Pierre Desrochers

GGR 387 – Food and Globalization – Course

Period: Winter 2023 
Instructor: Pierre DesrochersOffice: Davis Building, DV3273

Lectures: Thursday 3-5 PM

Lecture room: MN 2110 (in person)
Phone: (905) 828-5206E-mail: pierre.desrochers@utoronto.ca

In-person or video contact hours:

  • Office hours are Thursday 1:30–3:00PM in DV 3273.
  • If this time is not convenient, please e-mail me to schedule an alternative time.
  • E-mail is the primary mode of contact outside of office hours. I do not recommend phoning me at my office.

General information and rules about e-mailing me:

  • Please read the course syllabus carefully. Answers about course-specific rules, content and procedures (e.g., how to submit documentation regarding a missed assignment, policies about missed quizzes and tests) are already there.
  • Always use your University of Toronto e-mail address (@utoronto.ca) for all course-related communications. E-mails from other domains (e.g., hotmail, Rogers, gmail, yahoo, etc.) may be filtered as spam and will at any rate be ignored.
  • You can contact me anytime at pierre.desrochers@utoronto.ca. I will do my best to answer you promptly during office hours (Monday-Friday 9AM-5PM).
  • Always include the course code (e.g., GGR387) as part of your subject line, along with your full name and student number in the body of the e-mail.
  • I do not open attachments and will not answer during weekends.
  • E-mail should NOT be viewed as an alternative to meeting with the TA or professor during office hours. Nor should e-mail be used as a mechanism to receive private tutorials (especially prior to tests) or to explain material that was covered in missed lectures. Not receiving replies to e-mails from the TA or professor, or not receiving them in time, will not be an acceptable excuse for pleas for extensions to assignment or exam deadlines.
  • Students are advised to consult http://www.enough.utoronto.ca/ for information on university policy concerning the appropriate use of information and communication technology.

Questions about departmental and program-related policies and procedures:

  • Questions and queries about departmental or program-related rules and procedures should be directed at the Academic Counsellor for Geography/Environment, at advisor.gge.utm@utoronto.ca

Interest in agricultural issues and debates have grown markedly among non-specialist audiences in recent years. This course will provide a broad overview of the historical development of our global food economy along with a survey of recent trends and controversies.

Topics discussed will range from basic food staples, food markets and trade liberalization to food security, environmental sustainability and alternative agricultural systems. Understanding of technical terms and trade-offs, along with the local and global dimensions of the economics and politics surrounding our globalized supply chain will be recurring concerns in this course.

Please note that the Power Point slides used in class will NOT be made available to students.

The course format will alternate between formal classes and open discussions. Students are expected to have read the assigned texts in advance.

The course has four (4) main objectives:

  1. To cover the basic physical, technical and economic issues related to agricultural development;
  2. To cover broadly the history of our globalized food supply chain;
  3. To introduce students to past debates and current controversies;
  4. To apply a wide range of academic skills in active listening, note-taking, studying, reading, and test-taking to upper-level university courses.

There is no textbook or reading package for this class. Most of the readings are freely available on the web and links are provided on the course’s webpage. Most of the suggested readings are freely accessible from anywhere. Some of them, however, may require you to use a UofT terminal or user code.

1) Short Written Assignments40%(Two (2) assignments are due by March 9)
2) Written Assignment 110%February 2, 11:59PM
3) Written Assignment 220%April 6, 11:59PM
4) Written Assignment 310%April 6, 11:59PM
5) Final Exam20%TBA

As per the University Grading Practices Policy, please note that “after the methods of evaluation have been made known, the instructor may not change them or their relative weight without the consent of at least a simple majority of the students enrolled in the course. Any changes shall be reported to the division or the department.”

How to Query or Challenge a Mark

Please note that you have two weeks from the date an item is discussed in class to ask for the item to be remarked. Contact the Course Instructor for all queries about course marks, or if you wish to challenge a mark. Absolutely no item will be remarked after the two-week period has passed. Material submitted for remarking must be accompanied by a brief written explanation detailing your reasons for dissatisfaction with the original mark (such as an addition error or something you think the marker may have missed). A request for a remark without a written explanation will not be acted upon.

Please note that you are allowed two questions where you and the instructor can agree to disagree (meaning you believe that you are entitled to a higher mark, but your instructor disagrees) without penalty. Beginning with the third question where you and your instructor disagree, one point will be taken off your final mark by question for which a revised mark was requested by you and denied by the instructor.

Please note that the Power Point slides used in class will NOT be made available to students.

Themes for the final exam will be communicated to students through Quercus.

You will be given four themes to prepare. I will ask you specific questions based on two of these themes.

Following the vote taken in class on March 30th, you are now allowed to prepare and use a typewritten cheat sheet (so 2 pages) for the final exam.

All assignments will be submitted through Quercus and processed through Ouriginal.

What is the point of these assignments?

  • To acquire more in-depth learning about a topic discussed in this course and its relevance to broader policy discussions
  • To develop your writing skills
  • To learn to think critically
  • To learn the basics of scholarly and policy work

Useful links to help you write your assignments
The University of Toronto Library staff has compiled several links on researching and writing term papers and other types of work. Please look them up, along with the various university resources available to you:

Submitting your written assignments through Quercus will imply a review of textual similarity by Ouroriginal for detection of possible plagiarism. In doing so, students will allow their assignments to be included as source documents in the Ouroriginal reference database, where they will be used solely for the purpose of detecting plagiarism. The terms that apply to the University’s use of the Ouriginal service are described on the Ouroriginal web site (https://www.ouriginal.com/). If you have an objection to the use of Ouriginal for the submission of your work, please make an appointment to speak personally with the Course Instructor to discuss alternative arrangements.

Please note that submitting your paper through Ouroriginal or making alternative arrangements with your professor before the relevant deadlines is not optional. Failure to do so will result in a grade of 0 for your assignment. The late penalties describe in this syllabus will apply.

Details of the written assignments
Short Written Assignments

You are asked to submit at least four written assignments that consist of a one page (single space) reflexion on the REQUIRED READINGS for the week. Please note the following:

  • Each assignment will be worth 10% of your final mark.
  • The deadline to submit your written assignment through Quercus is 2:59PM the day of the lecture (To clarify, this is one minute before the lecture officially begins). Failure to do so will result in a grade of 0.
  • Two (2) of these assignments are due on or before March 9.
  • Please note that the departmental policy of 10% per day per late assignment does not apply in the case of the short written assignments.

To clarify

  • Neither the videos nor the suggested readings are to be covered in this assignment.
  • You must cover the readings that will be discussed in the following class. For example, on February 9 (or before) you must submit a written assignment based on the readings to be discussed in class on February 9, not the readings discussed in the previous lecture.
  • The point here is not to summarize the readings, but to identify the main theme(s) and how some of the readings complement or contradict each other. You do not need to cover all the required readings.
  • You can refer to the author’s last name only (e.g., “Diamond” for Jared Diamond)
  • You do not need to include a bibliography as your professor already knows the readings.
  • Each assignment will be graded out of 10. Your four best marks will be compiled to determine 40% of your final grade.
  • You can write up and submit up to 11 short written assignments.

Two good assignments written by past students have been included in the “Modules” of the Quercus shell for this course. Please consider them “best practice” and models to emulate.

Written Assignments 1-3

Please note that all these written assignments are on the same topic and build on each other. In other words, the question you select will be the same for written assignments 1, 2 and 3.

Written assignment #1

Please choose your topic for this assignment carefully as it will apply to all your written assignments this semester. [Hint: I strongly encourage you to look at the relevant required readings for each potential subject so that you select the one that is of greatest interest to you.]

Write a 2-3 page reflection on ONE of the following questions. The choice is yours. Please use the relevant required readings of the lectures listed in parenthesis as a basis for your reflection. Cite these relevant readings in your paper. You may cite additional sources if you want to, but this is not required for this assignment.

  • Was the world made better off or worse off because of the Green Revolution? (Lecture 3)
  • Would humanity giving up on meat consumption have significant environmental benefits? (Lecture 11)
  • Do the recent events in Sri Lanka validate the perspectives of supporters or critics of modern production agriculture? (Lecture 12)

In short, what your professor wants to know is 1) what is the topic about (i.e., define the concept and summarize the relevant controversy if applicable)? 2) What do you think of the debate/controversy on this topic based on your preliminary readings?


  • Text should be written in full sentences and paragraphs organized in a clear and coherent fashion.
  • The reflection should be written from a first-person perspective (i.e., you can use “I”, “me”, and “my” in this assignment).
  • Text should be 11-12 point font and 1.5-2.0 line spacing on all pages. If applicable, block quotes and bibliography should use 1.0 line spacing.
  • Pages should have regular 1 inch (2.54 cm) margins.

Due: Thursday, February 2 @ 11:59PM via Quercus (on the day of lecture 4)

Marking scheme:

  • Selection of appropriate question (1 point)
  • Format (guidelines, including all relevant information: name, student number, course and title numbers) (2 points)
  • Bibliography and Appendix (most references are from the syllabus; appendix included if relevant) (3 points)
  • Content (including appropriate use of references) (4 points)
Written assignment #2

Building on assignment 1, you must produce a document similar to the “In Brief” notes produced by the Library of Parliament’s Information and Research Service (Ottawa).

Here are links to a few “In Brief” notes:

As specified on the Library of Parliament’s website, their publications aim to “provide analysis to parliamentarians, parliamentary committees and parliamentary associations on current and emerging key issues, legislation and major public policy topics. The publications provide non-partisan, reliable and timely information on subjects that are relevant to parliamentary and constituency work (my emphasis).”

Your goal is to follow the spirit of these “In Brief” notes and produce a short document for busy people that presents all aspects of a particular problem in a non-partisan way. You must present and define the issue or problem, provide some background or context, explain why it is important and list all arguments for and against the problem or issue discussed. You can use bullet points, graphs or maps, but each claim or piece of evidence must be supported through an endnote.


  • Cover page. Must include subject title, first and last name, student number, course number, year and the exact wording of the question you are answering in your assignment;
  • Table of contents, including page number for each section;
  • Between 6 and 9 pages of text, excluding cover page, table of contents and endnotes;
  • Text should be 11-12 point font; 1.0 line spacing on all pages, including cover page, block quotes, and endnotes;
  • Pages should have regular 1.0 inch margins and be numbered;
  • Reference/Citation style: ENDNOTES. Format of your choice, but you must be consistent.

Due: Thursday, April 6 @ 11:59PM via Quercus

Marking scheme:

  • Selection of appropriate question (1 point)
    • Producing a document on the wrong question will result in an automatic final grade of 0.
    • Producing a document on a question that is only tangentially related to the question listed above will result in an automatic initial penalty of 10 points out of 20.
  • Format (e.g. “In Brief” style, endnotes) (4 points)
    • Failure to follow the “In Brief” formal  will result in an automatic initial penalty of 10 points out of 20
  • Bibliography / References (e.g., at most 3 additional references than those already listed on the syllabus) (5 points)
    • Using more than 3 references that are different than the ones listed on the syllabus will result in an automatic initial penalty of 10 points out of 20.
    • Listing references from the syllabus as endnotes when they clearly do not state what is argued in the text will result in an automatic initial penalty of 10 points out of 20. Doing so systematically will result in a final grade of 0.

Content (including appropriate use of references) (10 points)

Written assignment #3

Your task in assignment #3 is to your write your own commentary on the question you have researched in assignments 1 and 2.

An op-ed (originally short for “opposite the editorial page”) is a written prose piece which presents a specific opinion as opposed to a balanced perspective.

Present and support your one-sided position with ideas and facts learned while researching your previous assignments and in other lectures and readings during the semester.


  • In the old days of printed newspapers citations and references were not expected in an op-ed. Nowadays, editors typically ask for hyperlinks. Please create and use them to provide links to the original documents your are quoting or using numbers from. Limit your use of hyperlink to one word or number in a sentence. For instance, use the link for an author’s name rather than a full quote. (“Professor Desrochers said that students should not use A.I. to write assignments.”) Please note that a hyperlink is only a link to the original document. You are not expected to provide a page or any further information.
  • Your op-ed should be between 650-750 words, excluding your name, course number and student number. This assignment does not require a cover page, but it requires you to write the word count of your piece at the end of your assignment (e.g., Word count: 673 words.)

Content and style:

  • Keep in mind that your audience is the general reading public, meaning people who are likely not familiar with your topic and who may not have had a post-secondary education. Your reader has also no clue that you have written assignment #2.
  • You MUST draw the interest of potential readers by using a catchy title and, ideally, a “hook” at the beginning of your story (e.g., “Poachers have killed government officials in a nature preserve”; “Ruins of a gigantic city have been discovered in the Amazon”).
  • Explain your position using simple language, do your best to persuade and do not simply make assertions that are not backed up with hyperlinks (e.g., “Every expert agrees with me”).
  • Keep in mind that your word count is low and that you might have to use only your BEST arguments, not all the arguments that support your position.

External links:

The University of Toronto offers the following guidelines to write an effective op-ed piece:

  • Focus on one main idea or a single theme in your op-ed.
  • Have a clear editorial viewpoint. State that point in your first paragraph, and then proceed to back up your opinion or prove your thesis.
  • Look for opportunities to wed your specific area of expertise or interest with news developments.
  • If you can, be controversial in your opinion.
  • Always write for the lay reader. Be clear and straightforward. Use simple words, short declarative sentences. Even the brainiest of readers will lose interest if your submission is replete with long, complex sentences and paragraphs.
  • Make your submission as argumentative as possible. It should not appear driven by anger and it should follow methodological reasoning.
  • Express a strong call to action. Write with passion and “fire in your gut.”
  • Take pains to educate the reader with your insight, but don’t condescend or preach.

See also the op-ed guidelines of Carleton College.

Op-ed links: New York Times op-ed page


  • Due: Thursday, April 6 @ 11:59PM via Quercus

Marking scheme:

  • Selection of appropriate question (1 point)
    • Producing a document on the wrong question will result in an automatic final grade of 0.
    • Producing a document on a question that is only tangentially related to the question listed above will result in an automatic initial penalty of 5 points out of 10.
  • Format (2 points)
    • Please follow the guidelines provided above.
  • Content and style (7 points)
    • Please follow closely the guidelines provided above.
    • Using more than the 3 external references listed in assignment #2 will result in a penarly of 7 points out of 10
    • Listing references from the syllabus as endnotes when they clearly do not state what is argued in the text will result in an automatic initial penalty of 5 points out of 10. Doing so systematically will result in a final grade of 0.
Required Policy Statements:
Use of ChatGPT / Generative AI
Students may choose to use generative artificial intelligence tools as they work through the assignments in this course; this use must be documented in an appendix for each assignment. The documentation should include what tool(s) were used, how they were used, and how the results from the AI were incorporated into the submitted work. Failure to provide an appendix in this case will be penalized.
Student Technology Requirements and Connection Tools
Students are expected to review and be in compliance with the University’s requirements for online learning (https://www.viceprovoststudents.utoronto.ca/tech-requirements-online-learning/). More resources are available on the UTM Library’s Learn Anywhere website (https://utm.library.utoronto.ca/students/quercus/learn-anywhere). Zoom may be used in the delivery of components of this course. Students are required to register for a UTM Zoom account (https://utoronto.zoom.us) prior to the first lecture. Only authenticated users can join the zoom meetings; please follow the instructions to ensure that your account is authenticated.
Privacy and Use of Course Materials Notifications
(Please note that this policy statement does not apply for this course) This course, including your participation, will be recorded on video and will be available to students in the course for viewing remotely and after each session. Course videos and materials belong to your instructor, the University, and/or other sources depending on the specific facts of each situation, and are protected by copyright. Do not download, copy, or share any course or student materials or videos without the explicit permission of the instructor. For questions about recording and use of videos in which you appear please contact your instructor.
Communications Policy
Students are encouraged to be available during posted office hour(s). Correspondence by email or requesting a meeting outside of the scheduled office hour(s) is also acceptable. In all email correspondence regarding this course, please note the following:
  1. Always use your University of Toronto email address (…@mail.utoronto.ca) for all course-related communications.
  2. Include the course code as part of your subject line, and include your full name and student number in the body of the email
  3. Check the course Quercus site before emailing a question, to make sure that it has not already been answered
Please contact the department’s Academic Advisor (advisor.gge.utm@utoronto.ca) for any department- or program-related queries or to submit documentation regarding a missed quiz or test.
Snow days
If a snow day is declared, all classes are cancelled, whether online or in-person. Campus closures are posted on the Campus Status page. Instructors may not schedule additional “make-up” class meetings beyond the class hours already in the UTM Timetable.
Missed Term Work
Late assignments will be subject to a late penalty of 10% per day (including weekends) of the total marks for the assignment. Assignments submitted five calendar days beyond the due date will be assigned a grade of zero. Term Work – Accommodations
  1. Accommodations due to late registration into the course will NOT be approved.
  2. In courses with final exams, there will be no re-writes or make-ups for term tests/quizzes missed for University-accepted, verifiable reasons. Instead, the final exam will be re-weighted by the value of the term test/quiz.
  3. For in-class or online quiz/test, students CANNOT petition to re-write a quiz/test once it has begun.  If you are feeling ill, please do not start the online or in-class test and seek medical attention immediately.
  4. Extension requests are not permitted for open-book, take home tests. Extensions are built into the time provided for the test.
  5. Assignments cannot be re-weighted to the final exam.
  6. For extension requests, maximum extension (where/when possible) is ONE week.
  7. Extension requests must be made IN ADVANCE of the assignment due date.
  8. Assignments handed in AFTER the work has been returned to the class cannot be marked for credit.
  9. Students are responsible in ensuring strong reliable internet connection. Special consideration requests due to poor internet connection (ie. unable to complete online quiz / unable to submit assignment before deadline) will not be accepted.
  10. Students are expected to back up their work at all times.  As such, extension requests due to computer issues (stolen, crashed, damaged etc.) will not be considered.
  11. Extension requests will NOT be approved for Group Assignments
  12. It is every student’s responsibility to ensure that their online submission is submitted successfully by the due date.  Accommodations will not be made for unsuccessful submissions due to, but not limited to: i) the system timing out ii) submitting the incorrect document(s) iii) poor internet connection / no internet connection etc.
  13. Holidays and pre-purchased plane tickets, family plans, your friend’s wedding, lack of preparation, or too many other tests/assignments are not acceptable excuses for missing a quiz, a test, an item of term work, or requesting an extension of time. Such requests will be denied.
  14. For extensions of time beyond the examination period you must submit a petition through the Office of the Registrar. https://www.utm.utoronto.ca/registrar/forms
How to Request an Accommodation In the Geography, Geomatics and Environment department, professors cannot grant extensions on term work or allow makeups for missed items. Instead, you must follow the following steps:
  1. You must submit an online Special Consideration Request using the following link: https://utmapp.utm.utoronto.ca/SpecialRequest within 24 hours. Note: The system only supports Microsoft Internet Explorer and Firefox for the time being.
  2. Students registered with Accessibility Services are also required to submit an online Special Consideration Request using the following link: https://utmapp.utm.utoronto.ca/SpecialRequest
  3. Email your course instructor.
  4. ACORN Absence Declaration Tool: Use of this new online declaration does not require supporting documentation and should be used in addition to the missed term work policy outlined in the course syllabus. Students can use this absence declaration tool only once per term. When using this tool, students should expect to receive reasonable academic consideration from their instructor without the need to present additional supporting documentation. In addition, Instructors may exclude one test or quiz from the one-time absence declaration, in which case the student would be required to provide supporting documentation. To submit a request: https://www.utm.utoronto.ca/registrar/utm-absence
Please note that students are required to submit their assignment/lab as soon as they are able and they should NOT wait for the decision of the committee. Number of days approved for an extension will be calculated from the original assignment due date. It is your responsibility to follow the appropriate procedures and submit requests for special consideration on time. Failure to do so may result in the committee denying your request. Should you require further information regarding Special Considerations, please contact the GGE Academic Advisor (advisor.gge.utm@utoronto.ca). Please note that the written explanation and documentation that you submit represents an appeal from you, requesting the opportunity to account for that portion of your grade in some other manner. If a special consideration request is not received, or if the special consideration request is denied, you will receive a grade of zero for the item you missed. If the special consideration request is granted – that is, your reason for missing the item is considered acceptable by the committee – your grade will be accommodated accordingly. A Departmental committee evaluates each request. Decisions will be communicated by email within two weeks of receipt of all completed documents. Note: It is your responsibility to ensure your email account is working and able to receive emails.  Claims that a Departmental decision was not received will NOT be considered as a reason for further consideration. Contact the GGE Academic Advisor (advisor.gge.utm@utoronto.ca), should you NOT receive notification of your decision within 2 weeks of submission.
Equity Statement and Academic Rights
The University of Toronto is committed to equity and respect for diversity. All members of the learning environment in this course should strive to create an atmosphere of mutual respect. As a course instructor, I will neither condone nor tolerate behaviour that undermines the dignity or self-esteem of any individual in this course and wish to be alerted to any attempt to create an intimidating or hostile environment. It is our collective responsibility to create a space that is inclusive and welcomes discussion. Discrimination, harassment and hate speech will not be tolerated. If you have any questions, comments, or concerns you may contact the UTM Equity and Diversity officer at edo.utm@utoronto.ca or the University of Toronto Mississauga Students’ Union Vice President Equity at vpequity@utmsu.ca. The Department of Geography, Geomatics, and Environment at the University of Toronto Mississauga strives to uphold a commitment to equity, diversity, and inclusiveness which requires that we:
  • address the complexity of our disciplines’ histories, and
  • hold ourselves and others to account in order to challenge how we, as individuals and as part of larger institutions, continue to perpetuate inequity and injustice as we seek to create a more equitable and inclusive future.
Geographical and environmental disciplines – both in science and social science – have complicated histories. As academic pursuits and as practical tools for research and teaching, our disciplines have played core roles in settler colonialism and the institutionalization of racism and white supremacy – in the displacement and dispossession of Indigenous peoples, racist immigration policies, and environmental injustices perpetrated against Indigenous and Black populations, among many other forms of oppression. As a department, as a collective, and as a group of colleagues, we recognize our shortcomings—but we also acknowledge our fundamental commitment to diversity and inclusion. We seek to cultivate a departmental culture that welcomes and supports our students, staff, and faculty with diverse education and experiential backgrounds into our community, especially those who belong to groups that are currently underrepresented in academia. We are committed to providing a fair, equitable, and mutually supportive learning and working environment for all students, staff, and faculty.
Academic Rights
You, as a student at UTM, have the right to:
  • Receive a syllabus by the first day of class.
  • Rely upon a syllabus once a course is started. An instructor may only change marks’ assignments by following the University Assessment and Grading Practices Policy provision 1.3.
  • Refuse to use plagiarism detection tool (you must be offered an alternative form of submission).
  • Have access to your instructor for consultation during a course or follow up with the department chair if the instructor is unavailable.
  • Ask the person who marked your term work for a re-evaluation if you feel it was not fairly graded. You have up to one month from the date of return of the item to inquire about the mark. If you are not satisfied with a re-evaluation, you may appeal to the instructor in charge of the course if the instructor did not mark the work. If your work is remarked, you must accept the resulting mark. You may only appeal a mark beyond the instructor if the term work was worth at least 20% of the course mark.
  • Receive at least one significant mark (15% for H courses, 25% for Y courses) before the last day you can drop a course for H courses, and the last day of classes in the first week of January for Y courses taught in the Fall/Winter terms.
  • Submit handwritten essays so long as they are neatly written.
  • Have no assignment worth 100% of your final grade.
  • Not have a term test worth 25% or more in the last two weeks of class.
  • Retain intellectual property rights to your research.
  • Receive all your assignments once graded.
  • View your final exams. To see a final exam, you must submit an online Exam Reproduction Request within 6 months of the exam. There is a small non-refundable fee.
  • Privacy of your final grades.
  • Arrange for representation from Downtown Legal Services (DLS), a representative from the UTM Students’ Union (UTMSU), and/or other forms of support if you are charged with an academic offence.
Academic Integrity/Honesty or Academic Offenses
It is your responsibility as a student at the University of Toronto to familiarize yourself with, and adhere to, both the Code of Student Conduct and the Code of Behaviour on Academic Matters. This means, first and foremost, that you should read them carefully.
  • The Code of Student Conduct is available from the U of T Mississauga website (Registrar > Academic Calendar > Codes and Policies) or in your print version of the Academic Calendar.
  • The Code of Behaviour on Academic Matters is available from the U of T Mississauga website (Registrar > Academic Calendar > Codes and Policies) or in your print version of the Academic Calendar.
Another helpful document that you should read is How Not to Plagiarize, by M. Proctor. With regard to remote learning and online courses, UTM wishes to remind students that they are expected to adhere to the Code of Behaviour on Academic Matters regardless of the course delivery method. By offering students the opportunity to learn remotely, UTM expects that students will maintain the same academic honesty and integrity that they would in a classroom setting. Potential academic offences in a digital context include, but are not limited to:
  • Accessing unauthorized resources (search engines, chat rooms, Reddit, etc.) for assessments.
  • Using technological aids (e.g. software) beyond what is listed as permitted in an assessment.
  • Posting test, essay, or exam questions to message boards or social media.
  • Creating, accessing, and sharing assessment questions and answers in virtual “course groups.”
  • Working collaboratively, in-person or online, with others on assessments that are expected to be completed individually.
All suspected cases of academic dishonesty will be investigated following procedures outlined in the Code of Behaviour on Academic Matters. If you have questions or concerns about what constitutes appropriate academic behaviour or appropriate research and citation methods, you are expected to seek out additional information on academic integrity from your instructor or from other institutional resources.
University Plagiarism Detection Tool Conditions of Use Statement
“Normally, students will be required to submit their course essays to the University’s plagiarism detection tool for a review of textual similarity and detection of possible plagiarism. In doing so, students will allow their essays to be included as source documents in the tool’s reference database, where they will be used solely for the purpose of detecting plagiarism. The terms that apply to the University’s use of this tool are described on the Centre for Teaching Support & Innovation web site (https://uoft.me/pdt-faq).”
How to Query or Challenge a Mark
Please note that, according to UTM policy, you have one month from the date an item is returned to you, during which time you may query the mark or submit the item for remarking. Contact the Course Instructor in person or by email (@utoronto.ca) for all queries about course marks, or if you wish to challenge a mark. Absolutely no item will be remarked after the one-month period has passed. Material submitted for remarking must be accompanied by a brief written explanation detailing your reasons for dissatisfaction with the original mark (such as an addition error, or something you think the marker may have missed). The item may be returned first to the TA who originally marked it. If you are still dissatisfied, it may be passed on to the Course Instructor for reconsideration. If a remarking is granted by an instructor, the student must accept the resulting mark as the new mark, whether it goes up or down or remains the same.
Students with diverse learning styles and needs are welcome in our courses. In particular, if you have a disability/health consideration that may require accommodations, please approach UTM’s Accessibility Services as soon as possible. Accessibility staff (located in room 2037B, Davis Building) are available by appointment to assess specific needs, provide referrals, and arrange appropriate accommodations. Please call 905-569-4699 or email  access.utm@utoronto.ca. The sooner you let UTM’s Accessibility Services know your needs, the quicker they can assist you in achieving your learning goals.
Policy on Religious Observances
As noted in the Policy on Scheduling of Classes and Examinations and Other Accommodations for Religious Observances, the following provisions are included:
  • “It is the policy of the University of Toronto to arrange reasonable accommodation of the needs of students who observe religious holy days other than those already accommodated by ordinary scheduling and statutory holidays.
  • Students have a responsibility to alert members of the teaching staff in a timely fashion to upcoming religious observances and anticipated absences. Instructors will make every reasonable effort to avoid scheduling tests, examinations or other compulsory activities at these times. If compulsory activities are unavoidable, every reasonable opportunity should be given to these students to make up work that they miss, particularly in courses involving laboratory work. When the scheduling of tests or examinations cannot be avoided, students should be informed of the procedure to be followed to arrange to write at an alternate time.
  • It is most important that no student be seriously disadvantaged because of her or his religious observances. However, in the scheduling of academic and other activities, it is also important to ensure that the accommodation of one group does not seriously disadvantage other groups within the University community.”
  • With respect to minimum advance notice, the Policy provides that “Students have a responsibility to alert members of the teaching staff in a timely fashion to upcoming religious observances and anticipated absences.” Since students would normally be aware of upcoming religious observances as well as examination schedules in advance, a minimum of three weeks advance notice will be considered sufficient.
  • More information and some dates of potential relevance for the U of T community are available at viceprovoststudents.utoronto.ca/publicationsandpolicies/guidelines/religiousobservances.htm.
  • As with any academic accommodation request, students must submit an on-line Special Consideration Request @ https://utmapp.utm.utoronto.ca/SpecialRequest
RGASC Statement
The Robert Gillespie Academic Skills Centre (RGASC) is located in Room 3251 on the third floor of the Maanjiwe nendamowinan Building. The RGASC offers individual consultations, workshops (many CCR-accredited), and a wide range of programs to help students identify and develop the academic skills they need for success in their studies. Visit the RGASC website to explore their online resources, book an in-person or online appointment, or learn about other programming such as Writing Retreats, the Program for Accessing Research Training (PART), Mathematics and Numeracy Support, and dedicated resources for English Language Learners.
UTM Library’s Statement
The University of Toronto Libraries connect students with the world-class collections needed to successfully conduct research and complete assignments. At the UTM Library, located within the Hazel McCallion Academic Learning Centre, students will find dedicated support for their courses:
Suggested Scholarly Sources

Encyclopedia, Reference and Research Methodology Works

Hayes’ Handbook of Pesticide Toxicology (Third Edition)

Kipple, Kenneth F. and Kriemhild Coneè Ornelas (eds). 2000. The Cambridge World History of Food. Cambridge University Press.

Cutler Cleveland (ed.) Encyclopedia of Earth
Various sub-categories and specific entries, including Food, Agricultural and Resource Economics, Soils & Fisheries and Aquaculture

Vasant Gowariker et al. 2009. The Fertilizer Encyclopedia. Wiley.

Kirk-Othmer Food and Feed Technology, 2 Volume Set. 2007. Wiley.

Ullmann’s Agrochemicals, 2 Volumes. Wiley. 2007.

Keith Roberts (ed.) 2007. Handbook of Plant Science, 2 volumes. Wiley.

Jack R. Plimmer (ed.) 2002. Encyclopedia of Agrochemicals, 3 Volume.

Shelton, Anthony. Biological Control. A Guide to Natural Enemies in North America (Cornell University, Department of Entomology).

International Labor Organization (ILO). ILO Encyclopedia of Occupational Health and Safety
Food processes
Beverage industry
Livestock rearing

Canada-European Union: Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement (CETA)

Johns Hopkins Center for a Liveable Future. Undated. Food System Primer

Phillips, Denise and Sharon Kingsland (eds). 2015. New Perspectives on the History of Life Sciences and Agriculture. Springer (Full text available through UofT library).

Miller, Jeff and Jonathan Deutsch. 2009. Food Studies. An Introduction to Research Methods. Bloomsbury.

DeFries, Ruth. 2014. The Big Ratchet: How Humanity Thrives in the Face of Natural Crisis. A biography of an ingenious species. Basic Books.

Academic Journals

Journal lists
Association for the Study of Food and Society – Food Studies links (Academic journals)
Canadian Association for Food Studies – Journals

Special Issue (open access) on “Food Security: Feeding the World in 2050.” Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B (Biological Sciences) 365 (1554), September 27, 2010.

Special issue on “Can Science Feed the World.” Nature, July 28, 2010.

Special issue on “Food Security.”Science 327 (5967), February 11, 2010.

During 2000 and 2001, the editors of Plant Physiology published a series of now freely available Editor’s Choice articles devoted to biotechnology (Site maintained by the American Society of Plant Biologists).

Special issue (open access) of Social Research (Spring 1999) on “Food: Nature and Culture.”

Agricultural and Applied Economics Associations (Publications)
Agriculture and Human Values
Agricultural History
Agricultural History Review
Annual Review of Environment and Resources
Annual Review of Food Science and Technology
Annual Review of Resource Economics
Canadian Food Studies
Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety
Electronic Journals for Agriculture
Food and Foodways
Food, Culture & Society
Food Security
Frontiers in Sustainable Food Systems
Giannini Foundation Library (Journals)
Global Food Security
Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics
Journal of Agricultural & Food Industrial Organization
Journal of Agriculture, Food Systems, and Community Development
Journal of Peasant Studies
Journal of Rural Studies
Journals sponsored by the American Society of Agronomy
Taylor and Francis (Agriculture and Environmental Sciences)
Food, Culture & Society
Food & History
Food Policy
Review of Agricultural and Environmental Studies
Aquaculture, Fisheries & Fish Science

Suggested Websites


Association for the Study of Food and Society. The ASFS Guide to Useful Titles in Food Studies.

UN FAO (United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization) (the best resource for this course)
Codex Alimentarius Commission (FAO/WHO Food Standards)
World Agriculture: Towards 2015/2030 (An FAO Perspective)
FAO Committee on World Food Security
Food and Nutrition in Numbers 2014

Environmental Literacy Council on Food
GreenFacts.org on
Agriculture and Development
Diet and Nutrition
Food and Lifestyle
Liquid Biofuels for Transport
Water Resources

International Food Policy Institute

Global Food Security (UK)
Bibliography and Links

OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development)
Trade and Agriculture Directorate

Overseas Development Institute on Agricultural Development Policy

Resources for the Future on Food and Agriculture

USDA (United States Department of Agriculture) Economics Research Service

World Bank on
Agriculture and Rural Development
Agricultural trade
Distortions to agricultural incentives
World Development Report 2008: Agriculture for Development

World Food Prize

World Health Organization
Food safety
Atlas – Life Expectancy at Birth

World Trade Organization
Food Security
Agricultural News

International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD)

About.com – Agricultural Geography
Geography of Agriculture: An Overview of Agricultural Geography
Slash and Burn Agriculture
Green Revolution
The Von Thunen Model

United Nations
UNCTAD (United Nations Conference on Trade and Development)
UNEP (United Nations Environmental Programme)
World Food Programme
World Food Programme Insight
OHCHR (Office of the High Commissioner on Human Rights) on the Right to Food
UN Committee on Global Food Security

Johns Hopkins’ Center for a Livable Future – Food Policy Resources

Food writer Anne Ewbanks


Global Food Security (UK) links to food security statistics (various sources)

AMAD (Agricultural Market Access Database)
ASTI (Agricultural Science and Technology Indicators)
Canadian Dairy Information Centre
Farm Subsidy Database
Futures Trading Charts
Gapminder Agriculture
FAO Socio-economic, Agricultural and Environmental Indicators
Food Prices Index
Statistical Yearbook
UNCTAD (United Nations Conference on Trade and Development)
Agricultural Products and Beverages
Statistics Canada
USDA (United States Department of Agriculture)
Economics Research Service
Economics, Statistics, and Market Information System
National Agricultural Statistics Service
Ag Atlas Maps
Crops and Plants
Livestock and Animals
USGS (United States Geological Survey)
Mineral Commodities Summaries (estimates covering nonfuel mineral industry data, including fertilizers)


Antique and Classical Writings
Marcus Porcius Cato (Cato the Elder). Approx. 160 BCE. de Agri Cultura
Marcus Terentius Varro. Approx. 27 BCE. de Re Rustica
Lucius Junius Moderatus Columella. Approx. 65AD. de Re Rustica

About.com “Agriculture and Farm Innovations
Archaeology on
plant domestication
animal domestication
domestication of animal and plants

Agricultural History Society
British Agricultural History Society
Cambridge World History of Food (Table of contents)
Core Historical Literature of Agriculture (Cornell University)
Eh.Net Encyclopedia of Economic and Business History (various entries)
Farm, Field and Fireside: Agricultural Newspaper Collection (University of Illinois)
Food Bibliography
Food History News
Foodlinks (A selection of English web pages related to food history)
Food Museum Online
Food Timeline
History, Art and Biography
Natural History Museum (UK), Seeds of Trade
Rare book image gallery
Research Centre for the History of Food and Drink (University of Adelaide)

Encyclopedia of Canada – Agriculture (History)

USDA (United States Department of Agriculture) on
Growing a Nation (History of American Agriculture)
History of American Agriculture timeline
Pomological Watercolor Collection

Topical (Topics, Museums and Exhibits)
Fruitlands Museum
Potato Museum
Rice (All about rice – International Year of Rice)
World Carrot Museum

Online courses
Albala, Ken (University of the Pacific). Food: A Cultural Culinary History

Current Issues

News (specialized)
AgWeb (Farm Journal)
Amber Waves
ARE update (Agricultural and Resource Economics Update – UC Davis)
FAO Global Information and Early Warning News (on food and agriculture)
Farmpolicy.com (A Summary of Farm Policy News – USA)
FEWS Net (Famine Early Warning System Net – US Aid)
Meridian Institute – Food Security and AgBiotech News
National Geographic on food (Weekly “Future of Food” newsletter)

News (general)
The Globe and Mail on Food and Wine
The Guardian on Food and Drink
Washington Post on Global Food Crisis

Commodity-based Research Centers
AVRDC – The World Vegetable Center

Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research
(Among the most prominent CGIAR research centers are
International Center for Tropical Agriculture
International Food Policy Research Institute
International Livestock Research Institute
International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center
International Rice Research Institute)

Global Partnership Initiative for Plant Breeding Capacity Building
(see the list of partners:global | regional | national | societies and associations | web initiatives)

International Trade Associations and Societies
Crop Life International (Plant Science Industry)
European Fertilizer Manufacturers Association
Grain and Feed Trade Association (GAFTA)
IFA: International Fertilizer Industry Association
International Fertilizer Development Center
International Food Information Council Foundation – Food Insight
International Seed Federation
International Union of Nutritional Sciences
International Union of Food Science and Technology
International Union of Soil Science
International Union of Toxicology
Snack Food Association – An International Trade Association
World Organization for Animal Health

International Labor Organization
Bibliographies on agriculture, plantations and other rural sectors
Bibliographies on the food, drink and tobacco sector

Governmental and National Institutions, Societies and Activists

Government of Canada
Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada
Canadian Food Inspection Agency
Food Safety
Public Health Agency of Canada on Food Safety
Statistics Canada, Canadian Agriculture at a Glance
Health Canada
Food Safety
Agricultural Food Crops
Codex Alimentarius in Canada
Pesticides and Pest Management
Foreign Affairs and International Trade Canada

Hedley, Douglas D. 2015. “The Evolution of Agricultural Support Policy in Canada.” CAES Fellows Paper 2015-1.

Be Food Safe (Canada)
Beef Information Centre
Food Secure Canada
Canadian Agri-Food Trade Alliance
Canadian Canola Growers’ Association
Canola Council of Canada
Canadian Agri-Food Policy Institute
Canadian Encyclopedia on Agriculture
Canadian Federation of Agriculture
Canadian Federation of Independent Grocers
Canadian Grain Commission
Canadian Organic Growers
Canadian Organic Livestock Association
Canadian Seed Growers Association (CSGA)
Canadian Seed Institute (CSI)
Canadian Seed Trade Association (CSTA)
Canadian Soybean Exporters’ Association
CD Howe Institute on agricultural policy
Farmers Feed Cities
Food and Consumer Product Manufacturers of Canada
Grain Growers of Canada (GGC)
Healthy Canadians website
Montreal Economic Institute (MEI) on Agriculture
Nourrir notre monde
People’s Food Policy Project
Retail Council of Canada
Seeds of Diversity
Slow Food Canada
Soy 2020 Project
Union des producteurs agricoles (Quebec)
Vegetable Oil Producer of Canada

Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs on:
food safety and traceability
organic agriculture
urban agriculture
on food
food safety and traceability
food inspection programs
animal health and welfare
on food safety

Ontario Ministry of Environment
Agriculture & Farming
Nutrient Management

– Varia
Ontario agricultural and agri-business statistics
Foodland Ontario
Ontario Food Terminal Board

Agricultural producers, agri-business and other organizations
List of Agriculture, Food and Rural Organizations
Grain Producers of Ontario (corn, wheat and soybeans)
Ontario Agri-Business Association (OABA)
Ontario Farmland Trust
Ontario Federation of Agriculture
Ontario Wheat Producers’ Marking Board
Organic Agriculture Centre of Canada – Ontario
Organic Council of Ontario

American Dietetic Association
American Frozen Food Institute
American Phytopathological Society
American Seed Trade Association
American Society of Agronomy
American Society for Plasticulture
Center for Disease Control and Prevention on nutrition and food safety
Council on Food, Agricultural and Resource Economics
Food and Drugs Administration on food
Grocery Manufacturers Association
Institute of Food Technologists
National Center for Food and Agricultural Policy
Partnership for Food Safety Education
Slow Food USA

United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) on
Food and Nutrition Information Center
Food Safety Research Information Office
National Agricultural Library
Food Atlas

USDA Food Safety and Inspection Service
Food Safety Education

US GAO (Government Accounting Office)
Agriculture and Food

Australian Commodity Research Institute – Food Institute
Center for Strategic and International Studies’ Global Food Security Project
The Danish Environmental Institute’s Green Roads to Growth Project – Case Study Area #5: Agriculture
German Institute of Food Technologies
Global Food Security (UK) (Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council)
OXFAM on Agriculture
UK Department of the Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA) on Food

Academic Research Centers

Agricultural Policy Research Networks
Canadian Agricultural Innovation and Regulation Network
Canadian Agricultural and Trade Policy Network (CATPRN)
Canadian Association for Food Studies
Ecological Agriculture Projects
George Morris Centre
National Food Strategy
Ryerson University’s Centre for Studies in Food Security

Agrarian Studies (Yale University)
Agile Agriculture (University of Arkansas)
California Agriculture (University of California)
Food Policy Institute (Rutgers University)
Giannini Foundation of Agricultural Economics (University of California)
Leopold Center for Sustainable Agriculture (Iowa State University)
University of California Sustainable Agriculture and Education Program

United Kingdom
Cultures of Consumption Project on
Alternative Food Networks
History of Italian Style Coffee
Chewing Gum
Water Politics in the UK (History)
Global Supply Chains and Consumer Confidence
Leverhulme Centre for Integrative Research on Agriculture and Health

Organizations and individuals with a strong point of view

– Pro modern agri-business and trade liberalization
American Council on Science and Health
Biotechnology Information
Cato Institute on agricultural trade and “downsizing the federal government” (agriculture)
Center for Consumer Freedom
Center for Global Food Issues
Committee for a Constructive Tomorrow (CFACT) on Agriculture
Council for Agricultural Science and Technology
Frontier Centre for Public Policy’s Rural Renaissance Project
Genetic Literacy Project
Heritage Foundation on Agriculture
Hudson Institute on Agriculture and Biotechnology
Independent Institute on agriculture
International Food and Agricultural Trade Policy Council
Meridian Institute on Agriculture and Food Security
Safe Food Inc
Science for Sustainable Agriculture
The Truth about Trade and Technology

Dennis Avery (Hudson Institute, CFACT and Center for Global Food Issues)
Indur Goklany on Food Security and Agriculture
Jayson Lusk (Oklahoma State University)
Jim Prevor (Perishable Pundit)
Jon Entine
Jude Capper
Kym Anderson (University of Adelaide, formerly at the World Bank)
Louise O. Fresco (University of Amsterdam)
Robert Paalberg
Robert L. Shewfelt
Rob Lyons – Panic on a Plate
Ronald Bailey
Sallie James (Cato Institute)
Thomas R DeGregori (University of Houston)
Vaclav Smil (University of Manitoba)
Rachel Laudan
Kevin Folta
Steve Savage

– Critics of modern agri-business and globalization
Agriculture, Food & Human Values Society
Association for the Study of Food and Society
Berry Center
Center for Food Safety
Center for Science in the Public Interest
Institute for Agriculture and Trade Policy
Institute for Food Policy and Development
Land Institute
La Via Campesina (International PeasantMovement)
Montana Food System Council
National Sustainable Agriculture Coalition
Oakland Institute
Rodale Institute
Schumacher Center for a New Economics
Seed Savers Exchange
Slow Food International
Sustainable Agriculture (resources on)
Sustainable Agriculture Network
Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education
Sustainable Food

Miguel Altieri (UC-Berkeley)
Mark Bittman
Tim Lang
Matt Liebman (Iowa State University)
Marion Nestle (Food Politics)
Raj Patel
Michael Pollan
Sara Rich
Paul Roberts (The End of Food)
Joel Salatin (Polyface)
Eric Schlosser
Nicola Twilley (Edible Geography)

Miscellaneous items

Shipping rates calculator

Animal Diseases

World Organization for Animal Health