Pierre Desrochers

GGR 333 – Energy and Society – Lectures (Part 1)

Period: Fall 2022
Instructor: Pierre DesrochersOffice: Davis 3273
Lectures: Tuesday 11AM-1 PMLecture room: CC3150
Phone: (905) 828-5206E-mail: pierre.desrochers@utoronto.ca

Lecture 1 (Sept. 13): Introduction
Lecture 2 (Sept. 20): Concepts and the Big Picture
Lecture 3 (Sept. 27): Carbon-Fuelled Civilizations 1
Lecture 4 (Oct. 4): Carbon-Fuelled Civilizations 2
No class (Oct. 11): Reading Week
Lecture 5 (Oct. 18): Carbon-Fuelled Civilizations 3
Lecture 6 (Oct. 25): Carbon-Fuelled Civilizations 4
Lecture 7 (Nov. 1): Electricity 1
Lecture 8 (Nov. 8): Electricity 2
Lecture 9 (Nov. 15): Electricity 3
Lecture 10 (Nov. 22): The Perennial Energy Debate
Lecture 11 (Nov. 29): The Curse of Natural Resources and Energy Security
Lecture 12 (Dec. 6): The Future of the Automobile


• Conflicting Visions
– Restrictionists/Green
The Guardian. 2015. Why Fossil Fuels need to Stay in the Ground – A Video Explainer

– Expansionists/Free-Market
Simplifilm. 2014. The Moral Case for Fossil Fuels by Alex Epstein Official Book Trailer

Stossel TV. 2020. “Thank You, Fossil Fuels.” (August 4).

– Middle Ground
GatesNotes. 2014. Bjorn Lomborg: Fighting Poverty with Fossil Fuels (June 25). 


• Energy in the News
Murphy, Rex. 2022. “The ‘two nations’ of Canada, land of mad gas prices While a privileged class cheers the carbon tax, the rest of us suffer.” National Post (May 28).

Miltimore, Jon. 2022. “Why Energy Prices Are Projected to Increase 50% in 2022—After Doubling Last Year.” Fee.org (May 2).

• Conflicting Visions
– Restrictionists/Green
Wesoff, Eric. 2020. “Renewable Energy in the US Surpassed Coal for First Time in More than a Century. The coal era is officially over in the United States. Not since 1885, when coal replaced wood, have renewables taken the lead.” PV Magazine (May 29).

DeWeerdt, Sarah. 2020. “Conventional Wisdom Holds that Rising Living Standards are Fueled by Oil. What if that’s wrong?” Anthropocene (March 31).

Le Billon, Philippe and Berit Kristoffersen. 2018. “Climate Change Talks Need to Address Fossil Fuel Supplies.” Policy Options (December 12).

Montgomery, L. Scott. 2018. “Cheap Oil is Blocking Progress on Climate Change.” The Conversation (December 12).

McKibben, Bill. 2012. “Global Warming Terrifying New Math.” Rolling Stone (July 19).

Monbiot, George. 2011. “Let’s face it: none of our environmental fixes break the planet-wrecking project.” The Guardian, May 3.

– Expansionists/Free-Market
Morgan, Gwyn. 2022. “When Intentions Are All: The Disastrous Consequences of the Green Movement’s Actions.” C2C (July 17).

Ramachandran, Vijaya. 2021. “Fossil Fuel Investments in Africa are Necessary for Economic Growth and Climate Resiliency.” The Ecomodernist (June 11).

Mills, Mark P. 2019. “41 Inconvenient Truths on the “New Energy Economy.”” Fee.org (July 7).

Epstein, Alex. 2015. “Carbon Week: The G7’s Immoral No-carbon Pledge.” National Post (June 16). 

O’Neill, Brendan (2014/2009). “Hands off the Human Footprint!Spiked! (December 17).

Green, Kenneth. 2014. “Anti-Energy Activists Don’t Want to Talk About Energy Poverty.” Huffington Post (July 30).

Bradley Jr, Robert. 2010. “A Free Market Energy Vision.” MasterResource, July 16.

– Middle Ground
Smil, V. 2011. “Global Energy: The Latest Infatuations.” American Scientist 99:212-219.

• Visions for Canada
The Leap Manifesto

Smart Prosperity Institute. 2020. The Resilient Recovery Framework, version 2 (Executive Summary).

McTeague, Dan. 2020. “In Praise of Fossil Fuels.” Canadians for Affordable Energy (April 27).

McTeague, Dan. 2020. “Butts’ Return Means High Prices for Canadians.” Canadians for Affordable Energy (June 3).

Canada Energy Regulator. 2022. Provincial and Territorial Energy Profiles – Ontario.


• General interest
Can Technology Save the Planet?,” The Economist, July 4th, 2002 (Part of the Survey of the Global Environment).

Cohen, Stephanie. “Energy Dreams and Energy Realities.” The New Atlantis, Spring 2004.

Committee on America’s Energy Future, National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering and National Research Council. 2009.
America’s Energy Future: Technology and Transformation. National Academies Press (Summary Edition).

Glassman, James K. 2005. “Energetic Ignorance.” Tech Central Station, April 20.

Holdren, John P. 2001. “Searching for a National Energy Policy,” Issues in Science and Technology, 17 (3).
Followed in the next issue by a forum on energy policy.

Energy” on John McCarthy’s Progress and Its Sustainability Website.

Kling, Arnold. 2008. “The Energy Future: Scenarios.” Tech Central Station, March 6.

Lieberman. Ben. 2006. “Snake Oil Policy.” Tech Central Station, September 12.

Lim, Audrea. 2018. “The Ideology of Fossil Fuels. Imagining a low-carbon world means revisiting our conception of freedom itself.” Dissent (Spring).

Pizer, William A. “Setting Energy Policy in the Modern Era: Tough Challenges Lie Ahead.” Resources (Navigating Energy Choices in the 21st Century), Winter 2005, Issue 156, pp. 8-10.

Sibilla, Nick. 2012. “Free Markets Save the Planet.” Reason – Hit & Run (January 27).

Vaclav Smil. “U.S. Energy Policy The Need for Radical Departures.” Issues in Science and Technology, Summer 2009.

Boisvert, Will. 2014. “The Left vs the Climate.” The Breakthrough (September 18).

Calvert, Kirby. Forthcoming. “From ‘Energy Geography’ to ‘Energy Geographies.’ Perspectives on a Fertile Academic Borderland.” Progress in Human Geography.

Huber, Matthew. 2015. “Theorizing energy geographies.” Geography Compass 9(6): 27-38.

Smil, Vaclav. 2014. The Arc of History. J. P. Morgan Chase.

Yatchew, Adonis. 2014. “Economics of Energy, Big Ideas for the Non-economist.” Energy Research & Social Science (1): 74-82.

• Topical interest
Shurtleff, Sean. 2008. “Energy Independence in Brazil: Lessons for the United States.” NCPA Brief Analysis (614), April 7.

Roberts, Paul. 2008. “The Seven Myths of Energy Independence.” Mother Jones, May/June Issue.

Schulz, Nick. 2005. “The Great Escape.” Tech Central Station, December 1st.

Taylor, Jerry. 2005. “Republicans vs. Oil.” NationalReview.com, November 8.

• Overview
National Academy of Engineering. 2000. Greatest Engineering Achievements of the 20th Century.

Gillingham, Kenneth, Richard Newell and Karen Palmer. 2006. “Energy Efficiency Policies: A Retrospective Examination.” Annual Review of Environment and Resources Vol. 31: 161-192 (November).

Sims Gallagher, Kelly, John P. Holdren, and Ambuj D. Sagar. 2006. “Energy-Technology Innovation.” Annual Review of Environment and Resources Vol. 31: 193-237 (November).

International Energy Agency. 2015. World Energy Outlook 2015
– Press material

US Energy Information Administration (EIA). 2015. Annual Energy Outlook 2015
– Executive Summary

BP. 2015. Energy Outlook 2035
– Outlook in Brief 

ExxonMobil. 2015. The Outlook for Energy: A view to 2040, page 1

Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC). 2015. World Oil Outlook 2015
– Executive Summary

Forecasting in retrospect
Bailey, Ronald. 2009. “How Green Is Your Crystal Ball? The National Academy of Sciences tries to predict America’s energy future. Again.” ReasonOnline.com, August 4.


Epstein, Alex. 2022. “5 trends shaping the future of energyAlex Epstein Substack (October 20).


A RFF video on “Taking Measure of U.S. Energy Policy: A Review of the Energy Policy Act of 2005.”

Interview with Prof. Peter Odell, 2006 OPEC Award Recipient

Science and Technology – Power Hungry: The Myths of Green Energy and the Real Fuels of the Future.

Norberg, Johan. 2015. Power to the People. Free to Choose Network (available either here or here).


American Museum of Natural History. 2016. Human Population Through Time

Student Energy
– Energy units 101 

Lomborg, Bjorn. 2019. “No, Renewables are not Taking over the World.” 

British Pathé – Power: Constructing a Car Engine (1930-1939). (Watch from beginning to 4:00)

Required interactive website

Energyphile (Peter Tertzakian) (browse).

Suits, Matteson and Moyer (2020). “US Energy Visualization.”


• Big picture
Zhang, Sarah. 2017. “A Grand New Theory of Life’s Evolution on Earth. A series of energy revolutions – some natural, some technological – built upon one another to give us our rich, diverse biosphere.” The Atlantic (May 19) 2017 (original essay here).

Plumer, Brad. 2014. “11 Maps that Explain the US Energy System.” Vox

Montreal Economic Institute. 2014. Canada’s Energy Profile in 40 Questions.

Gates, Bill. 2022. PATH TO ZERO: The state of the energy transition (My annual memo about the journey to zero emissions.) Gates Notes (October 18).

Browse, Executive Summary or At a Glance
Newell, Richard. Daniel Raimi, Seth Villanueva, and Brian Prest. 2021. Global Energy Outlook 2021: Pathways from Paris. Resources for the Future Report 21-11.

BP. 2022. Statistical Review of World Energy.

Basic concepts
Canadian Geographic. Energy IQ. Canada’s Energy Education Resource (Browse).

Bradley, Robert L and Richard W. Fulmer. Energy: The Master Resource, Kendall Hunt Publishing Company, 2004, Chapter 1: The Basics and Chapter 3: Efficiency – Technical and Economic.

Huber, Peter. 2004. “The Virtue Of Waste.” Forbes, December 13.

Huber, Peter. 2005. “Thermodynamics and Money.” Forbes, May 31.

• Energy transitions
Meyer, Robinson. 2018. “The Weekly Planet: What Extremely Muscular Horses Teach Us About Climate Change.The Atlantic (December 8).

Evans, Margaret. 2019. “Pit Ponies and Horses.” Horse Journals (July 5).

Bhutada, Govind. 2022. “The History of Energy Transitions.” Visual Capitalist.

EIA. 2013. “Energy Sources have Changed throughout the History of the United States.” Today in Energy (July 3).

Wrigley, Tony. 2011. “Opening Pandora’s box: A new look at the industrial revolution. ” VOX, 22 July.

Ausubel, Jesse. 2000. “Where is Energy Going?,” The Industrial Physicist 6(1): 16-19.

Connelly, Quinn. 2018. “Energy Transitions? Not So Fast.” Real Clear Energy (April 18).

Bryce, Robert. 2022. “Hyping the Energy Transition. Consumption of fossil fuels is growing faster than ever.” Quillette (October 18).

Colamaria, David. 2010. “Working with Coal.” The Steel Navy.

Editors (2020/2008). “Petroleum and Sea Power.” American Oil & Gas Historical Society.

Slow Transition
Smil, Vaclav. 2022. “Beyond Magical Thinking: Time to Get Real on Climate Change.”  Yale E360 (May 19).

Davies, Stephen. 2021. “Toward the Final Transition. A Book Review of Grand Transitions: How the Modern World Was Made, by Vaclav Smil.” Econlib (December 6).

Smil, Vaclav. 2020. What We Need to Know about the Pace of Decarbonization. Policy Brief, Johnson Shoyama Graduate School of Public Policy (University of Saskatchewan).

Bryce, Robert. 2010. “Wood to Coal to Oil to Natural Gas and Nuclear: The Slow Pace of Energy Transitions.” Energy Tribune, August 16.

Smil, Vaclav. 2016. “Examining Energy Transitions: A dozen insights based on performance.” Energy Research & Social Science 22: 194-197.

Taylor, Peter Shawn. 2019. “A Rapid Transition from Fossil Fuels? No Way – Here’s Why.” National Post (June 28).

Fast Transition
Berkow, Jameson. 2012. “Transportation fuel shift stuck in slow lane.” National Post (April 2).

Griffith, Saul. 2019. “How do We Decarbonize? We don’t need a miracle. Everything we need to solve climate change is already here.” Medium (May 23).

Verleger, Philip K. 2020. Bookending the Energy Era. Niskanen Center (October 14).

Verleger, Philip K. 2020. The Energy Transition: How Fast? Niskanen Center (October 1).

• On Forecasting
Bailey, Ronald. 2018. “Master Resource Reprises My Takedown of the National Academy of Sciences’ Energy Projections – How is America’s Energy Future looking nine years after I first panned it? Not so good.” Reason (January 19). 

Mills, Mark P. 2018. “Can’t See For Miles. The perils of technology forecasting, particularly regarding energy.” City Journal (May 6).


• Big Picture and Basic Concepts
“A Framework for Understanding Energy Resources.” Resources Magazine (Please make sure to click on the magnifying class and browse over each item).

An OECD report “Energy the Next Fifty Years” (1999)

An IEA/OCDE report “Toward a Sustainable Energy Future” (2001)

What is Energy?” Energy Information Agency.

Energy.” Environmental Literacy Council.

Energy in Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia.
Potential and Kinetic Energy.”
Conversion and Conservation of Energy.”

Exxon Mobil. 2016. “ExxonMobil’s Energy Outlook Projects Population, Economic Growth to Drive Energy Demand.” (December 16).

“Survey of Energy Resources.” World Energy Council, 2007.
Abbreviations and Acronyms
Conversion Factors and Energy Equivalents

Leone, Robert A. “Energy,” The Concise Encyclopedia of Economics.

Chapter 1 of Shepherd, W. and D.W. Shepherd. 2004. Energy Studies. World Scientific Publishing Co.

Nair, Indira, Sharon Jones, Sheila Flavin, Ashley Deal, and Diana Bajzek. Environmental Decision Making, Science and Technology. Carnegie Mellon University, pp.1-15; 29-34.

Smil, V. 2000. “Energy in the 20th Century: Resources, Conversions, Costs, Uses, and Consequences,” Annual Review of Energy and the Environment 25: 21-51.

Smil, Vaclav. 2002. “Energy Resources and Uses: A Global Primer for the Twenty-First Century,” Current History 101(653):126-132.

On Wikipedia
Energy (society)
Capacity factor
Power station

• Energy Transitions and Related Topics
Morgan, Gwyn. 2022. “When Intentions Are All: The Disastrous Consequences of the Green Movement’s Actions.” C2C (July 17).

Beltran, Alain. 2018. “Introduction: Energy in history, the history of energy.” Journal of Energy History/Revue d’Histoire de l’Énergie no 1.

Grubler, Arnulf. 2013. “Energy Transitions.” Encyclopedia of the Earth.

Cleveland, Cutler J. 2012. “Energy Transitions: Past and Future.” Encyclopedia of the Earth.

Fouquet, Roger and Peter Pearson (eds) Past and Prospective Energy Transitions – Insights from History Energy Policy, 2012, volume 50 (special section).

O’Connor, Peter A. 2010. “Energy Transitions.” Pardee Papers #12 (November).

Valkhof, Bart. 2020. Energy Transition 101: Getting back to basics for transitioning to a low-carbon economy. World Economic Forum (July 16).

Valkhof, Bart. 2020. A five-step beginner’s guide to the energy transition, World Economic Forum (July 16).

Vaclav Smil
Smil, Vaclav. 2016. “Gradual Greening: Power Density and the Hydrocarbon Habit.” CLSA U Blue Books. 

Smil, Vaclav. 2014. “The Long Slow Rise of Solar and Wind.” Scientific American 282(1): 52-57.

Smil, V. 2001. “Geography of Energy Use.” In J. Zumerchik, ed., Macmillan Encyclopedia of Energy Vol. 2, Macmillan, pp. 567-572.

Smil, Vaclav. 2019. “What we need to know about the pace of decarbonization.” Substantia 3 (2) Suppl.1 : 13-28.

Smil, Vaclav. 2019. “Energy (r)evolutions take time.” World Energy 44 :10-14.

Jesse Ausubel on energy transition
Ausubel, Jesse H. 2007. “The Future Environment for the Energy Business.” APPEA Journal (Part 2): 487-495.

Ausubel, Jesse. 2002. “Does Energy Policy Matter?” Talk delivered at the George C. Marshall Institute, April 18.

Ausubel, Jesse. 1998. “Resources and Environment in the 21st Century: Seeing Past the Phantoms,” World Energy Council Journal (July): 8-16.

Policy Options and Realities
Morgan, Gwyn. 2022. “When Intentions Are All: The Disastrous Consequences of the Green Movement’s Actions.” C2C (July 17).

Constable, John. 2022. Europe’s Green Experiment: A costly failure in unilateral climate policy. GWPF Report 52

Princeton University. 2021. Net-Zero America: Potential Pathways, Infrastructure and Impacts Final Report.

Ayuk, NJ. 2021. “African Energy Chamber: Fossil Fuels, Please.” Master Resource (November 8).

Normile, Dennis. 2021. “‘A rather beautiful concept’: Plan aims to replace Asia’s coal plants with renewable energy.” Science (November 2).

Bordoff, Jason. 2021. “The Developing World Needs Energy—and Lots of It. At COP26, leaders must find ways to allow much greater economic growth across large parts of the world.” Foreign Policy (October 29).

Henderson, James and Anupama Sen. 2021. The Energy Transition: Key challenges for incumbent and new players in the global energy system. Oxford Institute for Energy Studies OIES Paper: ET:01 (September).

Wielingen, Mac van. 2021. What is the Future of Canada’s Energy Sector? Emerging Themes of an Optimal Pathway. University of Calgary, School of Public Policy SPP Pre-Publication Series, AF-6 (June).

Hastings-Simon. Sara. 2020. “The First Moonshot Didn’t Disrupt an Incumbent Industry. The Climate Moonshot Must.” GTM (June 26).

Griffith, Saul. 2019. “The Green New Deal: The enormous opportunity in shooting for the moon. Decarbonizing with massive electrification will bring about a new American abundance.” Medium (February 21).

Lyman, Robert. 2019. Transition to Reality: The prospects for rapid global decarbonization. Global Warming Policy Foundation Essay 8 (February). 

Copenhagen Economics for the Energy Transitions Commission. 2017. Background and Overview of the Issue. The future of fossil fuels: How to steer fossil fuel use in a transition to a low-carbon energy system An analysis of fossil fuels trajectories in low-carbon scenarios Full Report (January).

Forbes, Viv. 2015. “Climate Alarmists Turn Back the Clock.” American Thinker (January 6). 

Friedmann, Julio S., and Homer-Dixon, Thomas, “Out of the Energy Box,” Foreign Affairs (September/October 2004) pp. 72-83.

Lynch, Michael and Ivan Sandrea. 2021. The Pandemic and the End of Oil? The Pandemic, Peak Oil Demand, and the Oil Industry. EPRINC (Executive Summary).

International Energy Agency. 2021. Net Zero by 2050 A Roadmap for the Global Energy Sector

IRENA. 2022. World Energy Transitions Outlook: 1.5°C Pathway

Michaux, Simon. 2021. Assessment of the Extra Capacity Required of Alternative Energy Electrical Power Systems to Completely Replace Fossil Fuels. Report Serial:  42/2021 GTK (Geological Survey of Finland / Geologian Tutkimuskeskus) (Summary (8 pages)).

Seto, Karen C., Galina Churkina, Angel Hsu, Meredith Keller, Peter W.G. Newman, Bo Qin, and Anu Ramaswami. 2021. “From Low- to Net-Zero Carbon Cities: The Next Global Agenda.” Annual Review of Environment and Resources 46: 377-415.

Unger, Richard W. (ed.). 2013. “Energy Transitions in History: Global Cases of Continuity and Change,” RCC Perspectives no 2. 

Carbon Tracker Initiative. 2018. Myths of the energy transition. Hard-to-solve sectors prevent an energy transition. Analyst Note (November).


International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis – Energy Primer; excerpts (pdf).

IPCC – Working Group III.


Tragedy of Open Access
The Place. 2015. “Tragedy of the Commons or The Problem with Open Access.”

Carbon Fuels
– Social and environmental benefits/costs
BBC Ideas. 2019. Imagining a world without fossil fuels (August 27).

Alex Epstein. 2015. “Why You Should Love Fossil Fuels.” PragerU (April 20).

GatesNotes. 2014. Bjorn Lomborg: Saving Lives with Fossil Fuels (June 25).

Heritage Foundation. 2018. “Who Is Reducing Its Greenhouse Gas Emissions the Most?

– Feedstocks
Oil Sands Action. 2016. “Life Without Oil and Petroleum Products? Not so simple…

What If. 2018. “What If No More Oil?

American Fuel and Petrochemical Manufacturers (AFPM). 2016. “Petrochemicals: The Building Blocks of Modern Life.”

Praeger U. 2019. Can You Go a Day Without Fossil Fuels? (March 6).

This Is Plastics: How Are Plastics Made?

– Politics
Vice News. 2020. “Why Coal Country Voted for Trump.” (February 28).

– Technical aspects
Student Energy
Fossil fuels 101
Natural gas
Hydraulic fracturing
Liquefied natural gas (LNG) 101
In Situ Oil Sands production

– Coal
Making Coal Gas and Coke circa 1920s (Bray Pictures).

Huntley Film Archives. Gasworks, 1930’s – Film 381.

Scott, Tom. 2014. “The Rise and Fall of the Gasometer.” Things You Might Not Know (April).

– Petroleum / Crude Oil
Movie: There Will be Blood (2007) – “Gusher” scene.

The American Petroleum Institute. 2017 An Overview of the Refining Process.

– Natural Gas
Exxon Mobil. “Hydraulic Fracturing : How it Works.”

Stossel, John. 2016. Myths on Fracking (fire).

Power Play faceoff: B.C. pipeline vs. Indigenous land rights (February 26, 2020).

CN. Undated. “From Mine to Ship – The CN Coal Supply Chain.”

Aliakbari, Elmira and Ashley Stedman. 2019. “The Cost of Pipeline Constraints in Canada, 2019.” Fraser Institute (April 30).

CBC. 2012. “The Oil Farmer.” The National (October 22).

Glenbow Museum. “A Mile Below the Wheat – 1949. (Imperial Oil).”

Suncor. 2012. How Suncor Energy Gets Oil from Sand.

Cenovus Energy. 2011. Understanding Steam-Assisted Gravity Drainage.

Glenbow Museum. 1953. “Underground East.”

MacDonald-Laurier Institute. 2018. “Why Trudeau spent $4.5 billion to nationalize an oil pipeline.”

The Weekly with Wendy Mesley (January 29, 2019) The American money behind the anti-pipeline fight.

– Natural Gas
CN. Undated. “Frac Sand.”

Lecture 3

Global Picture
Conto, Niccolo. 2022. “A Lifetime’s Consumption of Fossil Fuels: Visualized.” Visual Capitalist (July 22).

Ritchie, Hannah and Max Roser. 2020. “Fossil Fuels.” OurWorldinData.org.

Paunio, Mikko. 2018. Kicking Away the Energy Ladder. How environmentalism destroys hope for the poorest. Global Warming Policy Foundation. GWPF Briefing 30 (Read Executive Summary).

Bailey, Ronald. 2022. “Civilization Runs on Ammonia, Plastic, Steel, and Cement—for Now. Vaclav Smil’s How the World Really Works offers hope and despair for techno-optimists.Reason.com (May 25).

– Broad Historical Perspective – Supporters
Driessen, Paul. 2018. “Give Thanks That We No Longer Live on the Precipice.” Townhall.com (November 24).

Tupy, Marian. 2016. “Celebrate the Industrial Revolution – and the fossil fuels which drove it.” CapX (October 28).

Ridley, Matt. 2011. “How Fossil Fuels Helped End Slavery.” Rational Optimist.

Lyons, Chuck. 2013. “Alternative Fuels in Early Farm Tractors.” Farm Collector (May 14).

O’Neill, Brendan. 2021. “Keep Burning Those Fossil Fuels.” Spiked (November 12).

– Deforestation, reforestation, biomass burning and indoor air pollution
– Historical Perspective
Cowen, Richard. Essays on Geology, History and People. (Under contract with Johns Hopkins University Press), Ch. 3 (“Fire and Metals“), Ch. 4 (“The Bronze Age“) and Ch. 11 (“Timber Crisis”).

Morley, Tony. 2020. “The Art of Progress, Under The Yoke (Burning the Brushwood) Eero Järnefelt.” (September 27).

University of Plymouth. 2018. “Europe’s Lost forests: Coverage has halved over 6,000 years.” Science Daily (January 16).

McKenna, Philip. 2013. “Inside North Korea’s Environmental Collapse.” Nova Next (March 6).

– Reforestation
Hammond, Alexander C. R. 2018. “The Deforestation Myth.” CapX (May 24).

– Debates and experiments
Parenti, Christian. 2019. “Saving the Planet Without Self-Loathing.” Jacobin (October 3).

Morrison, Sara. 2018. “Undercooked: An Expensive Push to Save Lives and Protect the Planet Falls Short.” ProPublica (July 12).

McClure, Robert. 2014. “Biomass Fuel: Worse for Climate than Coal? It depends. Do you mean now, or decades later?” The Tyee (April 23).

Lecture 4

– Whaling
McNamara, Robert. Undated. A Brief History of Whaling.

New Bedford Whaling. 2018. Whale Products.

Williford, James. 2010. “Whaling the Old Way. Life on a nineteenth-century whaler was thrilling, tedious, and often disgusting.” Humanities 31 (2) (March/April).

Francis, Daniel. 2015/2006. “WhalingCanadian Encyclopedia.

Homans, Charles. 2017. “The Most Senseless Environmental Crime of the 20th Century.” Pacific Standard (June 14).

Ostrom, Elinor. 2010. “Tragedy of the Commons.” The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics Online.

– Coal
Canadian Encyclopedia – Coal

Solomon, Lawrence. 2017. “Singing the Praises of Coal – the virtuous stone that liberated humanity.” Financial Post (August 25).

Adams, Sean. 2003. “US Coal Industry in the Nineteenth Century.” EH.Net Encyclopedia, January 24.

Allen Hatheway’s Manufactured Gas Website
History and Chronology of Manufactured Gas
Environmental Threats

Visual Capitalist

BP. 2022. Statistical Review of World Energy 2022. “Coal

IEA. 2021. Coal 2021. Analysis and forecast to 2024 (read the Executive Summary).

Bell, Terence. 2020. “What You Should Know About Metallurgical Coal.” Thoughtco.com (August 21).

Doomberg. 2021. “Coking Coal Has a Branding Problem” (November 2).

Lecture 5

• Crude Oil
– Conventional Oil
Petroleum and Petrochemical Technologies.” Greatest Engineering Achievements of the 20th Century. National Academy of Engineering. 2000.

Visual Capitalist

BP. 2022. Statistical Review of World Energy 2022. “Oil.”

The Classification of Petroleum
API Gravity
Sweet vs Sour Crude Oil
Benchmark Oils

Canadian Encyclopedia
– Petroleum
Petroleum Exploration and Production
Petroleum Industries

– Shale Oil and Tight Oil
Natural Resources Canada. 2020. “Geology of Shale and Tight Resources.

– Condensate and Gas Liquids
Kemp, John. 2014. “New Definitions Needed for Condensate and Gas Liquids.” Reuters Commodities (October 10).

Natural Resources Canada. 2020.

US EIA. Hydrocarbon gas liquids explained.

– Oil Transport
Chakraborty, Soumya. 2017. “Understanding Design of Oil Tanker Ships.” Marine Insight (September 30).

Petroleum.co.uk. “Pipeline Transport

Resource Works. “Ten Reasons Why You should Support Pipelines.”

EIA. 2015. “EIA’s Mapping System Highlights Energy Infrastructure across the United States.” Today in Energy (June 16).

Visual Capitalist

– Refining and Petrochemicals
Canadian Encyclopedia
– Petrochemical Industries

Canadian Fuels Association
Economic drivers of the Canadian refining industry
What does that mean, exactly? The ABCs of common and not so common refining terms

Natural Resources Canada. 2018. “Refinery Economics.”

Wikipedia – Petrochemical

– Products made out of Petroleum and Natural Gas
Overholt, Steve. 2021. Can-do Petroleum vs. Can’t Do Renewables (Parts I and II). Master Resource (August 26 and 27).

Visual Capitalist

Ranken Energy Corporation. Products made from Petroleum.

Canadian Energy Centre. From Jet Fuel to Rubber Ducks.

EIA. 2021. “How much oil is used to make plastic?

Green, Kenneth. 2021. Toxic Plastiphobia | Frontier Centre For Public Policy (fcpp.org) (October 1).

– Crude Oil and Refined Petroleum Markets, including Subsidies
What Drives Crude Oil Prices?
Petroleum and other liquids: Data (browse)
Crude oil and other spot prices

Kaplan, Lennie and Mark Milke. 2020. “Analyzing claims about oil and gas subsidies. Eye-popping estimates of fossil fuel subsidies a far cry from reality.” Canadian Energy Centre (April 27).

Visual Capitalist

Zycher, Ben. 2021 “Fossil-Fuel Subsidies: Fiction vs. Reality.” National Review (May 21).

Lecture 6

– Natural (Conventional and Unconventional) Gas
Visual Capitalist

Ostovar, Arash and Nashaat N. Nassar. 2019. “Natural Gas in Canada.” The Canadian Encyclopedia (June 3).

BP. 2022. Statistical Review of World Energy 2022. “Natural Gas.”

– Historical perspective
Thomas Paine. 1819. The Political and Miscellaneous Works of Thomas Paine, volume II. R. Carlile, p. 181.

Smil, Vaclav. 2019. “Superefficient gas turbines.” IEEE Spectrum (December): 21.

– George Mitchell and early frackers
Wright, Chris. 2019. “George Mitchell, Hero To The World’s Poor.” GWPF (May 29).

Koch, Wendy. 2014. “Exxon and Chevron Trailing in U.S. Fracking Boom.” USA Today (May 4).

– Big Picture and Controversies
(Recent History)
Rothman, Noah. 2020. “The Fracking Decade.” Commentary (January).

Ravve, Ruth. 2014. “Sand Rush in Midwest, Where Rare Material for Fracking is Mined.” FoxNews.com (June 26).

(Economics and other controversies)
Fitzgerald, Tim. 2014. “Frackonomics : The Economics behind America’s Shale Revolution.” PERC Report 33 (2) (Fall/Winter).

Dews, Fred. 2015. “The Economic Benefits of Fracking.” Brookings Now (March 23).

Carlyle, Ryan. 2014. “Fracking Rant.” Quora (September 18).

Ridley, Matt. 2013. “The Five Myths about Fracking.” Rational Optimist (August 16).

Ridley, Matt. 2019. “The plot against fracking. How cheap energy was killed by Green lies and Russian propaganda.” The Critic (December).

– Environmental Impact(s)
Hirst, Neil, Cheng Seong Khor and Simon Buckle. 2013. Shale Gas and Reduced Carbon Dioxide Emissions. Grantham Institute for Climate Change Briefing Paper No 10 (Executive Summary).

Smil, Vaclav. 2021. “Natural Gas Is (Mostly) Good for Global Warming.IEEE Spectrum (May 27).

FracFocus Chemical Disclosure Registry

Facts about Canada’s Oil and Natural Gas Industry. “How long does fracking take?” oilandgasinfo.ca.

Hand, Eric. 2015. “Thirty Thousand Square Kilometers of Land Lost to Oil and Gas Development.” Science (April 23).

Union of Concerned Scientists. 2015. The Climate Deception Dossiers.

Le Billon, Philippe and Berit Kristoffersen. 2018. “Climate Change Talks Need to Address Fossil Fuel Supplies.” Policy Options (December 12).

Epstein, Alex. 2014. “9 Graphs That Prove Using Fossil Fuels Hasn’t Harmed The Planet.” Daily Caller (November 13).

Goklany, Indur. 2015. Carbon Dioxide : The Good News. Global Warming Policy Foundation Report 18 (Summary).

Zubrin, Robert. 2014. “The Carbon Benefits Deniers.” National Review (September 26).

Moore, Stephen. 2018. “Who’s the Cleanest of Them All.” Real Clear Politics (August 21).

Nordhaus, Ted, Alex Trembath, Michael Shellenberger, Max Luke. 2013. “Coal Killer : How Natural Gas Fuels the Clean Energy Revolution.” The Breakthrough (June 25).

– Others
Bailey, Ronald. 2010. “Oil Without Dinos? New energy sources.” Reason, January Issue.

Chidsey, Jr, Thomas C. 2012. “Oil Shale vs Shale Oil: What’s the Difference?Utah Geological Survey.

Slav, Irina. 2020. “China Produces Record Amount Of “Fire Ice.”” OilPrice.com (March 30).

• Canada and Ontario
Exceptionally this year, the “Canada and Ontario” section does NOT need to be covered in your short written assignment

– Overview
Petroleum Services Association of Canada. Industry Overview

US Energy Information Administration. Country Analysis Brief – Canada

Government of Canada. Canada Energy Regulator
Crude Oil and Petroleum Products
Natural Gas
Natural Gas Liquids
Canadian Pipeline Transportation System
Energy Markets
Canada’s Energy Future

Oil Sands Magazine – Products: Western Canadian Select Explained.

Doluweera, Ganesh et al. 2017. Economic Impacts of Canadian Oil and Gas Supply in Canada and the US (2017-2027). CERI Study No. 166 (Executive Summary).

– Regulations and Fiscal Regime
Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers. 2018. “Top Oil Exporters: Who’s pricing carbon? Of the world’s top 10 oil exporting nations, only one has implemented a price on carbon. Can you guess who?” (June 5) (Infographics).

Mintz, Jack M. 2018. “Jack Mintz: Carbon pricing has been fully exposed as just another tax grab.” Financial Post (April 10).

Chassin, Youri. 2014. Is the Canadian Oil Industry Subsidized? Montreal Economic Institute, Economic Note (May).

Belzile, Germain. 2017. Canada’s Oil and Gas Sector at Risk? How Excessive Taxes and Regulations Undermine Our Competitiveness. Montreal Economic Institute (October) (Read “Highlights“).

– Oil and Gas
Historical Perspective
Bott, Robert D. 2004. Evolution of Canada’s Oil and Gas Industry. Canadian Center for Energy Information.

Lambton County Museums
Oil Museum of Canada

CAPP. Canada’s Natural Gas History

Current Situation (Production and refining)
Canada Energy Regulator
Energy Markets

Natural Resources Canada (NRC)
Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Market

Context Energy Examined Magazine (Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers)
– “Why do we import foreign oil? Canada produces more oil than it can consume, yet we import billions of dollars of foreign oil. What gives?” (May 17, 2019)
– “Canada’s Oil Price Discount” (March 21)
– “Proposed Pipeline Projects in Canada” (March 19)

Canadian Press. 2020. “How Does Western Canadian Select Oil Pricing Work?Global News (April 20).

McKitrick, Ross. 2021. “Natural Gas Plays Vital Role in Fuelling Ontario.” National Post (February 2).

Canada Action. 2021. Canadian Refineries F.A.Q. – 7 Questions & Answers.

Bituminous Sands
Palen, Wendy J. et al. 2014. “Energy: Consider the Global Impacts of Oil Pipelines.” Nature (June 25).

Taylor, Peter Shawn. 2018. “Canada’s Trumpian Tipping Point.” C2C (February 28).

Jaremko, Deborah. 2019. “12 Ridiculous Factual Problems in the Latest Oilsands Smear by National Geographic.” JWN (April 12).

Francis, Diane. 2020. “The beginning of the end of Canada’s high living standards.” National Post (February 27).

Cross, Philip. 2021. “Not enough Canadians know how important the oilsands are. They not only create wealth and jobs but are a stellar example of innovation by Canadian companies.” Financial Post (April 30).


• Fire and Forests

(Note: For additional readings on the subject, look up Week 5 (Forests through Time) lecture of my course GGR 489 Special Topics in Human Geography: Cities, Industry and the Environment.)

> Historical Perspective
Enright, Neal J., and Ian Thomas. “Pre-European Fire Regimes in Australian Ecosystems.” Geography Compass 2/4 (2008): 979–1011.

Goudsblom, Johan. 2004. “Fire: A Socioecological and Historical Survey.” in C. Cleveland, Encyclopedia of Energy, Elsevier, pp. 669-681.

United States
Kay, Charles. 2000. “Native Burning in Western North America: Implications for Hardwood Forest Management,” In Daniel Yaussy, ed., Proceedings: Workshops on Fire, People and the Central Hardwood Landscapes, United States Department of Agriculture, General Technical Report NE-274, pp.19-27.

Williams, Gerald W. 2002. “Aboriginal Use of Fire: Are there any ‘Natural’ Plant Communities?” In Charles Kay and Randy Simmons, Wilderness & Political Ecology: Aboriginal Influences & the Original State of Nature, The University of Utah Press, pp. 179-214.

Williams, Gerald W. 2001. References on the American Indian Use of Fire in Ecosystems.

Kusmer, Anna. 2018. “New England Is Crisscrossed With Thousands of Miles of Stone Walls. That’s enough to circle the globe-four times.” Atlas Obscura (May 4).

Rajala, Richard. 2005. “Feds, Forests, and Fire: A Century of Canadian Forestry Innovation (Transformation Series, 13). Canada Science and Technology Museum.

> Fire and Forest Management: Current Issues
Broader Considerations
Murray, Iain. 2008. “Treehuggers Against Trees.” Townhall.com, May 1.

Kauppi, Pekka E., Jesse H. Ausubel, Jingyun Fang, Alexander S. Mather, Roger A. Sedjo and Paul E. Waggoner. 2006. “Returning Forests Analyzed with the Forest Identity.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 103 (46): 17574-17579.

Matson, Pamela and Peter Vitousek. 2006. “Agricultural Intensification: Will Land Spared from Farming be Land Spared for Nature?Conservation Biology 20 (3): 709 – 710.

Phillips, Lynne. 2006. “Food and Globalization.” Annual Review of Anthropology Vol. 35: 37-57 (October).

Parviainen, Liisa. 2006. “UH: End of Deforestation in View? Experts Advance New Way to Size Up Global Forest Resources.” University of Helsinki (University Communications), November 14th.

Rudel, Thomas K., Oliver T. Coomes, Emilio Moran, Frederic Achard, Arild Angelsen, Jianchu Xu and Eric Lambin. 2005. “Forest Transitions: Towards a Global Understanding of Land Use Change.” Global Environmental Change 15 (1): 23-31.

Special Issue of Society and Natural Resources (17 (6), July 2004) on “Humans, Fire, and Forests: The Reemergence of Research on Human Dimensions.”

Huber, Peter, and Mark Mills. 1999. “How Non-Green Cities Are Rebuilding the American Forests.” Los Angeles Times, December 29.

Forest and Wood Supply” and solar energy on John McCarthy’s Progress and its Sustainability Website.

Minnemeyer, Susan, Matthew Hansen, Peter Potapov, & Kyle Pittman. 2007. “Painting the Global Picture of Tree Cover Change: Tree Cover Loss in the Humid Tropics.” World Resources Institute, May.

Mather, Alexander S. “Assessing the World’s Forests.” Global Environmental Change 15 (2005) 267–280.

Franklin, Jerry and K. Norman Johnson. 2004. “Forests Face New Threat: Global Market Changes.” Issues in Science and Technology.

Berry, Alison. “Forest Policy Up in Smoke: Fire Suppression in the United States.” Paper presented to the International Society for New Institutional Economics in July 2007 at the University of Iceland in Reykjavik.

O’Toole, Randall. 2021. “The West is a Fire Plain. Get Over It.” Liberty and Ecology Blog (August 23).

O’Toole, Randal. 2007. “U.S. Forest Service Has Money to Burn.” Cato Institute, October 30.


Bailey, Ronald. 2006. “Biotech Forests Menace or Salvation for Wild Forests?Reason Online, September 1st.

For additional readings, see GGR 489 – Cities, Industries and the Environment, Week 5 mandatory and suggested readings.

> Deforestation and Reforestation
General Consideration

The Role of Wood in World History by K.J.W. Oosthoek.

C Michael Hogan PhD. 2010. “Deforestation.” The Encyclopedia of Earth, June 1.

Rudela, Thomas K., Oliver T. Coomes, Emilio Moran, Frederic Achard, Arild Angelsen, Jianchu Xu, and Eric Lambin. “Forest Transitions: Towards a Global Understanding of Land Use Change.” Global Environmental Change 15 (2005) 23–31.

Benjamin, Daniel K. 2003. “Use Them or Lose Them.” PERC Reports, Volume 21, Number 3, September.

Libecap, Gary. 2003. “Deforesting the Earth: From Prehistory to Global Crisis.” Eh.Net, August.

Ausubel, Jesse H. “On Sparing Farmland and Spreading Forest.” In Clark, T. and R. Staebler, eds., Forestry at the Great Divide: Proceedings of the Society of American Foresters 2001 Convention, Society of American Foresters, Bethesda MD, 2002, pp. 127-138.

Victor, David G., and Jesse H. Ausubel. 2000. “Restoring the Forests.” Foreign Affairs, Vol 79, Number 6, November/December, pp. 127-144.

Benjamin, Daniel K. 1997. “Avoiding the Ax: The Truth about Deforestation.” PERC Reports, Volume 15, Number 5, December.

Our World in Data – Forests and Deforestation.

Historical perspective
Williams, Michael. 2008. “A New Look at Global Forest Histories of Land Clearing.” Annual Review of Environment and Resources, Vol. 33: 345-367.

Williams, Michael. “Dark Ages and Dark Areas: Global Deforestation in the Deep Past.” Journal of Historical Geography, 26, 1 (2000) 28–46.

Forests Cover 30% of the Total Land Area.” FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations) 2005.

Runnels, Curtis N. 1995. “Environmental Degradation in Ancient Greece.” Scientific American 272 (3) (March), p. 96-99.

• Peat
De Decker, Kris. 2011. “Medieval Smokestacks: Fossil Fuels in Pre-industrial Times. Almost all of the leading economies in Western Europe during the last millenium relied on a large-scale use of fossil fuels such as peat and coal.” LOW←TECH MAGAZINE (September).

• Whaling
Illumination in the 19th century
American Oil & Gas Historical Society.

Luckiesh, M. 1920. Artificial Light. Its Influence upon Civilization. The Century Co.

Woodhead, E. I., C. Sullivan, and G. Gusset. 1984. Lighting Devices in the National Reference Collection. Parks Canada.

Illuminating Engineering Society. Out of the Dark – The History of Illumination (1954).

Whale products
Whale Oil” and “Whale Oil Uses” on the Oil History Website by Samuel T. Pees.

Bryce, Emma. 2020. “Why was whaling so big in the 19th century?” Live Science (February 22).

Rams Horn Studio. Early Lighting 6

SEG Wiki. Whaling and Whale Oil

Lynn’s Museum (UK). Blubber, bone and baleen: Lynn’s Whaling Industry.

Osterloff, Emily. Undated. “What is ambergris?” Natural History Museum.

Dickson, Chelsea. 2017. “The spoils of oils.” Christchurch Uncovered (September 15).

Gun Lubricant History: Sperm Whale Oil. The CherryBalmz Store.

Wencer, David. 2012. “Historicist: Reinventing the Whale. The First World War brings some changes to Toronto dinner plates.” Torontoist (August 18).

Davis, Lance E., Robert E. Gallman and Teresa D. Hutchins. 1988. “The Decline of U.S. Whaling: Was the Stock of Whales Running Out?Business History Review 62 (4):  569-595.

PBS Newshour. 2008. “The Whale Oil Myth.”

Thompson, Derek. 2012. “The Spectacular Rise and Fall of U.S. Whaling: An Innovation Story.” The Atlantic (February 22).

Historical Overview
Whaling History. Connecting All Things Whaling

Marine Biology. 2016. A History of Whaling.

History of whaling,” Wikipedia

Marine Biology. 2016. The History of Whaling.

Japan Whaling Association. History of Whaling.

Nikiforuk, Andrew. 2011. “Thar She Blows: Whale Age Teaches Us about Oil. A boom, a bonanza, a decimation, a collapse. Learn from Ahab.” The Tyee (May 12).

Szabo, Vicki Ellen. 2018. “Species Stories: North Atlantic Right Whales From Their Medieval Past To Their Endangered Present.” Historical Climatology (March 21).

Rocha, R.C., Clapham, P.J. and Ivashchenko, Y.V. 2014. “Emptying the Oceans: a summary of industrial whaling catches in the 20th century.” Marine Fisheries Review, 76 (4): 37-48.

Early History
Daley, Jason. 2018. “Romans May Have Hunted Whales to Extinction in Their Home Waters. New analysis suggests that right and gray whales were not only once present in the Mediterranean Sea but likely common in the region.” Smithsonian Magazine (July 11).

Davis, Nicola. 2018. “Romans had whaling industry, archaeological excavation suggests.” The Guardian (July 11).

DeGroot, Dagomar. 2022. “Blood and Bone, Tears and Oil: Climate Change, Whaling, and Conflict in the Seventeenth-Century Arctic.” American Historical Review 127 (1): 62-99.

Francis, Daniel. 2015/2006. “Whaling.” Canadian Encyclopedia.

West Coast
Canadian Canoe Museum. 2012. “Bringing the Canoes to Life: The Nuu-chah-nulth Whaling Canoe.” (November 29)

Canadian Museum of History. 1995. “The Strike.”

McMillan, Alan D. 2015. “Whales and Whalers in Nuu-chah-nulth Archaeology.” BC Studies 187.

Ocean Wise. Undated. History of Whaling in British Columbia.

Kean, A. D. 1916-1919. Whaling: British Columbia’s Least Known and Most Romantic Industry (Link to movie).

Pollon, Christopher. 2020. “You Never Forget the Smell. Remembering one of North America’s last whaling stations.” Hakai Magazine (January 28).

East Coast and Arctic
Canadian Museum of History. Undated. “An Ancient Bond with the Land

Arctic Whalers. Inuit Whale Hunters.”

Brown, Beth. 2018. “Whales of tales found in new book by northern historian

Kenn Harper releases Arctic whaling history with Inhabit Media.” Nunatsiaq News (August 9).

Gifford, Elisabeth. 2021. “The link between Scotland and the Inuit.” Historia (October 13).

Heritage Newfoundland and Labrador. Commercial Whaling in Newfoundland and Labrador in the 20th Century.

United States (whale oil and other by-products)
Wikipedia – Whaling in the United States

Tower, Walter Sheldon. 1907. A History of the American Whale Fishery. University of Pennsylvania.

Kugler, Richard C. 1980. “The Whale Oil Trade, 1750–1775.” Publications of The Colonial Society of Massachusetts 52: 153-173.

PBS. 2010. American Experience

McNamara, Robert. 2010. “A Brief History of Whaling The 19th Century Whaling Industry Thrived for Decades.” About.com.

Japanese Whaling
Wikipedia. Whaling in Japan.

BBC News. 2019. “Japan whaling: Why commercial hunts have resumed despite outcry.” (July 2)

Takahashi, J., Kalland, A., Moeran, B. and Bestor, T. C. 1989. “Japanese Whaling Culture: Continuities and Diversities.” Maritime Anthropological Studies 2 (2): 105-133.

Nazi Whaling
Fater, Luke. 2019. “Hitler’s Secret Antarctic Expedition for Whales. Whales meant margarine, and margarine meant victory.” Gastro Obscura (Atlas Obscura) (November 6).

Niiler, Eric. 2018. “Hitler Sent a Secret Expedition to Antarctica in a Hunt for Margarine Fat.” History.com (August 31).

Soviet Whaling
Yeo, Sophie. 2018. “Industrial Whaling of the 20th Century Was Worse Than We Thought. Soviet whaling fleets secretly killed thousands and thousands of whales, leaving a lasting and sad legacy for some populations.” Hakai Magazine (January 31).

Ivashchenko, Yulia V. and Phillip J. Clapham. 2014. “Too Much Is Never Enough: The Cautionary Tale of Soviet Illegal Whaling.” Marine Fisheries Review 76 (1-2): 1-21.

Ivashchenko, Yulia, P.J. Clapham and Robert Brownell. 2011. “Soviet Illegal Whaling: The devil and the details.” Marine Fisheries Review 73 (3): 1-19.

Berzin, Alfred A. 2008. “The Truth about Soviet Whaling.” Marine Fisheries Review 70 (2): 4-58.

Energy Transition, Peak (Whale) Oil and Transmaterialization
Bardi, Ugo. 2004. “Prices and Production over a complete Hubbert Cycle: the Case of the American Whale Fisheries in 19th Century.” Energy Bulletin, November 24.

Burns, Lester. 2021. “The Whale Oil Peak Curve.” By the Fault (January 23).

Applebome, Peter. “They Used to Say Whale Oil Was Indispensable, Too.” The New York Times, August 3, 2008.

McCollough, John and Henry F. Check, Jr. 2010. “The Baleen Whales’ Saving Grace: The Introduction of Petroleum Based Products in the Market and Its Impact on the Whaling Industry.” Sustainability 2 (10): 3142-3157.

Hoare, Philip. 2015. “White Whale in the Big Smoke: How the Geography of London Inspired Moby-Dick.” New Stateman (December 2).

Cotkin, George. 2012. “8 Areas of Culture ‘Moby-Dick’ Influenced.” Publishers Weekly (July 27).

• Carbon-based Fuels
> General
Eh. Net Encyclopedia of Economic and Business History (various entries)

Contemporary Issues
– Overview
Several detailed papers on fossil fuel policy issues are available in the Annual Review of Environment and Resources.

Bradley, Robert L and Richard W. Fulmer. Energy: The Master Resource, Kendall Hunt Publishing Company, 2004, Chapter 2: Using Energy, pp. 17-18, 21-25, 29-30, 32-33, 37-39.

– The Case for Carbon Fuels
Nongovernmental International Panel on Climate Change (NIPCC). 2018. Climate Change Reconsidered II: Fossil Fuels

Bast, Joseph and Peter Ferrara. 2018. The Social Benefits of Fossil Fuels. Heartland Institute.

Cross, Philip. 2015. “In Praise of Fossil Fuels.” C2C Journal (December 17).

Goklany, Indur. 2012. “Humanity Unbound: How Fossil Fuels Saved Humanity from Nature and Nature from Humanity.” Cato Policy Analysis No. 715 (Executive Summary).

Tammy, John. 2022. “In his Excellent Fossil Future Alex Epstein Teaches You How to Think.” Real Clear Markets  (September 30).

– Environment
Arscott, Lyn. 2004. “Sustainable Development in the Oil and Gas Industry.” Journal of Energy Resources Technology 126: 1-5.

> Coal
Desrochers, Pierre and Joanna Szurmak. 2018. “How Julian Simon and Dionysius Lardner Proved the Doomsday Alarmists Wrong.” Fee.org (March 24).

Early Days of Coal Research.” Wartime Needs Spur Interest in Coal-to-Oil Processes.

Now of historical interest
Lewin, David. 2008. “A Cleaner Future.” Fraser Forum, March, p. 10-12.

The Future of Coal.” Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), March 14, 2007.

Anderson, J. W. “Coal: Dirty Cheap Energy.” Resources (Navigating Energy Choices in the 21st Century), Winter 2005, Issue 156, pp. 31-34.

Scottish shale
Dean, Graham. 2018. The Scottish oil-shale industry from the viewpoint of the modern-day shale-gas industry. Geological Society, London, Special Publications Volume 465, pages 53 – 69.

Scottish Shale. 2021. The Five Sisters Bing. (March 28).

Flyn, Cal. 2021. “West Lothian’s sleeping giants: wastelands that shivered into life.” The Guardian (March 16).

Contemporary Issues
– Economic Considerations
Bryce, Robert. 2014. Not beyond Coal: How the Global Thirst for Low-Cost Electricity Continues Driving Coal Demand. Manhattan Institute (October 27).

– Environmental Considerations
Porter, Catherine. 2008. “Coal Mining Ravages Appalachia Mountains.” Toronto Star, February 23.

> Petroleum
– International

Cowen, Richard. Essays on Geology, History and People. (Under contract with Johns Hopkins University Press), Ch. 11, 13.

Craig, J., F. Gerall, F. Macaulay and R. Sorkhabi (eds). 2018. History of the European Oil and Gas Industry. Geological Society.

Black, Brian. 2007. “Petroleum history, United States.” Encyclopedia of Earth, December 18.

Wells, B. A. and K. L. Wells. 2021/2007. “Shooters – A “Fracking” History.” American Oil & Gas Historical Society.

Taylor, Alan. 2014. “The Urban Oil Fields of Los Angeles (24 Photos).” The Atlantic (August 26).

Burgess, Nate. 2015. “Benchmarks: October 9, 1865: First Successful U.S. Oil Pipeline.”  Benchmarks: October 9, 1865: First Successful U.S. Oil Pipeline.” Earth Magazine (September 1).

American Chemical Society. 2009. The Development of the Pennsylvania Oil Industry.

– Canada
An Interactive Story of Imperial Oil

Leduc #1 Energy Discovery Centre – Story of Leduc #1

First Oil Well in Western Canada – National Historic Site of Canada

Enbridge. Our History

History.com Oil production history (USA).

Journal of American History – Special issue on the history of US petroleum

Schempf, F. Jay. 2004. “Special Anniversary – The history of offshore: developing the E&P infrastructure.” Offshore (January 1)

– Ontario History
Crude Oil and Natural Gas Resources.” Ministry of Natural Resources of the Government of Ontario.

Oil Museum of Canada (Lambton)
Black Gold: Canada’s Oil Heritage

Gray, Earle
2005. The Great Canadian Oil Patch: The Petroleum Era from Birth to Peak, revised edition, June Warren Publishing
2008. Ontario’s Petroleum Legacy, Oil Museum of Canada Oil Springs

Sweeny, Alastair. 2010. Black Bonanza: Canada’s Oil Sands and the Race to Secure North America’s Energy Future. Wiley.

The Village of Oil Springs – Canada’s First Oil Town.”

Petrolia – Canada’s Victorian Oil Town.”

Contemporary Issues
– Overview

Oil.” International Energy Agency.

Survey of Energy Resources Interim Update 2009 – Crude Oil and Natural Gas Liquids.” World Energy Council.

Facts About Oil.” American Petroleum Institute, 2002.

Huber, Peter. 2006. “Crude Awakening.” The Wall Street Journal, February 3.

Huber, Peter, & Mark Mills. 2005. “Oil, Oil, Everywhere…The Wall Street Journal, January 27.

Exner-Pirot, Heather. 2021. Remember that Energy Crises Are Bad Things. Macdonald Laurier Institute. 

Epstein, Alex. 2022. “Earth Day truth: Fossil fuels make Earth BETTER.” Energy Talking Points by Alex Epstein (April 22).

Stein, Ronald. 2022. ““ESG” efforts to rid the world of fossil fuels will drive humanity back to medieval times.” CFACT (March 15).

Doomberg. 2021. “Where Stuff Comes From.” (October 20).

– Peak Oil and New Supply
Featherstone, Charles H. 2005. “Peak Oil?.” LewRockwell.com, January 6.

– New Supply
Johnson, Robert. 2012. “You’ve Never Seen Anything Like This North Dakota Oil Boomtown.” Business Insider, March 7.

– Economics, Politics and Fiscal Policy
Vargas Llosa, Alvaro. 2008. “Oil Prices—Who Are the Culprits?” The Independent Institute (June 11).

Reynolds, Alan. 2005. “Oil Prices: Cause and Effect.” Cato Institute (June 27).

Zycher, Benjamin. “OPEC,” The Concise Encyclopedia of Economics.

Bryce, Robert. 2008. “5 Myths About Breaking Our Foreign Oil Habit.” The Washington Post, January 13.

Fiscal Policy
Oil Change International. 2017. Talk is Cheap. How G20 Governments are Financing a Climate Disaster.

Overseas Development Institute and Oil Change International. 2015. Empty promises – G20 subsidies to oil, gas and coal production.

Taylor, Jerry, and Peter Van Doren. 2006. “Economic Amnesia: The Case against Oil Price Controls and Windfall Profit Taxes.” Cato Institute, Policy Analysis no. 561, January 12.

– Technical Issues
Mager Stellman, Jeanne (editor in chief). 2011. Encyclopedia of Occupational Health and Safety. International Labor Organization (ILO).
– Kraus, Richard S. 2011. “Storage and Transportation of Crude Oil, Natural Gases, Liquid Petroleum Products and Other Chemicals
– Kraus, Richard. 2011. “75 Exploration, Drilling and Production of Oil and Natural Gas
– Kraus, Richard S. 2011. “78. Oil and Natural Gas

– Production
Oilfield Glossary

The unsung masters of the oil industry.” The Economist, July 21, 2012.

Green, Kenneth P., & Steven F. Hayward. 2010. “The Dangers of Overreacting to the Deepwater Horizon Disaster.” AEI Online (June).

Murdock, Deroy. 2008. “Offshore Drilling: Cleaner Than Mother Nature,” National Review Online, July 28.

– Refining
The Essential Chemical Industry – Online

US Department of Labor. OSHA Technical Manual
Section IV: Safety Hazards, Chapter 2: Petroleum Refining Processes

Hackett, D. et al. 2013. Pacific Basin Heavy Oil Refining Capacity. SPP Research Papers 6 (8).

– Transport
Tanker Types.” Globalsecurity.org.

Stena Bulk. Type of Vessels

Science Direct. Bunker Fuel

Gallucci, Maria. 2018. “At Last, the Shipping Industry Begins Cleaning Up Its Dirty Fuels.” E360 (June 28).

Anish. 2019. “Marine Heavy Fuel Oil (HFO) For Ships – Properties, Challenges and Treatment Methods.” Marine Insight (March 3).

Yildirim, Onur. 2022. “Marine Fuel Oil: Current Fuel Options and the Impact on the IndustryAPC.

EIA. 2019. « More stringent marine sulfur limits mean changes for U.S. refiners and ocean vessels.” (February 9).

Bunker fuel challenges.” Insight (November 8 2017).

Biezmaa, M.A. et al. 2020. “Most Fatal Oil & Gas Pipeline Accidents through History: A lessons learned approach.” Engineering Failure Analysis 110: 104446.

Green, Kenneth P. 2014. “Flash Point: New Oil-by-Rail Rules.” The American (August 20).

Green, Kenneth P. 2013. “Canada Should Take to Oil Pipeline Safety.” Huffington Post Canada (October 31).

Doomberg. 2021. “How to Brick an Entire Economy (Diesel Trucks and Urea).” Doomberg (December 8).

Fracking controversy
– George Mitchell, Mark Papa and early frackers
Davids Hinton, Diana. 2012. “The Seventeen-Year Overnight Wonder: George Mitchell and Unlocking the Barnett Shale.” Journal of American History 99 (1): 229-235.

Helman, Christopher. 2013. “How EOG Resources Became One Of America’s Great Oil Companies.” Forbes (July 24).

Sarnoff, Nancy. 2013. “Oil Giant, Developer George Mitchell Dies at 94.” Houston Chronicle (July 26).

Gertner, Jon 2013. “George Mitchell : He Fracked Until It Paid Off.” New York Times (December 21).

– Current controversies
Epstein, Alex. 2015. “Four Fallacies that Fracktivists Use to Scare You.” Forbes (October 15).

Driessen, Paul. 2014. “What Drives Anti-Fracking Zealots?” Townhall.com (September 21).

Airhard, Marc. 2013. “Natural Gas Saves Water and Reduces Drought Vulnerability, Even When Factoring in Water Lost to Hydraulic Fracturing.” Geology Foundation, Jackson School of Geosciences (University of Texas – Austin), December 19.

McGrath, Matt. 2013. “Report Suggests ‘Permanent Slowdown’ in CO2 Emissions.” BBC News (October 31).

Helman, Christopher. 2012. “EPA Doubts Its Own Anti-Fracking Study, While Ohio Determines Fracking Did Not Spawn Earthquake Swarm.” Forbes (March 12).

Economics and Energy Independence
Harper, Christopher. 2014. “A Fracking Good Story Missed by the Media.” Washington Times (January 29).

DiChristopher, Tom and Javier E. David. 2014. “Oil, Natural Gas Surge makes Philadelphia the New Energy Hotspot.” CNBC.com (November 16).

Bullis, Kevin. 2013. “Shale Gas Will Fuel a U.S. Manufacturing Boom.” MIT Technology Review (January 9).

Bailey, Ronald. 2013. “The Promised Land of Fracking.” Reason.com, January 8.

Rotman, David. 2012. “King Natural Gas.” MIT Technology Review (August 21).

Biello, David. 2010. “What the Frack? Natural Gas from Subterranean Shale Promises U.S. Energy Independence – With Environmental Costs.” Scientific American (March 30).

– Overview

Cross, Philip. 2013. Extracting the Most Value from Canada’s Petroleum. MacDonald-Laurier Institute (October).

– Production

Crawford, Todd. 2011. Canada’s Petroleum Refining Sector: An Important Contributor Facing Global Challenges. Conference Board of Canada.

– Transport

About Pipelines

Baker, Nathan. 2018. “Pipelines in Canada.” The Canadian Encyclopedia.

Wikipedia – TransCanada pipeline

Angevine, Gerry. 2013. The Canadian Oil Transport Conundrum. Fraser Institute (September).

Alberta’s Bituminous Sands
– Production

– Economics
Cross, Philip. 2021. A National Project: How Oil Sands Investment and Production Benefit Canada’s Economy. MacDonald-Laurier Institute.

Cross, Philip. 2017. Producing Black Gold Understanding the Oil Sands as Part of Manufacturing in Canada.  Macdonald-Laurier Institute.

Cross, Philip. 2013. Extracting the Most Value from Canada’s Petroleum. MacDonald-Laurier Institute (October).

Timilsina, Govinda R., Nicole LeBlanc & Thorn Walden. 2005. “Economic Impacts of Alberta’s Oil Sands.” Canadian Energy Research Institute, Volume I, Study No. 110, October.

CAPP Backgrounder: Oil Sands Economic Impacts Across Canada – CERI Report.” Canadian Energy Research Institute, September 2005.

– Politics
Hastings-Simon, Sara. 2021. “Despite recent failures in the oil sector, not all government investment is bad.” CBC News (July 16).

Hastings-Simon, Sara. 2020. “On oilsands, Alberta is still trying to fix yesterday’s problems.” CBC News (August 5).

Vivian Krause. 2010. “US Foundations against the Oil Sands.” Financial Post, October 14.

Government of Alberta. 2021. Public inquiry into anti-Alberta energy campaigns. An independent commissioner was appointed to lead a public inquiry into the foreign-funded campaigns targeting Alberta’s oil industry.

– Fiscal Policy
McKenzie, Kenneth J. and Jack Mintz. 2011. “The Tricky Art of Measuring Fossil Fuel Subsidies: A Review of Existing Studies.” The School of Public Policy, SPP Research Papers 4 (14).

– Transport
Angevine, Gerry. 2013. The Canadian Oil Transport Conundrum. Fraser Institute (September).

Taylor, Jerry, and Peter Van Doren. 2011. “Keystone XL: Liberal Histrionics Answered With Conservative Histrionics.” Forbes (December 19).

– Environment

> Manufactured, Natural and Shale Gas

Manufactured Gas – The Genie’s Legacy, Heritage Research Center Ltd

Castaneda, Christopher. 2001. “Manufactured and Natural Gas Industry.” EH.Net Encyclopedia, September 4.

Michaels, Robert J. “Natural Gas Regulation,” The Concise Encyclopedia of Economics.

Kopp, Raymond J. “Natural Gas: Supply Problems are Key.” Resources (Navigating Energy Choices in the 21st Century), Winter 2005, Issue 156, pp. 16-19.

Schmitt, Gary J. “Natural Gas: The Next Energy Crisis?Issues in Science and Technology, vol 22, no 4, Summer 2006.


–, “Coal Tar.” The City of Kingston’s Website.

Bramley, Matthew. 2011. Is Natural Gas a Climate Change Solution for Canada. Pembina Institute and David Suzuki Foundation.


Smil, Vaclav. 2022. « Natural Gas in the New Energy World.” Naturgy Foundation (January).

EIA. 2019. The Role of Gas in Today’s Energy Transitions. World Energy Outlook special report (July).

– Overview

Mason, Charles F., Lucija A. Muehlenbachs, Sheila M. Olmstead. 2015. “The Economics of Shale Gas Development.” Annual Review of Resource Economics 7: 269-289.

Jackson, Robert B., Avner Vengosh, J. William Carey, Richard J. Davies, Thomas H. Darrah, Francis O’Sullivan, Gabrielle Pétron. 2014. “The Environmental Costs and Benefits of Fracking.” Annual Review of Environment and Resources 39: 327-362.

Stevens, Paul. 2010. “The ‘Shale Gas Revolution’: Hype and Reality.” Chatham House Report, September (Executive Summary).

– Fracking: Early History and Foundations of the Recent Boom
Wang, Zhongmin and Alan J. Krupnick. 2013. “A Retrospective Review of Shale Gas Development in the United States: What Led to the Boom?Resources for the Future, Discussion Paper 13-12.

Ridley, Matt. 2011. The Shale Gas Shock. Global Warming Policy Foundation, GWPF Report 2.

-. 2011. “A Tale of Two Shale States: Pennsylvania’s gain vs. New York’s missed opportunity.” The Wall Street Journal (July 26).

Myers Jaffe , Amy. 2010. “How Shale Gas Is Going to Rock the World.” The Wall Street Journal (May 10).

Krauss, Clifford. 2008. “Drilling Boom Revives Hopes for Natural Gas.” NYTimes.com, August 24.

Madrigal, Alexis C. 2013. “Shooting the Well: The Petroleum Torpedoes of the Early Oil Fields. Almost immediately after we started drilling wells, we started fracturing the rocks underground to increase the flow of fossil fuels.The Atlantic (August 21).

– Fracking: Supporters
Thomsen, Michael. 2020. “The US cut its CO2 emissions more than any other country in the world in 2019, helping to keep total global emissions from growing past 2018’s record-breaking high.” Daily Mail (February 11).

Perry, Mark. 2017. “Q: What Nation on Earth has Reduced its Carbon Emissions More tany Other?CarpeDiem (AEIdeas) (October 29).

Woudhuysen, James. 2016. “Another Fracking Melodrama. Claims that shale wells poison rivers are not all they seem.” Spiked (June 6).

Driessen, Paul. 2012. “Fracking: An Existential Threat to Green Dogma.” Townhall.co, March 28.

– Fracking: Canada

– Transportation
Wikipedia – LNG Carrier

GIIGNL Annual Report. 2021 The LNG industry

– Other topics
Congressional Research Service. 2018. Natural Gas Liquids: The Unknown Hydrocarbons (R45398).

Jones, Nicola 2017. “The World Eyes Yet Another Unconventional Source of Fossil Fuels. Vast quantities of methane hydrates — frozen deposits of natural gas on the sea floor — exist worldwide.” E360 (August 21).

• Abiotic Theory
Thomas Gold,” Wikipedia.

Gold, Thomas. 1992. “The Deep, Hot Biosphere,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 89: 6045-6049.

Bartlett, Bruce. 2004. “Discovering oil.” Townhall.com, June 10.

Green, Ken. 2008. “Oil Not a Fossil Fuel?National Review Online, February 1st.

Crude Oil: Evidences for its biological origin.” Encyclopedia of the Environment.


• Fire and Forests over Time
The Webpage of fire historian Stephen J. Pyne of Arizona State University.

The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations’ Forestry Website

Eco-Economy Indicators: DATA – FOREST COVER – World Forest Cover – Industrial and Fuel Wood Use

An overview of Michael Williams / Deforestating the Earth: From Prehistory to Global Crisis (University of Chicago Press, 2003).

The Great Restoration: The Potentials for Forest Protection to 2050

• Tragedy of the Commons
Yandle on the Tragedy of the Commons and the Implications for Environmental Regulation

• Whaling
PBS. 2010. “Into the Deep: America, Whaling & the World.” American Experience.

Smithsonian Institution. On the Water: Commercial Fishers: Whaling.

New Bedford Whaling Museum

Whaling History

• History – Carbon Fuels
Coal and coal (manufactured) gas
Allen Hatheway’s Manufactured Gas Website

Drake Well

Crude Oil
– General
Abraham Gesner (1897-1964)

Oil History Website by Samuel T. Pees

Petroleum History = Energy Education

Petroleum History Institute

Museum of the Earth – Oil History

Petroleum History Society (Canada)

– Regional
An Index to Early Petroleum History Sites by Blake Malkamaki

Canada’s Oil Heritage District

Oil Museum of Canada (Oil Springs, Ontario)

Petroleum History Society – Preserving history of the petroleum industry in Canada

– Unconventional Oil
Museum of the Scottish Shale Oil Industry

Periscope Films

• Carbon Fuels – Technical, Economic and Policy Issues
Clean Coal Technology Roadmap – Links

Fossil fuels – Union of Concerned Scientists

Latest WEC Studies and Reports (World Energy Council)

Running on Empty: America’s Energy Security, America Abroad Media.

William Kovarik and Matthew Hermes. “Fuel and Society.” ChemCases.com, Kennesaw State University.

A RFF policy briefing video on
Clean Coal?
The Future of Natural Gas.”
The Future of Petroleum.”

Natural Resources Canada on Energy

US Energy Information Administration
Petroleum and other liquids

This Is Plastics: Home

• Natural Gas

International Group of Liquefied Natural Gas Importers

• Alberta’s (Tar or Oil) Sands
> Positive Views
Environment Canada on Alberta’s Oil Sands
Oil Sands Discovery Centre
Oil Sands Question & Response
Alberta Energy: Oil Sands
Alberta’s Oil Sands – Government of Alberta
Canada’s Oil Sands – Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers
Canada’s Oil Sands Innovation Alliance (COSIA)
Ethical Oil website on Myths and Lies about the Oil Sands

> Negative Views
Tar Sands Watch
Oil Sands 101: Alberta’s Oil Sands
Oil Sand Truth
Journalist Andrew Nikiforuk on Alberta’s tar sands

• Videos
Your Alberta. 2010. Alberta Oil Sands: About

CBC. 2008. Tar Sands The Selling Of Alberta. CBC Doc Zone.

National Geographic Channel. 2004. “Megastructures Ultimate Oil Sands Mine.”

Glenbow Museum. “Search Unending. 1946″ (Imperial Oil).”

Canada’s History. 2014. “Leduc No. 1 Energy Discovery Centre.”