.

Yandle, Bruce. 2004. “Environmental Turning Points, Institutions, and the Race to the Top,” The Independent Review, Fall.

Forests and Wood Products
“Are Forest Making a Comeback?” Resources, Winter 2007, 8-10.

Forests Cover 30% of the Total Land Area.” FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations).

Canada’s Wood Product Manufacturing Industry: Industrial Outlook Autumn 2005.” Conference Board of Canada Report. October 2005.

Berg, Peter, and Per-Ove Nordström. 2006. “The China Factor in Fine Paper.” The Mckinsey Quarterly, March.

Carr, David L., Laurel Suter & Alisson Barbieri. 2005. “Population Dynamics and Tropical Deforestation: State of the Debate and Conceptual Challenges.” Population & Environment, Volume 27, Number 1, p. 89-113.

Franklin, Jerry F. & Johnson, K. Norman. “Forests Face New Threat: Global Market Changes.” Issues in Science and Technology, Summer 2004.

Kauppi, Pekka E., Jesse H. Ausubel, Jingyun Fang, Alexander S. Mather, Roger A. Sedjo and Paul E. Waggoner. 2006. “Returning Forests Analyzed with the Forest Identity.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 103 (46): 17574-17579.

Mandel-Campbell, Andrea. 2006. “Clear-Cutting The Lumber Business.” Macleans, January 23.

Parviainen, Liisa. 2006. “UH: End of Deforestation in View? Experts Advance New Way to Size Up Global Forest Resources.” University of Helsinki (University Communications), November 14th.

Petersen, Jim. 2005. “Death of a Sawmill: Environmentalists wreck small businesses – and do ecological damage while they’re at it.” The Wall Street Journal, December 29.

Swift, Allan (Canadian Press). 2005. “Major cuts in forest mills in 2005 should help recovery in 2006, say analysts.” AOL.ca Finance, December 27.

Is Globalization Causing a ‘Race To The Bottom’ in Environmental Standards? Assessing Globalization, Part 4. World Bank, 2000.

Bates, Jenny, and Debra S. Knopman. 2000. “Clean Trade.” Progressive Policy Institute (PPI), June 1st.

Yandle, Bruce, Maya Vijayaraghavan, & Madhusudan Bhattarai. “Environmental Kuznets Curves.” 2002. The Environmental Kuznets Curve: A Primer. PERC RS-02.

An introduction to trade and environment in the WTO.” World Trade Organization.

Case Study: Forest Cover
Ausubel, Jesse H. “On Sparing Farmland and Spreading Forest.” In Clark, T. and R. Staebler, eds., Forestry at the Great Divide: Proceedings of the Society of American Foresters 2001 Convention, Society of American Foresters, Bethesda MD, 2002, pp. 127-138.

On Wikipedia: “Dye,” “Natural Dyes,” “Pigment.”

Pigments: Historical, Chemical, and Artistic Importance of Coloring Agents.

Druding, Susan C. 2002. “Dye History from 2600 BC to the 20th Century.”

nicDhuinnshleibhe, Lady Siobhan. 2000. “A Brief History of Dyestuffs & Dyeing.” Runestone Collegium, 19 February.

The Project Gutenberg eBook, Creative Chemistry, by Edwin E. Slosson (originally published in 1919).

Schwarzc, Joe. 2017. “Carmine Dye and the Cochineal Insect.” McGill Office for Science and Society (February 15).

Travis, Anthony. 2007. “19th C High-Tech.” The Future of Things, November 12.

Travis, Anthony. 2001. “The Color Purplish. Review of Mauve: How One Man Invented a Color that Changed the World.” by Simon Garfield, W.W. Norton, 2000. American Scientist online, July-August 2001.

Fagin, Dan. 2013. “Dye Me a River: How a Revolutionary Textile Coloring Compound Tainted a Waterway. When aniline dye was synthesized from coal tar, few studied what the manufacturing process left behind.” Scientific American (March 22).

Greenfield, Amy Butler. 2017. “The Bug That Had the World Seeing Red. How a Mesoamerican insect created the globe’s most coveted color.” Iris Blog (Getty Museum).

Hicks, Jan. 2017. “William Henry Perkin and the World’s First Synthetic Dye.” Science + Industry Museum.

Science Museum. 2019. “The Colourful Chemistry of Artificial Dyes.”

Scully, Simone. 2021. “The Bug the World Fought Over.” Mental Floss (July 6).

COVID and the Global Supply Chain
Logistics Insights. 2020. “4 Big Logistics Challenges of COVID-19 – and How to Overcome Them.” (August 18).

IFC. 2020. The Impact of COVID-19 on Logistics. World Bank.

Kamall, Syad. 2020. Freight Expectations. Post-pandemic prospects for global tradeIEA.

Earle, Peter C. 2021. “An Armor Conspired: the Global Shipping Freeze.” American Institute for Economic Research (October 2).


Foreign Aid
The United Nations’ Millenium Project

The Copenhagen Consensus Website and “Global Crises Global Solutions,” a presentation by Bjørn Lomborg, Associate Professor of Statistics, University of Aarhus, and author of The Skeptical Environmentalist.

The Lancet Child Survival Series

Development Research Institute (New York University)

CATDM (Committee for the Abolition of Illegitimate Debt)

Odious Debt
Wikipedia. “Odious Debt

Investopedia. “Odious Debt

Kremer, Michael and Seema Jayachandran. 2002. “Odious Debt”. Finance & Development 39 (2)

Howse, Robert. 2007. The Concept of Odious Debt in Public International Law. UNCTAD Discussion Paper No. 185

Nehru, Vikram and Mark Thomas. 2008. The Concept of Odious Debt : Some ConsiderationsWorld Bank Policy Research Working Paper No. 4676.

The Sachs-Easterly Debate
The Earth Institute at Columbia University and Jeffrey D. Sachs’ book The End of Poverty. Economic Possibilities For Our Time

Economist William Easterly’s Website

Sachs Vs Easterly

An interview with Bill Easterly, Tavis Smiley Show, April 7, 2006.

Munk, Nina. 2007. “Jeffrey Sachs’s $200 Billion Dream.” Vanity Fair, July.

Easterly, William. 2008. “Easterly on Growth, Poverty, and Aid.” Library of Economics and Liberty, February 11.

World Economic Forum Annual Meeting 2007 – Scaling Innovation in Foreign Aid.” (Google Video)

The Independent Institute on Economic History and International Development

Special issues of the Cato Journal
24 (3), Winter 2004, on “Institutions and Development.”
25 (3), Fall 2005, on “Remembering Peter Bauer.”

The Cato Institute’s Simon Project.

Globalization and the Environment
A special issue of Environment and Development Economics, Volume 5, Issue 4, October 2000 on Trade and the Environment (see especially the Policy Forum section).

A special issue of the electronic journal Contributions to Economic Analysis and Policy (vol. 3, issue 2, 2004) on “The Pollution Haven Hypothesis.”

Environmental Sustainability Index prepared in part by Daniel C. Esty of the Yale Center of Environmental Law and Policy.

The Sierra Club on Trade and the Environment

WHO Health and Environment Linkages Initiative

Global Environment Outlook

Trade and the Environment” on the International Institute for Sustainable Development Website.

Forests and Wood Products
The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations’ Forestry Website

NPR: Study: Reforestation Shows Signs of Life, Nov 17 2006 (audio)

The Great Restoration:The Potentials for Forest Protection to 2050

The web page of my JGE 1609 course contains several more references to this topic.