Pierre Desrochers

GGR 387 – Food and Globalization

Period: January-April 2022 
Instructor: Pierre DesrochersOffice: Davis Building, room 3273
Lectures: Wednesday 7-9 PMLecture room: IB-120
Phone: (905) 828-5206E-mail: pierre.desrochers@utoronto.ca

Office hours are Wednesday 5:30 – 7PM, Davis 3273. You can contact me anytime at pierre.desrochers@utoronto.ca.

Please read the course syllabus before e-mailing a question.

Always use your University of Toronto e-mail address (@utoronto.ca) for all course-related communications. E-mails from other domains (e.g., hotmail, Rogers, gmail, yahoo, etc.) may be filtered as spam and will at any rate be ignored. Always include the course code (e.g., GGR329) as part of your subject line, along with your full name and student number in the body of the e-mail. E-mails will be answered during office hours as promptly as possible. Please note that I do not open attachments and will not answer during week-ends.

The first person that you should e-mail concerning department- or program-related queries or to submit documentation regarding a missed assignment, quiz, or test is the Academic Counsellor for Geography/Environment, Sabrina Ferrari (sabrina.ferrari@utoronto.ca).

E-mail should NOT be viewed as an alternative to meeting with the TA or professor during office hours. Nor should e-mail be used as a mechanism to receive private tutorials (especially prior to tests) or to explain material that was covered in missed lectures. Not receiving replies to e-mails from the TA or professor, or not receiving them in time, will not be an acceptable excuse for pleas for extensions to assignment or exam deadlines.

Students are advised to consult http://www.enough.utoronto.ca/ for information on university policy concerning the appropriate use of information and communication technology.

Interest in agricultural issues and debates have grown markedly among non-specialist audiences in recent years. This course will provide a broad overview of the historical development of our global food economy along with a survey of recent trends and controversies.

Topics discussed will range from basic food staples, food markets and trade liberalization to food security, environmental sustainability and alternative agricultural systems. Understanding of technical terms and trade-offs, along with the local and global dimensions of the economics and politics surrounding our globalized supply chain will be recurring concerns in this course.

The course format will alternate between formal classes and open discussions. Students are expected to have read the assigned texts in advance.

The course has five (5) main objectives:

  1. To cover the basic physical, technical and economic issues related to agricultural development;
  2. To cover broadly the history of our globalized food supply chain;
  3. To introduce students to past debates and current controversies;
  4. To memorize and use, without aids, the basic terminology with which professionals in relevant disciplines communicate their work and their research findings;
  5. To apply a wide range of academic skills in active listening, note-taking, studying, reading, and test-taking to upper-level university courses.

There is no textbook or reading package for this class. Most of the readings are freely available on the web and links are provided on the course’s webpage. Most of the suggested readings are freely accessible from anywhere. Some of them, however, may require you to use a UofT terminal or user code.

Exceptionally this COVID year, your written assignments will consist of the following:

1) Short written assignments50%6:59PM day of lecture
2) Term Test20%October 21 11:59PM
3) Final Exam30%Saturday, Dec. 12th, 5-8 pm

As per the University Grading Practices Policy, please note that “after the methods of evaluation have been made known, the instructor may not change them or their relative weight without the consent of at least a simple majority of the students enrolled in the course. Any changes shall be reported to the division or the department.”

How to Query or Challenge a Mark

Please note that you have two weeks from the date an item is discussed in class to ask for the item to be remarked. Contact the Course Instructor for all queries about course marks, or if you wish to challenge a mark. Absolutely no item will be remarked after the two-week period has passed. Material submitted for remarking must be accompanied by a brief written explanation detailing your reasons for dissatisfaction with the original mark (such as an addition error or something you think the marker may have missed). A request for a remark without a written explanation will not be acted upon.

Please note that you are allowed two questions where you and the instructor can agree to disagree (meaning you believe that you are entitled to a higher mark, but your instructor disagrees) without penalty. Beginning with the third question where you and your instructor disagree, one point will be taken off your final mark by question for which a revised mark was requested by you and denied by the instructor.

Questions for the term test and final exam will be communicated to students through Quercus and will also be posted on this website.

All assignments will be processed through Ouriginal (UTM no longer uses Turnitin). The relevant technical details will be communicated via Quercus.
Short written assignments
You are asked to submit at least four written assignments that consist of a one page (single space) reflexion on the REQUIRED READINGS for the week. Each assignment will be worth 12.5% of your final mark. The deadline to submit your written assignment through Quercus is 2:59PM the day of the lecture. Failure to do so will result in a grade of 0. Please note that the departmental policy of 10% per day per late assignment does not apply in the case of the short written assignments. To clarify
  • Neither the videos nor the suggested readings are to be covered in this assignment.
  • You must cover the readings that will be discussed in class that day. For exemple, on September 20st you must submit a written assignment based on the readings to be discussed in class on September 20st, not the readings discussed the previous week.
  • The deadline to submit your written assignment through Quercus is 2:59PM the day of the lecture.
  • The point here is not to summarize the readings, but to identify the main theme(s) and how some of the readings complement or contradict each other. You do not need to cover all the required readings.
  • You can refer to the author’s last name only (e.g., “Diamond” for Jared Diamond)
  • You do not need to include a bibliography as your professor already knows the readings.
  • Each assignment will be graded out of 12.5. Your four best marks will be compiled to determine 50% of your final grade.
  • You can write up and submit up to 11 short written assignments.
  • Two good assignments written by past students have been included in the “Modules” of the Quercus shell for this course. Please consider them “best practice” and models to emulate.
Term Test and Final Exam
The term test will be a take-home assignment worth 20% of the final mark. The final exam will be written during the final exam period assigned for this course. It will be worth 30% of your final mark.
  • The term test will consist of short essays (5-6 pages in total) based on a question selected by the student out of two or three options given by the professor. These questions will cover some of the material discussed in class (including the required videos), the mandatory readings and the suggested readings.
  • The term test questions will be posted on October 4 and the deadline is October 18, 2:59PM. Please note that this is a term test, not a term work. As such, if you will not be able to meet the deadline follow the procedure for missed quizzes and tests detailed below (e.g., contacting the instructor in advance and the subsequent procedures). This is NOT a term work with a 10% per day late penalty.
  • The final exam will take place on the day scheduled by the Registrar’s Office. It will use an open book format. You will have three (3) hours to answer two (2) questions selected by your professor out of up to five (5) themes given in advance. More detail will be given towards the end of the semester.
Specifications: Please use the following guidelines for both the terms test and final exam What is the point of these assignments?
  • To acquire more in-depth learning about a topic discussed in this course and its relevance to broader policy discussions
  • To develop your writing skills
  • To learn to think critically
  • To learn the basics of scholarly and policy work
Useful links to help you write your assignments The University of Toronto Library staff has compiled several links on researching and writing term papers and other types of work. Please look them up, along with the various university resources available to you:

Student Technology Requirements and Connection Tools (Zoom, Bb Collaborate)

Students are expected to review and be in compliance with the University’s requirements for online learning (https://www.viceprovoststudents.utoronto.ca/tech-requirements-online-learning/). More resources are available on the UTM Library’s Learn Anywhere website (https://utm.library.utoronto.ca/students/quercus/learn-anywhere).

Zoom will be used in the delivery of components of this course. Students are required to register for a UTM Zoom account (https://utoronto.zoom.us) prior to the first lecture. Only authenticated users can join the zoom meetings; please follow the instructions to ensure that your account is authenticated.

Privacy and Use of Course Materials Notifications

Notice of video recording and sharing (Download and re-use prohibited)

This course, including your participation, will be recorded on video and will be available to students in the course for viewing remotely and after each session. Course videos and materials belong to your instructor, the University, and/or other sources depending on the specific facts of each situation, and are protected by copyright. Do not download, copy, or share any course or student materials or videos without the explicit permission of the instructor. For questions about recording and use of videos in which you appear please contact your instructor.

Communications Policy

Students are encouraged to avail of the posted office hour(s). Correspondence by email or requesting a meeting outside of the scheduled office hour(s) is also acceptable. In all email correspondence regarding this course, please note the following:

  1. Always use your University of Toronto email address (…@mail.utoronto.ca) for all course-related communications.
  2. Include the course code (e.g., ENV100Y5Y) as part of your subject line, and include your full name and student number in the body of the email
  3. Check the course Quercus site before emailing a question, to make sure that it has not already been answered

Please contact the department’s Academic Counsellor, Sabrina Ferrari (sabrina.ferrari@utoronto.ca), for any department- or program-related queries or to submit documentation regarding a missed quiz or test.

Missed Term Work

Late assignments will be subject to a late penalty of 10% per day (including weekends) of the total marks for the assignment. Assignments submitted five calendar days beyond the due date will be assigned a grade of zero.

Term Work – Accommodations

  1. Accommodations due to late registration into the course will NOT be approved.
  2. In courses with final exams, there will be no re-writes or make-ups for term tests/quizzes missed for University-accepted, verifiable reasons. Instead, the final exam will be re-weighted by the value of the term test/quiz.
  3. For in-class or online quiz/test, studentsCANNOT petition to re-write a quiz/test once it has begun. If you are feeling ill, please do not start the online or in-class test and seek medical attention immediately.
  4. For extension requests, maximum extension (where/when possible) is ONE week.
  5. Extension requests must be made IN ADVANCE of the assignment due date.
  6. Assignments handed in AFTER the work has been returned to the class cannot be marked for credit.
  7. Students are responsible in ensuring strong reliable internet connection. Special consideration requests due to poor internet connection (ie. unable to complete online quiz / unable to submit assignment before deadline) will not be accepted.
  8. Students are expected to back up their work at all times. As such, extension requests due to computer issues (stolen, crashed, damaged etc.) will not be considered.
  9. Extension requests will NOT be approved for Group Assignments
  10. It is every student’s responsibility to ensure that their online submission is submitted successfully by the due date. Accommodations will not be made for unsuccessful submissions due to, but not limited to: i) the system timing out ii) submitting the incorrect document(s) iii) poor internet connection / no internet connection etc.
  11. Holidays and pre-purchased plane tickets, family plans, your friend’s wedding, lack of preparation, or too many other tests/assignments are not acceptable excuses for missing a quiz, a test, an item of term work, or requesting an extension of time.
  12. For extensions of time beyond the examination period you must submit a petition through the Office of the Registrar. https://www.utm.utoronto.ca/registrar/forms

How to Request an Accommodation

In the Geography, Geomatics and Environment department, professors cannot grant extensions on term work or allow makeups for missed items. Instead, you must follow the following steps:

  1. You must submit an online Special Consideration Request using the following link: https://utmapp.utm.utoronto.ca/SpecialRequest within 24 hours. Note: The system only supports Microsoft Internet Explorer and Firefox for the time being.
  2. Email your course instructor.
  3. Submit your absence using the ACORN absence declaration tool. Each day that you are absent must be recorded. The ACORN absence declaration tool lets you record absences for up to 14 consecutive days, one of which must be the day you access the tool (if you are still absent) or the day prior (if you have returned). If you need to record an absence outside of this range, please contact the Office of the Registrar. More information about Absence Declarations can be found at: https://www.utm.utoronto.ca/registrar/utm-absence.
  4. Provide a copy of your Absence Declaration submission on ACORN to the Sabrina Ferrari. (ferrari@utoronto.ca)

Please note that students are required to submit their assignment/lab as soon as they are able and they should NOT wait for the decision of the committee

It is your responsibility to follow the appropriate procedures and submit requests for special consideration on time. Failure to do so may result in the committee denying your request. Should you require further information regarding Special Considerations, please contact Sabrina Ferrari (sabrina.ferrari@utoronto.ca) Academic Counselor.

Please note that the written explanation and documentation that you submit represents an appeal from you, requesting the opportunity to account for that portion of your grade in some other manner. If a special consideration request is not received, or if the special consideration request is denied, you will receive a grade of zero for the item you missed. If the special consideration request is granted – that is, your reason for missing the item is considered acceptable by the committee – your grade will be accommodated accordingly.

A Departmental committee evaluates each request. Decisions will be communicated by email within two weeks of receipt of all completed documents. Note: It is your responsibility to ensure your email account is working and able to receive emails. Claims that a Departmental decision was not received will NOT be considered as a reason for further consideration. Contact Sabrina Ferrari (sabrina.ferrari@utoronto.ca) Academic Counselor, should you NOT receive notification of your decision within 2 weeks of submission.

The University of Toronto is committed to equity and respect for diversity. All members of the learning environment in this course should strive to create an atmosphere of mutual respect. As a course instructor, I will neither condone nor tolerate behaviour that undermines the dignity or self-esteem of any individual in this course and wish to be alerted to any attempt to create an intimidating or hostile environment. It is our collective responsibility to create a space that is inclusive and welcomes discussion. Discrimination, harassment and hate speech will not be tolerated. If you have any questions, comments, or concerns you may contact the UTM Equity and Diversity officer at edo.utm@utoronto.ca or the University of Toronto Mississauga Students’ Union Vice President Equity at vpequity@utmsu.ca.

Academic Rights

You, as a student at UTM, have the right to:

  • Receive a syllabus by the first day of class.
  • Rely upon a syllabus once a course is started. An instructor may only change marks’ assignments by following the University Assessment and Grading Practices Policy provision 1.3.
  • Refuse to use Ouriginal (you must be offered an alternative form of submission).
  • Have access to your instructor for consultation during a course or follow up with the department chair if the instructor is unavailable.
  • Ask the person who marked your term work for a re-evaluation if you feel it was not fairly graded. You have up to one month from the date of return of the item to inquire about the mark. If you are not satisfied with a re-evaluation, you may appeal to the instructor in charge of the course if the instructor did not mark the work. If your work is remarked, you must accept the resulting mark. You may only appeal a mark beyond the instructor if the term work was worth at least 20% of the course mark.
  • Receive at least one significant mark (15% for H courses, 25% for Y courses) before the last day you can drop a course for H courses, and the last day of classes in the first week of January for Y courses taught in the Fall/Winter terms.
  • Submit handwritten essays so long as they are neatly written.
  • Have no assignment worth 100% of your final grade.
  • Not have a term test worth 25% or more in the last two weeks of class.
  • Retain intellectual property rights to your research.
  • Receive all your assignments once graded.
  • View your final exams. To see a final exam, you must submit an online Exam Reproduction Request within 6 months of the exam. There is a small non-refundable fee.
  • Privacy of your final grades.
  • Arrange for representation from Downtown Legal Services (DLS), a representative from the UTM Students’ Union (UTMSU), and/or other forms of support if you are charged with an academic offence.

It is your responsibility as a student at the University of Toronto to familiarize yourself with, and adhere to, both the Code of Student Conduct and the Code of Behaviour on Academic Matters.

This means, first and foremost, that you should read them carefully.

  • The Code of Student Conduct is available from the U of T Mississauga website (Registrar > Academic Calendar > Codes and Policies) or in your print version of the Academic Calendar.
  • The Code of Behaviour on Academic Matters is available from the U of T Mississauga website (Registrar > Academic Calendar > Codes and Policies) or in your print version of the Academic Calendar.

Another helpful document that you should read is How Not to Plagiarize, by M. Proctor.

With regard to remote learning and online courses, UTM wishes to remind students that they are expected to adhere to the Code of Behaviour on Academic Matters regardless of the course delivery method. By offering students the opportunity to learn remotely, UTM expects that students will maintain the same academic honesty and integrity that they would in a classroom setting. Potential academic offences in a digital context include, but are not limited to:

  • Accessing unauthorized resources (search engines, chat rooms, Reddit, etc.) for assessments.
  • Using technological aids (e.g. software) beyond what is listed as permitted in an assessment.
  • Posting test, essay, or exam questions to message boards or social media.
  • Creating, accessing, and sharing assessment questions and answers in virtual “course groups.”
  • Working collaboratively, in-person or online, with others on assessments that are expected to be completed individually.

All suspected cases of academic dishonesty will be investigated following procedures outlined in the Code of Behaviour on Academic Matters. If you have questions or concerns about what constitutes appropriate academic behaviour or appropriate research and citation methods, you are expected to seek out additional information on academic integrity from your instructor or from other institutional resources.

University Plagiarism Detection Tool Conditions of Use Statement

“Normally, students will be required to submit their course essays to the University’s plagiarism detection tool for a review of textual similarity and detection of possible plagiarism. In doing so, students will allow their essays to be included as source documents in the tool’s reference database, where they will be used solely for the purpose of detecting plagiarism. The terms that apply to the University’s use of this tool are described on the Centre for Teaching Support & Innovation web site (https://uoft.me/pdt-faq).”

How to Query or Challenge a Mark

Please note that, according to UTM policy, you have one month from the date an item is returned to you, during which time you may query the mark or submit the item for remarking. Contact the Course Instructor in person or by email (@utoronto.ca) for all queries about course marks, or if you wish to challenge a mark. Absolutely no item will be remarked after the one-month period has passed.

Material submitted for remarking must be accompanied by a brief written explanation detailing your reasons for dissatisfaction with the original mark (such as an addition error, or something you think the marker may have missed). The item may be returned first to the TA who originally marked it. If you are still dissatisfied, it may be passed on to the Course Instructor for reconsideration. If a remarking is granted by an instructor, the student must accept the resulting mark as the new mark, whether it goes up or down or remains the same.

U of T Mississauga and the AccessAbility Resource Centre are committed to the full participation of students with disabilities in all aspects of campus life. The AccessAbility Resource Centre provides academic accommodations and services to students who have a physical, sensory, or learning disability, mental health condition, acquired brain injury, or chronic health condition, be it visible or hidden. Students who have temporary disabilities (e.g., broken dominant arm) are also eligible to receive services. All interested students must have an intake interview with an advisor to discuss their individual needs.

Students who require accommodation are advised to visit the AccessAbility Resource Centre as early as possible to have their needs assessed, as it may take some time to process the application.

For more information please contact the centre at:
Room 2047, South Bldg.
Tel/TTY: 905-569-4699
E-mail: access.utm@utoronto.ca
Web: www.utm.utoronto.ca/access

As noted in the the Policy on Scheduling of Classes and Examinations and Other Accommodations for Religious Observances, the following provisions are included:
  • It is the policy of the University of Toronto to arrange reasonable accommodation of the needs of students who observe religious holy days other than those already accommodated by ordinary scheduling and statutory holidays.
  • Students have a responsibility to alert members of the teaching staff in a timely fashion to upcoming religious observances and anticipated absences. Instructors will make every reasonable effort to avoid scheduling tests, examinations or other compulsory activities at these times. If compulsory activities are unavoidable, every reasonable opportunity should be given to these students to make up work that they miss, particularly in courses involving laboratory work. When the scheduling of tests or examinations cannot be avoided, students should be informed of the procedure to be followed to arrange to write at an alternate time.
  • It is most important that no student be seriously disadvantaged because of her or his religious observances. However, in the scheduling of academic and other activities, it is also important to ensure that the accommodation of one group does not seriously disadvantage other groups within the University community.”
  • With respect to minimum advance notice, the Policy provides that “Students have a responsibility to alert members of the teaching staff in a timely fashion to upcoming religious observances and anticipated absences.” Since students would normally be aware of upcoming religious observances as well as examination schedules in advance, a minimum of three weeks advance notice will be considered sufficient.
  • More information and some dates of potential relevance for the U of T community are available at viceprovoststudents.utoronto.ca/publicationsandpolicies/guidelines/religiousobservances.htm.
  • As with any academic accommodation request, students must submit an on-line Special Consideration Request @ https://utmapp.utm.utoronto.ca/SpecialRequest

RGASC Statement

The Robert Gillespie Academic Skills Centre (RGASC) is located in Room 3251 on the third floor of the Maanjiwe nendamowinan Building. The RGASC offers individual consultations, workshops (many CCR-accredited), and a wide range of programs to help students identify and develop the academic skills they need for success in their studies. Much of their programming has shifted online while their physical office is closed to help prevent the spread of COVID-19. Visit the RGASC website to explore their online resources, book an online appointment, or learn about other programming such as Writing Retreats, the Program for Accessing Research Training (PART), Mathematics and Numeracy Support, and dedicated resources for English Language Learners.

UTM Library’s Statement

UTM Library – The University of Toronto Library provides access to a vast collection of online and print resources to faculty, staff, and students and is the largest academic library in Canada. The UTM Library offers Reference and Research Help virtually, through chat, Zoom, and individual research consultations, to help students navigate library databases, find relevant articles for their research, and cite correctly. The Library Workshops and Events help students learn about the search techniques and specialized software, needed to be successful in their academic journey. For more information, visit https://library.utm.utoronto.ca/.

Suggested Scholarly Sources

Encyclopedias and Reference Works

Hayes’ Handbook of Pesticide Toxicology (Third Edition)

Kipple, Kenneth F. and Kriemhild Coneè Ornelas (eds). 2000. The Cambridge World History of Food. Cambridge University Press.

Cutler Cleveland (ed.) Encyclopedia of Earth
Various sub-categories and specific entries, including Food, Agricultural and Resource Economics, Soils & Fisheries and Aquaculture

Vasant Gowariker et al. 2009. The Fertilizer Encyclopedia. Wiley.

Kirk-Othmer Food and Feed Technology, 2 Volume Set. 2007. Wiley.

Ullmann’s Agrochemicals, 2 Volumes. Wiley. 2007.

Keith Roberts (ed.) 2007. Handbook of Plant Science, 2 volumes. Wiley.

Jack R. Plimmer (ed.) 2002. Encyclopedia of Agrochemicals, 3 Volume.

Shelton, Anthony. Biological Control. A Guide to Natural Enemies in North America (Cornell University, Department of Entomology).

International Labor Organization (ILO). ILO Encyclopedia of Occupational Health and Safety
Food processes
Beverage industry
Livestock rearing

Canada-European Union: Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement (CETA)

Johns Hopkins Center for a Liveable Future. Undated. Food System Primer

Phillips, Denise and Sharon Kingsland (eds). 2015. New Perspectives on the History of Life Sciences and Agriculture. Springer (Full text available through UofT library).

Academic Journals

Journal lists
Association for the Study of Food and Society – Food Studies links (Academic journals)
Canadian Association for Food Studies – Journals

Special Issue (open access) on “Food Security: Feeding the World in 2050.” Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B (Biological Sciences) 365 (1554), September 27, 2010.

Special issue on “Can Science Feed the World.” Nature, July 28, 2010.

Special issue on “Food Security.”Science 327 (5967), February 11, 2010.

During 2000 and 2001, the editors of Plant Physiology published a series of now freely available Editor’s Choice articles devoted to biotechnology (Site maintained by the American Society of Plant Biologists).

Special issue (open access) of Social Research (Spring 1999) on “Food: Nature and Culture.”

Agricultural and Applied Economics Associations (Publications)
Agriculture and Human Values
Agricultural History
Agricultural History Review
Annual Review of Environment and Resources
Annual Review of Food Science and Technology
Annual Review of Resource Economics
Canadian Food Studies
Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety
Electronic Journals for Agriculture
Food and Foodways
Food, Culture & Society
Food Security
Frontiers in Sustainable Food Systems
Giannini Foundation Library (Journals)
Global Food Security
Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics
Journal of Agricultural & Food Industrial Organization
Journal of Agriculture, Food Systems, and Community Development
Journal of Peasant Studies
Journal of Rural Studies
Journals sponsored by the American Society of Agronomy
Taylor and Francis (Agriculture and Environmental Sciences)
Food, Culture & Society
Food & History
Food Policy
Review of Agricultural and Environmental Studies
Aquaculture, Fisheries & Fish Science

Suggested Websites


UN FAO (United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization) (the best resource for this course)
Codex Alimentarius Commission (FAO/WHO Food Standards)
World Agriculture: Towards 2015/2030 (An FAO Perspective)
FAO Committee on World Food Security
Food and Nutrition in Numbers 2014

Environmental Literacy Council on Food
GreenFacts.org on
Agriculture and Development
Diet and Nutrition
Food and Lifestyle
Liquid Biofuels for Transport
Water Resources

International Food Policy Institute

Global Food Security (UK)
Bibliography and Links

OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development)
Trade and Agriculture Directorate

Overseas Development Institute on Agricultural Development Policy

Resources for the Future on Food and Agriculture

USDA (United States Department of Agriculture) Economics Research Service

World Bank on
Agriculture and Rural Development
Agricultural trade
Distortions to agricultural incentives
World Development Report 2008: Agriculture for Development

World Food Prize

World Health Organization
Food safety
Atlas – Life Expectancy at Birth

World Trade Organization
Food Security
Agricultural News

International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD)

About.com – Agricultural Geography
Geography of Agriculture: An Overview of Agricultural Geography
Slash and Burn Agriculture
Green Revolution
The Von Thunen Model

United Nations
UNCTAD (United Nations Conference on Trade and Development)
UNEP (United Nations Environmental Programme)
World Food Programme
World Food Programme Insight
OHCHR (Office of the High Commissioner on Human Rights) on the Right to Food
UN Committee on Global Food Security

Johns Hopkins’ Center for a Livable Future – Food Policy Resources

Food writer Anne Ewbanks


Global Food Security (UK) links to food security statistics (various sources)

AMAD (Agricultural Market Access Database)
ASTI (Agricultural Science and Technology Indicators)
Canadian Dairy Information Centre
Farm Subsidy Database
Futures Trading Charts
Gapminder Agriculture
FAO Socio-economic, Agricultural and Environmental Indicators
Food Prices Index
Statistical Yearbook
UNCTAD (United Nations Conference on Trade and Development)
Agricultural Products and Beverages
Statistics Canada
USDA (United States Department of Agriculture)
Economics Research Service
Economics, Statistics, and Market Information System
National Agricultural Statistics Service
Ag Atlas Maps
Crops and Plants
Livestock and Animals
USGS (United States Geological Survey)
Mineral Commodities Summaries (estimates covering nonfuel mineral industry data, including fertilizers)


Antique and Classical Writings
Marcus Porcius Cato (Cato the Elder). Approx. 160 BCE. de Agri Cultura
Marcus Terentius Varro. Approx. 27 BCE. de Re Rustica
Lucius Junius Moderatus Columella. Approx. 65AD. de Re Rustica

About.com “Agriculture and Farm Innovations
Archaeology on
plant domestication
animal domestication
domestication of animal and plants

Agricultural History Society
British Agricultural History Society
Cambridge World History of Food (Table of contents)
Core Historical Literature of Agriculture (Cornell University)
Eh.Net Encyclopedia of Economic and Business History (various entries)
Farm, Field and Fireside: Agricultural Newspaper Collection (University of Illinois)
Food Bibliography
Food History News
Foodlinks (A selection of English web pages related to food history)
Food Museum Online
Food Timeline
History, Art and Biography
Natural History Museum (UK), Seeds of Trade
Rare book image gallery
Research Centre for the History of Food and Drink (University of Adelaide)

Encyclopedia of Canada – Agriculture (History)

USDA (United States Department of Agriculture) on
Growing a Nation (History of American Agriculture)
History of American Agriculture timeline
Pomological Watercolor Collection

Topical (Topics, Museums and Exhibits)
Fruitlands Museum
Potato Museum
Rice (All about rice – International Year of Rice)
World Carrot Museum

Online courses
Albala, Ken (University of the Pacific). Food: A Cultural Culinary History

Current Issues

News (specialized)
AgWeb (Farm Journal)
Amber Waves
ARE update (Agricultural and Resource Economics Update – UC Davis)
FAO Global Information and Early Warning News (on food and agriculture)
Farmpolicy.com (A Summary of Farm Policy News – USA)
FEWS Net (Famine Early Warning System Net – US Aid)
Meridian Institute – Food Security and AgBiotech News
National Geographic on food (Weekly “Future of Food” newsletter)

News (general)
The Globe and Mail on Food and Wine
The Guardian on Food and Drink
Washington Post on Global Food Crisis

Commodity-based Research Centers
AVRDC – The World Vegetable Center

Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research
(Among the most prominent CGIAR research centers are
International Center for Tropical Agriculture
International Food Policy Research Institute
International Livestock Research Institute
International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center
International Rice Research Institute)

Global Partnership Initiative for Plant Breeding Capacity Building
(see the list of partners:global | regional | national | societies and associations | web initiatives)

International Trade Associations and Societies
Crop Life International (Plant Science Industry)
European Fertilizer Manufacturers Association
Grain and Feed Trade Association (GAFTA)
IFA: International Fertilizer Industry Association
International Fertilizer Development Center
International Food Information Council Foundation – Food Insight
International Seed Federation
International Union of Nutritional Sciences
International Union of Food Science and Technology
International Union of Soil Science
International Union of Toxicology
Snack Food Association – An International Trade Association
World Organization for Animal Health

International Labor Organization
Bibliographies on agriculture, plantations and other rural sectors
Bibliographies on the food, drink and tobacco sector

Governmental and National Institutions, Societies and Activists

Government of Canada
Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada
Canadian Food Inspection Agency
Food Safety
Public Health Agency of Canada on Food Safety
Statistics Canada, Canadian Agriculture at a Glance
Health Canada
Food Safety
Agricultural Food Crops
Codex Alimentarius in Canada
Pesticides and Pest Management
Foreign Affairs and International Trade Canada

Hedley, Douglas D. 2015. “The Evolution of Agricultural Support Policy in Canada.” CAES Fellows Paper 2015-1.

Be Food Safe (Canada)
Beef Information Centre
Food Secure Canada
Canadian Agri-Food Trade Alliance
Canadian Canola Growers’ Association
Canola Council of Canada
Canadian Agri-Food Policy Institute
Canadian Encyclopedia on Agriculture
Canadian Federation of Agriculture
Canadian Federation of Independent Grocers
Canadian Grain Commission
Canadian Organic Growers
Canadian Organic Livestock Association
Canadian Seed Growers Association (CSGA)
Canadian Seed Institute (CSI)
Canadian Seed Trade Association (CSTA)
Canadian Soybean Exporters’ Association
CD Howe Institute on agricultural policy
Farmers Feed Cities
Food and Consumer Product Manufacturers of Canada
Grain Growers of Canada (GGC)
Healthy Canadians website
Montreal Economic Institute (MEI) on Agriculture
Nourrir notre monde
People’s Food Policy Project
Retail Council of Canada
Seeds of Diversity
Slow Food Canada
Soy 2020 Project
Union des producteurs agricoles (Quebec)
Vegetable Oil Producer of Canada

Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs on:
food safety and traceability
organic agriculture
urban agriculture
on food
food safety and traceability
food inspection programs
animal health and welfare
on food safety

Ontario Ministry of Environment
Agriculture & Farming
Nutrient Management

– Varia
Ontario agricultural and agri-business statistics
Foodland Ontario
Ontario Food Terminal Board

Agricultural producers, agri-business and other organizations
List of Agriculture, Food and Rural Organizations
Grain Producers of Ontario (corn, wheat and soybeans)
Ontario Agri-Business Association (OABA)
Ontario Farmland Trust
Ontario Federation of Agriculture
Ontario Wheat Producers’ Marking Board
Organic Agriculture Centre of Canada – Ontario
Organic Council of Ontario

American Dietetic Association
American Frozen Food Institute
American Phytopathological Society
American Seed Trade Association
American Society of Agronomy
American Society for Plasticulture
Center for Disease Control and Prevention on nutrition and food safety
Council on Food, Agricultural and Resource Economics
Food and Drugs Administration on food
Grocery Manufacturers Association
Institute of Food Technologists
National Center for Food and Agricultural Policy
Partnership for Food Safety Education
Slow Food USA

United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) on
Food and Nutrition Information Center
Food Safety Research Information Office
National Agricultural Library
Food Atlas

USDA Food Safety and Inspection Service
Food Safety Education

US GAO (Government Accounting Office)
Agriculture and Food

Australian Commodity Research Institute – Food Institute
Center for Strategic and International Studies’ Global Food Security Project
The Danish Environmental Institute’s Green Roads to Growth Project – Case Study Area #5: Agriculture
German Institute of Food Technologies
Global Food Security (UK) (Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council)
OXFAM on Agriculture
UK Department of the Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA) on Food

Academic Research Centers

Agricultural Policy Research Networks
Canadian Agricultural Innovation and Regulation Network
Canadian Agricultural and Trade Policy Network (CATPRN)
Canadian Association for Food Studies
Ecological Agriculture Projects
George Morris Centre
National Food Strategy
Ryerson University’s Centre for Studies in Food Security

Agrarian Studies (Yale University)
Agile Agriculture (University of Arkansas)
California Agriculture (University of California)
Food Policy Institute (Rutgers University)
Giannini Foundation of Agricultural Economics (University of California)
Leopold Center for Sustainable Agriculture (Iowa State University)
University of California Sustainable Agriculture and Education Program

United Kingdom
Cultures of Consumption Project on
Alternative Food Networks
History of Italian Style Coffee
Chewing Gum
Water Politics in the UK (History)
Global Supply Chains and Consumer Confidence
Leverhulme Centre for Integrative Research on Agriculture and Health

Organizations and individuals with a strong point of view

– Pro modern agri-business and trade liberalization
American Council on Science and Health
Biotechnology Information
Cato Institute on agricultural trade and “downsizing the federal government” (agriculture)
Center for Consumer Freedom
Center for Global Food Issues
Committee for a Constructive Tomorrow (CFACT) on Agriculture
Council for Agricultural Science and Technology
Frontier Centre for Public Policy’s Rural Renaissance Project
Genetic Literacy Project
Heritage Foundation on Agriculture
Hudson Institute on Agriculture and Biotechnology
Independent Institute on agriculture
International Food and Agricultural Trade Policy Council
Meridian Institute on Agriculture and Food Security
Safe Food Inc
The Truth about Trade and Technology

Dennis Avery (Hudson Institute, CFACT and Center for Global Food Issues)
Indur Goklany on Food Security and Agriculture
Jayson Lusk (Oklahoma State University)
Jim Prevor (Perishable Pundit)
Jon Entine
Jude Capper
Kym Anderson (University of Adelaide, formerly at the World Bank)
Louise O. Fresco (University of Amsterdam)
Robert Paalberg
Rob Lyons – Panic on a Plate
Ronald Bailey
Sallie James (Cato Institute)
Thomas R DeGregori (University of Houston)
Vaclav Smil (University of Manitoba)
Rachel Laudan
Kevin Folta
Steve Savage

– Critics of modern agri-business and globalization
Agriculture, Food & Human Values Society
Association for the Study of Food and Society
Berry Center
Center for Food Safety
Center for Science in the Public Interest
Institute for Agriculture and Trade Policy
Institute for Food Policy and Development
Land Institute
La Via Campesina (International PeasantMovement)
Montana Food System Council
National Sustainable Agriculture Coalition
Oakland Institute
Rodale Institute
Schumacher Center for a New Economics
Seed Savers Exchange
Slow Food International
Sustainable Agriculture (resources on)
Sustainable Agriculture Network
Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education
Sustainable Food

Miguel Altieri (UC-Berkeley)
Mark Bittman
Tim Lang
Matt Liebman (Iowa State University)
Marion Nestle (Food Politics)
Raj Patel
Michael Pollan
Sara Rich
Paul Roberts (The End of Food)
Joel Salatin (Polyface)
Eric Schlosser
Nicola Twilley (Edible Geography)

Miscellaneous items

Shipping rates calculator

Animal Diseases

World Organization for Animal Health

Lecture 1 (Sept. 9): Introduction
Lecture 2 (Sept. 16): Historical Perspective I
Lecture 3 (Sept. 23): Historical Perspective II
Lecture 4 (Sept. 30): Commodities I
Lecture 5 (Oct. 7): Commodities II
(Oct. 14): Reading Week – No class
Lecture 6 (Oct. 21): Commodities III
Lecture 7 (Oct. 28): Commodities IV
Lecture 8 (Nov. 4): Commodities V
Lecture 9 (Nov. 11): Agricultural Inputs, Technologies and Food Additives I
Lecture 10 (Nov. 18): Agricultural Inputs, Technologies and Food Additives II
Lecture 11 (Nov. 25): Policy Controversies I
Lecture 12 (Dec. 2): Policy Controversies II


The Meatrix

IFPRI Millions Fed – Proven Solutions

BBC 4. 2010. “Hans Rosling’s 200 Countries, 200 Years, 4 Minutes – The Joy of Stats.” (November 26).

Worldwrite. 2006. “I’m a Subsistence Farmer get me out of Here!” 

Breakthrough Institute. 2016. “Precision Agriculture: Visualizing Agricultural Innovation.”

College Humor. 2018, “Buy Food Ethically, Unless It’s Too Hard.”


• COVID-19 and the Food Supply Chain
Bedford, Christopher. 2020. “How And Why America’s Food System Is Cracking.” The Federalist (May 14).

Lusk, Jayson. 2020. “Ruminations on Solutions to the COVID-Related Food Disruptions.” Jayson Lusk Blog (May 12).

Wright, Robert E. 2020. “How to Stop Food Shortages.” AIER (May 6).

Sorman, Guy. 2020. “The Modern Food Miracle. Science and commerce feed the world.” City Journal (July 10).

Upton, William. 2020. “Make America Autarkic Again.” American Mind (March 13).

Boudreaux, Donald J. 2020. “The Economy Is Not a Series of Supply Chains.” AIER (April 13).

Lusk, Jayson. 2020. “Time for Food Resilience.” City Journal (August 7).

• Overviews
– “2050: A third more mouths to feed.” FAO, September 23, 2009.

FAO. 2019. The State of Food Insecurity and Nutrition in the World (Scroll down).

Starling, Shane. 2014. “World’s Most Obese Nation? Kuwait (and the next four are Middle Eastern).” Food Navigator.com (November 3). 

Charlebois, Sylvain et al. 2018. Canada’s Food Price Report 2018. Dalhousie University and University of Guelph (Executive Summary). 

Johns Hopkins Center for a Liveable Future. Undated. “Food System Primer – Industrialization of Agriculture.”

Roser, Max and Hannah Ritchie. “Food Supply.” Our World in Data.

Smil, Vaclav. 2019. “Good Eats.” Inference 5 (1).

• Critics
Pollan, Michael. 2008. “Farmer in Chief.” New York Times Magazine (October 9).

People’s Food Policy Project. 2011. Resetting the Table: A People’s Food Policy for Canada (Executive Summary).

Global Development and Environment Institute (Tufts University). 2012. Resolving the Food Crisis. Research for Global Policy Reform.

Bittman, Mark, Michael Pollan, Ricardo Salvador and Olivier De Schutter. 2014. “How a National Food Policy could save Millions of American Lives.” Washington Post (November 7). 

Smil, Vaclav. 2016. “Harvesting the Biosphere.” The World Financial Review (January – February): 46-49. 

Garza, Ron. 2020. “Bringing Biodiversity Back To Farming.” Vertical Farm Harvest (February 17).

Fairbank, Viviane. 2020. “Food for Thought. Eight billion mouths and counting.” Literary Review of Canada (May).

• Defenders of modern agriculture and agri-business
Harris, Rob. 2007. “Let’s Ditch this ‘Nostalgia for Mud’.” Spiked, 4 December.

Hurst, Blake. 2009. “The Omnivore’s Delusion: Against the Agri-Intellectuals.” The American, July 30.

Paarlberg, Robert. 2010 “Attention Whole Food Shoppers.” Foreign Policy (May-June).

Smith, Kyle. 2013. “The Greatest Food in Human History.” New York Post (July 29).

Tucker, Jeffrey. 2014. “Life without the McDouble.” (August 5).

Jen. 2014. “Top Myths in Agriculture and Food Production with Dr. Cami Ryan.” Canola (Manitoba Canola Growers) (December 3). 

Hurst, Blake. 2015. “The End of Farming?The American (April 3).

Laudan, Rachel. 2015. “A Plea for Culinary Modernism.” Jacobin (May).

Laudan, Rachel. 2016. “In Praise of Artificial Food.” Aeon (January 28).

Lusk, Jayson. 2016. “Why Industrial Farms Are Good for the Environment.” New York Times (September 23). 

Driessen, Paul. 2020. “Keeping Africa On the Brink of Starvation.” Townhall.com (February 22).

Tupy, Marian L. 2020. “The Battle to Feed All of Humanity Is Over. Humanity Has Won.” Quillette (February 11).

Bailey, Ron. 2020. “It’s Possible To Cut Cropland Use in Half and Produce the Same Amount of Food, Says New Study.” Reason (April 17).

Stier, Jeff and Henry I. Miller. 2013. “How Much of Food Activism Is Nonsense?Regulation (Summer): 8-10.


• Overviews
– “How to Feed a Hungry World.” Nature 466 : 531-532 (July 29, 2010).

Cowen, Tyler. 2012. “World Hunger: The Problem Left Behind.” The New York Times (September 15).

Sharp, Philip A. and Alan Leshner. 2016. “We Need a New Green Revolution.” New York Times (January 4).

World Resources Institute. 2019. World Resources Report: Creating a Sustainable Food Future – A Menu of Solutions to Feed Nearly 10 Billion People by 2050. WRI, UNEP, UNDP, CIRAD and INRA.

• Substantial references
Beddington, John. 2010. “Global Food and Farming Futures.” Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B (Biological Sciences) 365 (1554) (September): 2767.

Finn, S. Margot. 2019. “Food Injustice: What the Food Movement Misses About Poverty and Inequality.” Breakthrough Journal 11 (Summer) (July 15).

Godfray, H. Charles J. 2010. “Introduction: The Future of the Global Food System.” Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B (Biological Sciences) 365 (1554) (September): 2769-2777.

Kearney, John. 2010. “Food Consumption Trends and Drivers.” Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B (Biological Sciences) 365 (1554) (September): 2793-2807.

Johnson, D. Gale. 2000, “Population, Food, and Knowledge,” American Economic Review 90, 2000, p. 1-14.

DeGregori, Thomas R. 2009. “The Green Washing of the Green Ideological Agenda: In Defense of Modern Agriculture, Technology and Life.” 

Wimberley, Ronald C. et al. 2003. Food from Our Changing World: The Globalization of Food and How Americans Feel About It, North Carolina State University.

Rausser, Gordon, David Zilberman, and Gabriel Kahn. 2015. “An Alternative Paradigm for Food Production, Distribution, and Consumption: A Noneconomist’s Perspective.” Annual Review of Resource Economics 7: 309-331. 

Poux, Xavier and Pierre-Marie-Aubert. 2018. An Agroecological Europe in 2050: multifunctional agriculture for healthy eating Findings from the Ten Years For Agroecology (TYFA) modelling exercise. IDDRI Study #9.

Porkka, Miina, Matti Kummu, Stefan Siebert and Olli Varis. 2013. “From Food Insufficiency towards Trade Dependency: A Historical Analysis of Global Food Availability.” PLoS ONE 8 (12): e82714.

• Shorter texts
Robert, Paul. 2009. “Spoiled: Organic and Local is so 2008.” Mother Jones (February)

Kotkin, Joel. 2010. “America’s Agricultural Angst.” Forbes (January 19)

Timmer, Peter C. “A World without Agriculture? The Historical Paradox of Agricultural Development.” AEI Outlook May 2009.

Cowen, Tyler. 2006. “Can You Really Save the Planet at the Dinner Table? – An economist’s critique of The Omnivore’s Dilemma.” Slate.com, November 1st.

Cunningham, Brent. 2011. “Pastoral Romance.” Lapham’s Quarterly (Summer).


Eames-Sheavly, Marcia. Discovering the Food System: An experiential learning program for young and inquiring minds. Cornell University.

World Bank. 2007. World Development Report 2008: Agriculture and Development, Policy Briefs.
– Growth
– Poverty Reduction
– Climate Change
– Gender
– The ‘Three Worlds’ of Agriculture Briefs

Policy Options. April 2017.

Foodspan (Johns Hopkins University).

Farmers: What do you think of Pollan’s Ideas?Talk of the Nation (National Public Radio), Oct. 8, 2009.

IFPRI – Millions Fed, Proven Solutions

Pollan and Hurst Debate the Future of AgricultureMarket to Market (Iowa Public Television), July 16, 2010.

The Meatrix

Gapminder. Hans Rosling on 200 countries, 200 years, 4 minutes

Mike Rowe Works on Farming, Fishing, Food


Ancient Farmers of the AmazonEvolution Library (PBS), 2001 (video).

Video – Chimps Use Tools to Hunt Mammals – National Geographic

Duet of a Sumerian Drinking Song (Hymn to the Beer Goddess) (Background: Main, Douglas. 2014. “What Did Ancient Babylonian Songs Sound Like? Something Like This.” Newsweek (December 14).

General Electric. Date Unknown. General Electric Effects on Farm Life – 1930s Dairy Farms Cows Milk Tractors Behind the Scenes

FreeThink. 2017. “We’re All Gonna Starve!


Lecture 2

• Insect Agriculture
Munger, Dave. 2010. “Humans aren’t the Only Creatures that Grow their Own Food. Leaf-cutter Ants, Trees, and even Protists do it too.” Seed, November 10.

Herding Aphids: How ‘Farmer’ Ants Keep Control Of Their Food.” Science Daily, October 11, 2007.

Termites Create Sustainable Monoculture Fungus Farming.” Science Daily, Nov. 22, 2009.

• Fire and Tools
The American Association for the Advancement of Science – What’s cooking?The Economist, February 17, 2009.

Jones, Steve. 2009. “Catching Fire: How Cooking Made Us Human by Richard Wrangham.” The Guardian, October 17.

Forbes, Peter. 2010. “Review of The Artificial Ape: How Technology Changed the Course of Human Evolution by Timothy Taylor.” The Guardian, September 4.

Gibbons, Ann. 2019. “Ancient Switch to Soft Food Gave Us an Overbite-and the ability to pronounce ‘f’s and ‘v’s.” Science (March 14). 

Parenti, Christian. 2019. “Saving the Planet Without Self-Loathing.” Jacobin (October 3).

• Early Agriculture
(Note: This issue is addressed in much more detail in my course GGR329: Environment and the Roots of Globalization)

Pringle, Heather. 1998. “The Slow Birth of Agriculture.” Science 282 (5393): 1446.

Loehrlein, Marietta. 2010. “Horticulture.” In Cutler J. Cleveland (ed.) Encyclopedia of the Earth.

Prakash, C. S. 2001. “The Genetically Modified Crop Debate in the Context of Agricultural Evolution.” Plant Physiology 126 (1): 8-15.

Wallace, Eric J. 2019. “The Moroccan Food Forest That Inspired an Agricultural Revolution. These ancient forest gardens may be more relevant than ever.” Atlas Obscura (April 1).

• Transition towards the Modern Era
Crowley, Terry. 2004. ‘[Victorian] Agriculture‘ and ‘Rural Labourers in the Victorian Era‘ in James Eli Adams, Tom Pendergast and Sara Pendergast (eds). The Encyclopedia of the Victorian Era. 4 vols. Grolier Academic Press.

Eh.Net Encyclopedia of Economic and Business History
– White, William J. 2008 “Economic History of Tractors in the United States.”
– Law, Marc T. 2004 “History of Food and Drug Regulation in the United States.”

EH.Net Book Reviews 
– Craig, Lee. A. 2009. “Creating Abundance: Biological Innovation and American Agricultural Development.” (Review of Alan L. Olmstead and Paul W. Rhode, Creating Abundance: Biological Innovation and American Agricultural Development. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2008). 

Lecture 3

• Modern Agriculture and the Green Revolution
– Overview
Dimitri, Carolyn, Anne Effland, & Neilson Conklin. “The 20th Century Transformation of U.S. Agriculture and Farm Policy.” U.S. Department of Agriculture, Electronic Information Bulletin Number 3, June 2005.

Energypedia. “Energy within Food and Agricultural Value Chains.” 

Kunkel, Phillip L., Jeffrey A. Peterson, Jessica A. Mitchell. 2009. “Agricultural Production Contracts.” University of Minnesota Agricultural Extension Service.

Ades, Gary, Craig W. Henry, and Faye Feldstein. (2011/2012). “The Food Safety Challenge of the Global Food Supply Chain.” Food Safety Magazine (December/January). 

Goklany, Indur M. 2001. “The Pros and Cons of Modern Farming.” PERC Reports. March: 12-14.

Richie, Hannah and Max Roser. 2019. “Land Use.” Our World in Data.

Roser, Max and Hannah Ritchie. 2019. “Crop Yields.” Our World in Data.

– Green Revolution
Perkins, John. 2010. “Green Revolution” in Cutler J. Cleveland (ed.) Encyclopedia of the Earth. National Council for Science and the Environment.

Miller, Henry I. 2012. “The Father of the Green Revolution.” Defining Ideas (February 17).

Hazell, Peter. 2009. “Think Again: The Green Revolution.” Foreign Policy (September 22).

Bloch, Sam. 2020. “Norman Borlaug is Hailed for “Feeding the World.” So why is there still so much hunger?The Counter (April 21).

Cremer, Justin. 2020. “Norman Borlaug Saved Millions of Lives, Would his Critics Prefer he Hadn’t?Cornell Alliance for Science (April 24).


• General
Philipps, Lynne. 2006. “Food and Globalization.” Annual Review of Anthropology 35: 37-57.

von Braun, Joachim and Eugenio Díaz-Bonilla. 2008. Globalization of Food and Agriculture and the Poor. Oxford University Press and International Food Policy Research Institute, Chapter 1: Globalization of Agriculture and Food, Causes, Consequences, and Policy Implications.

Malden C. Nesheim, Malden, C., Maria Oria, and Peggy Tsai Yih. Authors: Committee on a Framework for Assessing the Health, Environmental, and Social Effects of the Food System; Food and Nutrition Board; Board on Agriculture and Natural Resources; Institute of Medicine; National Research Council. 2015. A Framework for Assessing Effects of the Food System. Washington (DC): National Academies Press. 

• Insect Agriculture
Bernhard Stadler and Anthony F.G. Dixon. 2006. “Ecology and Evolution of Aphid-Ant Interactions.” Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics 36: 345-372.

Mueller, Ulrich G and Christian Rabeling. 2008. “A breakthrough innovation in animal evolution.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 105 (14): 5287-8.

• Cannibalism
Peter Foges. 2011. “What Does It Taste Like?Lapham’s Quarterly (Summer).

• Cooking and Early Agriculture
Mason, Daniel. 2011. “Balanced Diets.” Lapham’s Quarterly (Summer).

Nathan Nunn and Nancy Qian. 2010. “The Columbian Exchange: A History of Diseases, Food and Ideas.” Journal of Economic Perspectives 24 (2): 163-188.

Pringle, Heather. 1998. “Reading the Signs of Ancient Animal Domestication.” Science 282 (5393): 1448.

Smith, Bruce D. 2006. “Eastern North America as an Independent Center of Plant Domestication.” Proceedings of the National Academy of the Sciences of the United States 103 (33): 12223-12228.

Chapter 7: Biodiversity and the Technology of Cooking: Uncultivated foods and the technology of cooking / Chapter 8: Uncultivated Greens – the Nutritional Values / Chapter 9. Uncultivated foods and daily diets in Farhad Mazhar, Daniel Buckles, P.V. Satheesh, and Farida Akhter. Food Sovereignty and Uncultivated Biodiversity in South Asia: Essays on the Poverty of Food Policy and the Wealth of the Social Landscape.
Academic Foundation/IDRC International Development Research Centre, 2007.

Thadeusz, Frank. 2009. “Alcohol’s Neolithic Origins: Brewing Up a Civilization.” Spiegel Online, December 24.

University of Sheffield. “Why did hunter-gatherers first begin farming?” Phys.org (May 16). 

McHugo, Gilles P., Michael J. Dover and David E. MacHugh. 2019. “Unlocking the Origins and Biology of Domestic Animals Using Ancient DNA and Paleogenomics.” BMC Biology volume 17, Article 98.

• Transition towards the Modern Era
Adams, Edward Francis and Louis Adelbert Clinton. 1899. The Modern Farmer in his Business Relations: A Study of Some of the Principles underlying the Art of Profitable Farming and Marketing, and of the Interests of Farmers as Affected by Modern Social and Economic Conditions and Forces. San Francisco: N.J. Stone Company, pp. 11-17.

Eh.Net Encyclopedia of Economic and Business History
– Stead, David. 2004. “Agricultural Tenures and Tithes.”
– Stewart, James I. 2008. “The Economics of American Farm Unrest, 1865-1900.”

• Green Revolution (History)
– General
Fueling the Green Revolution.” U.S. Department of Agriculture & Agricultural Research Service, October 10, 2003.

Women and The Green Revolution.” Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United States.

Critique on the Green Revolution” Livelihood 2005.

Borlaug, Norman, & Dowswell, Chris. 2004. “Responses to Discussion Questions.” Cyberspace Discussion, January 5 – 9.

Borlaug, Norman E. 2002. “Feeding a World of 10 Billion People: Our 21st Century Challenge.” Inaugural lecture, Borlaug Lecture Series, Iowa State University, October 15.

Borlaug, Norman E. 1970. “The Green Revolution, Peace, and Humanity.” Nobel Lecture, December 11.

Conko, Greg. 2009. “The Man Who Fed the World.” OpenMarket.org, September 13.

DeGregori, Thomas R. “Green Myths against the Green Revolution.”

Hesser, Leon. 2006. The Man Who Fed the World. Durban House Publishing.

Leonard, Andrew. 2009. “The Paradox of Norman Borlaug.” Salon, Sept. 14.

Miller, Henry I. 2006. “History and Culture: The Man Who Launched the Green Revolution.” Hoover Digest, no 4.

Murray H. Milford and ECA Runge. 2008. “Beachell and Borlaug: Two Giants of the American Society of Agronomy’s First Century.” Agronomy Journal 100 Supplement 3: S-1-S-3.

Pingali, Prabhu L. 2012. “Green Revolution: Impacts, Limits, and the Path Ahead.” PNAS 109 (31) 12302-12308. 

– Norman Borlaug
Norman Borlaug” Wikipedia 

Presidential Medal of Freedom Recipient Norman Borlaug.” Medal of Freedom.com.

Rosset, Peter. 2000. “Lessons from the Green Revolution.” Food First – Institute for Food and Development Policy, March/April.

Sanchez, Pedro. 2004. “The Next Green Revolution.” New York Times, October 6.

Shiva, Vandana. 1991. “The Green Revolution in the Punjab.” The Ecologist, Vol. 21, No. 2, March-April.

Zeyen, Richard. “Yaqui Valley Farmers Provide Eternal Resting Place for Their Friend and Our Colleague, Norman Borlaug.”

Zeyen, Richard, Carol Ishimaru, Marty Dickman & Christine Richardson. “Norman Borlaug: Plant Pathologist/Humanitarian.”

• Recent Controversies
Potrykus, Ingo. 2005. “Missing a Golden Rice opportunity.” The Economic Times, December 26.

Taverne, Dick. 2007. “The Real GM Food Scandal.” Prospect Magazine, November.

Ropeik, David. 2014. “Golden Rice Opponents Should Be Held Accountable for Health Problems Linked to Vitamin A Deficiency.” Scientific American (Blog) (March 15). 

Bailey, Ronald. 2019. “Life-Saving Golden Rice Finally Gets to Poor Farmers Despite Environmentalist Opposition.” Reason (March 7). 

• Modern Agriculture
Agricultural Mechanization.” Greatest Engineering Achievements of the 20th Century. National Academy of Engineering. 2000.

USDA Economics Research Service. 2010. Agricultural Productivity in the United States.

USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture. 2010. Family Farms Overview.

GB Tripletta and Warren A Dick. 2008. “No-Tillage Crop Production: A Revolution in Agriculture!Agronomy Journal 100 Supplement 3: S153-S165. (Abstract, Introduction, History).

Otsuka, Keijiro, Yuko Nakano, Kazushi Takahashi. 2016. “Contract Farming in Developed and Developing Countries.” Annual Review of Resource Economics 8: 353-376. 

Spielman, David J., and Rajul Pandya-Lorch. 2009. Highlights from Millions Fed: Proven Successes in Agricultural Development. IFPRI. (Full text and other documentation available at Millions Fed: Proven Successes in Agricultural Development IFPRI).


• General
Agropolis Museum – Food and Agricultures of the World

The Food Timeline

• Transition to Modern Era
Wessels Living History Farm (York, Nebraska)

• Green Revolution
A short video in which Norman Borlaug explains his work and the future of agricultural science.

The Norman Borlaug Heritage Foundation

Navdayana (critics)

American Experience. 2020. “The Man who Tried to Feed the World.”


Atlas Pro
Geography of Fruits I
Geography of Fruits II
Geography of Livestock
Geography of Spices

– BBC Scotland. 2012. How to Grow a Planet – Episode 3: The Challenger (Göbekli Tepe and the domestication of wheat).
USDA. Norman Borlaug and the Green Revolution

University of Queensland. 2019. “Wheat Myth Debunked.” EurekAlert (June 17).

Corn (maize)
Iowa State University Research Foundation. 1991. The Hybrid Corn Miracle

Ryan, Cami. 2019. “Farmers Grow More with Less and That’s Good News for Everyone!” (July 27).

CIMMYT. 2016. “From Mexico to the World.” (May 20).

Riso Amaro (1949)
– Allow Golden Rice Now. 2013. “Allow Golden Rice Now!

-. 2007. Forgotten Genius: Percy Lavon Julian, NOVA (Video here from 1:24:19- 1:30:53)

– Hill Tribe TV. 2012. QV Foods: Growing Potatoes, from Field to Supermarket.

4000 Types of Potatoes in Peru – Peruvian Potatoes – Vicky The Gastronaut: Peru – Ep 06 – Mistura (Related videos here, here and here)

Fruits – General Overview
Atlas Pro. 2018. The Geography of Fruit

Tomato sorter

British Pathé – Home Drive For Food – Britain’s Harvest 1947 (1947).
WPSU. 2009. Apple Grafting.

Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. 2019. “Exploring the Origins of the Apple.” Frontier Science News (August 28).

Grapes and Wine
Discovery News. “What Ancient Wine Tasted Like.” (June 11, 2013).

– BBC Four. 2013. “Can Eating Insects Save the World.” (March 13).

The Economist. 2014. Why eating insects makes sense.

PYCO – Cottonseed: The Inside Story.

Wrong. 2017. What Happened to the Beepocalypse?

Breakthrough Institute. “Plenty of Fish on the Farm.”

Fortune. 2018. Made-in-China Caviar.

British Pathé – Horse Meat Scandal (1948).

LindyBeige. 2011. “What is Wrong with this Picture?


Lecture 4

• Commodity Markets
Eh.Net Encyclopedia of Economic and Business History
– Santos, Joseph. 2008. “A History of Futures Trading in the United States.”

• Plants
Maxham, Amanda. 2018. “Who should we thank for all those wonderful fruits and vegetables? ‘Not Mother Nature’Genetic Literacy Project (October 2).

– Interactive Websites (browse)
A Plant’s Eye History of the World” (Map Timeline) The Botany of Desire (PBS adaptation of Michael Pollan’s book).

CIAT (International Center for Tropical Agriculture). Where our Food Crops Come From.

Canada Food Inspection Agency. Varieties of Crop Kinds Registered in Canada.

P&H Milling Group. “Our Mills.”

– Wheat
Mejia, Paul. 2018. “Found: 14,400-Year-Old Flatbread Remains That Predate Agriculture. The burned crumbs shed light on prehistoric hunter-gatherers’ diets.” Atlas Obscura (July 16).

Gary M. Paulsen and James P. Shroyer. 2008. “The Early History of Wheat Improvement in the Great Plains.” Agronomy Journal Vol. 100 No. Supplement_3, p. S-70-S-78.

Fueling the Green Revolution.” U.S. Department of Agriculture & Agricultural Research Service, October 10, 2003.

Leech, Caleb. 2016. “Survival and Adaptation: Bonnefont’s Corne Field.” The Met (June 23).

Fedak, George. 2015. “Marquis Wheat.” Canadian Encyclopedia.

US National Park Service. Wheat Farms, Flour Mills, and Railroads: A Web of Interdependence (Teaching with Historic Places).

– Corn
International Institute of Tropical Agriculture. “Maize.”

(Browse) National Corn Growers Association (USA. World of Corn).

CGIAR Research Program (Maize). 2014. “Improved Maize to Boost Yields in Nitrogen-starved African Soils.” (December 10).

Lecture 5

– Rice
Aschaiek, Sharon. 2016. “UTM Professor Discovers New Origins for Farmed Rice.” UTM News (June 22).

Ricepedia. “History of Rice Cultivation.”

UCL Rice Project. “Debating the Origins of Rice.”

World Food Prize 1996: Beachell and Khush.

Ewbank, Anne. 2018. “How Killer Rice Crippled Tokyo and the Japanese Navy.” Atlas Obscura (February 22).

May, Paul. 2017. “Vitamin B1 (Thiamine). Deficiency of this causes beriberi.” Molecule of the Month.

Alliance Grain Traders, “History of Pulses.”

Ewbank, Anne. 2018. “Why Beans Were an Ancient Emblem of Death.” Atlas Obscura (May 25).

– Potato
International Year of the Potato. 2008. “Diffusion

Jula, Megan. 2017. “The Ancient Andean Tradition of Eating Clay May Have Helped To Protect Health.” NPR.org (November 28).

Nunn, Nathan and Nancy Qian. 2009. “Potatoes, the fruit of the earth.” Vox (August 5).

Foodland Ontario (Food Facts)

Mann, Charles. 2011. “How the Potato Changed the World.” Smithsonian Magazine (November).

Fine, Julia. 2019. “In India, the British Hyped Potatoes to Justify Colonialism.” Atlas Obscura (April 9).

– Sweet Potato
Fox, Alex. 2018. “Sweet Potato Migrated to Polynesia Thousands of Years before People Did. Vegetable’s travels deepen mystery about timing of first contact between people in Americas and the South Pacific.” Nature News (April 20).

ArgenPapa. 2018. “China: China and the Sweet Potato.” (November 13).

Lecture 6

The Canadian Encyclopedia
Oilseed crops

– Soybeans
Dorff, Erik. 2009. “The soybean, agriculture’s jack-of-all-trades, is gaining ground across Canada.” Statistics Canada, April 9.

Hecht, Susanna B., & Charles C. Mann. 2008. “How Brazil Outfarmed the American Farmer.” CNN Money.com, January 19 (other link).

– Canola
The Canadian Encyclopedia

Katinka Weinberger and Thomas A. Lumpkin. 2005. Horticulture for Poverty Alleviation. The Unfunded Revolution. AVRDC (The World Vegetable Center) Working Paper #15 – Executive Summary.

Tonie Fitzgerald. 2005. Pollination of Fruit Trees. Washington State University – Spokane County Extension.

– Cucurbits
Foodland Ontario (Food Facts)
Greenhouse cucumbers

– Apples
Washington Apple Country Tours

Foodland Ontario (Food Facts)

Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs – Recommended Apple Varities for Ontario

Atlas Obscura. “The Last Wild Apple Forests. Granny Smiths, Fujis, and Pink Ladies can all be traced back to Kazakhstan, where apples still grow wild.”

Flaccus, Gillian. 2020. “10 Pioneer-era Apple Types Thought Extinct Found in US West.” AP News (April 15).

– Bananas
Mayyasi, Alex. 2019. “When New Yorkers Were Menaced by Banana Peels.” Atlas Obscura (July 24).

Randy C. Ploetz. 2005. “Panama Disease: An Old Nemesis Rears Its Ugly Head. Part 1. The Beginnings of the Banana Export Trades.” Plant Health Progress (August).

Admin. 2014. “Attack of the Killer Bananas? Hardly.” ACSH News (July 2).

Thompson, Stuart. 2019. “The Quest to Save the Banana from Extinction.” The Conversation (April 18).

Solly, Meilan. 2019. “A Banana-Destroying Fungus Has Arrived in the Americas.” Smithsonia Magazine (August 13).

– Sugar
Silcoff, Sean. 2012. “Bitter battle rages over Canada’s sugar industry.” The Globe and Mail, June 24.

Galloway, Jock. 2000. “Sugar.” In Kenneth F. Kiple and Kriemhild Coneè Ornelas (eds). The Cambridge World History of Food, Cambridge University Press, pp. 437-449.

– Palm Oil
FAO. Date Unknown. Oil Palm.

Lecture 7

• Animals
> Domesticated Land Animals
– Cannibalism
Jennifer Viegas. 2010. “First Cannibals Ate Each Other for Extra Nutrition.” Discovery Channel News (August 26).

– Entomophagy
BBC News. 2013. “Insect diet: Fancy Cricket Risotto or Mealworm Cake?” (August 23).

Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations (FAO). 2013. Information Guide: The Contribution of Insects to Food Security, Livelihoods and the Environment. (May 12) (Executive Summary).

– History
Breeds of Livestock – Oklahoma State University

Avery, Dennis. 2010. “When Sheep didn’t have Wool.” CFACT News, November 26.

Phelan, Benjamin. 2012. “The Most Spectacular Mutation in Recent Human History – How did milk help found Western civilization?Slate (Oct.23).

Melletti, Mario. 2016. “Cattle Domestication: from Aurochs to Cow.” Fifteen Eighty-Four (February 18).

Steak School. “What’s the Difference Between Beef Taurus and Beef Indicus?

– Recent Trends
Dowding, Heather. 2008. “Concentrated Animal Feeding Operation.” In Cutler J. Cleveland (ed). Encyclopedia of the Earth.

Howard, Jacqueline. 2014. “Chickens Look Way Different Today, And Here’s The Reason Why.” Huffington Post (October 21).

Zielinski, Sarah. 2014. “Bees and Wasps in Britain Have Been Disappearing For More Than a Century.” Smithsonian Magazine (December 11).

Miller, Henry. 2015. “Viewpoint: The new bee crisis is just like the old one: Phony.” Genetic Literacy Project (May 13).

FAO Newsroom. 2007. Farm animal diversity under threat. One breed lost a month – Industrial livestock production biggest factor.

Nelson, Daniel. 2018. “Lab Grown Meat May Soon Be Available To General Public.” Science Trends (September 24).

Smil, Vaclav. 2019. “How Chicken Beat Beef in America. It was deemed the healthier alternative, and it was undoubtedly cheaper.” IEEE Spectrum (December 26).

Lecture 8

> Fisheries, Seafood and Aquaculture
– Fisheries
Pauly, Daniel and Dirk Zeller. 2010. “Marine Fisheries.” In Cutler J. Cleveland (ed). Encyclopedia of the Earth.

GDAE, Jonathan M. Harris and Anne-Marie Codur. 2008. “Economics of Fisheries.” In Cutler J. Cleveland (ed). Encyclopedia of the Earth.

– Aquaculture
Encyclopedia Britannica. 1911. “Pisciculture.”

Half Of Fish Consumed Globally Is Now Raised On Farms, Study Finds.” ScienceDaily, Sep. 8, 2009.

GreenFacts.org. 2014. “Fisheries and aquaculture.” In Cutler J. Cleveland (ed). Encyclopedia of the Earth.

Foodland Ontario (Food Facts)

FAO. 2018 The State of the World Fisheries and Aquaculture.

Canadian Encyclopedia on Agriculture
History of agriculture
Agriculture and food
Agriculture and food policy


• Overview
Foodland Ontario, Food Facts

Kluyver, Thomas A., Glynis Jones, Benoît Pujol, Christopher Bennett, Emily J. Mockford, Michael Charles, Mark Rees and Colin P. Osborne. 2017. “Unconscious Selection Drove Seed Enlargement in Vegetable Crops.” Evolution Letters (1-2): 64-72.

• Plants
– Potato
McNeill, William H. 1999. “How the Potato changed World History.” Social Research 66 (1): 67-83.

– Sweet Potato
Perez Garcia, Manuel. 2018. “Challenging National Narratives: On the Origins of Sweet Potato in China as Global Commodity During the Early Modern Period.” In Manuel Perez Garcia and Lucio De Sousa (eds). Global History and New Polycentric Approaches. Europe, Asia and the Americas in a World Network System. Springer, pp. 53-80.

J. M. Prescott, P. A. Burnett, E. E. Saari, J. Ranson, J. Bowman, W. de Milliano, R. P. Singh, G. Bekele. Wheat Diseases and Pests: A Guide for Field Identification. International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center.

Olmstead, Alan L., & Paul W. Rhode, “Biological Globalization: The Other Grain Invasion,” in Timothy J. Hatton, Kevin O’Rourke, & Alan M. Taylor, (eds.), The New Comparative Economic History: Essays in Honor of Jeffrey G. Williamson (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2007), pp. 115-140.

University of Nebraska–Lincoln. 2010. Wheat Disease Management.

Lupton, F. “Advances in work on breeding wheat with improved grain quality in the twentieth century.” The Journal of Agricultural Science (2005), 143: 113-116.

Symko, Stephan. 1999. From a single seed Tracing the Marquis wheat success story in Canada to its roots in the Ukraine. Web Publication of Research Branch Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada.

Guarino, Ben. 2018. “Scientists Have Discovered The Earliest Evidence of Bread, And It’s Much Older Than We Expected.” Washington Post (July 17).

Claudia Reinhardt and Bill Ganzel. 2003. “The Science of Hybrids.” Living History Farm (York, Nebraska).

Learn Genetics. Date Unknown. “Evolution of Corn.” University of Utah.

Briggs, Rachel V. 2015. “Everything You Ever Needed to Know About Nixtamalization But Didn’t Know to Ask.” All Things Hominy (October 8).

Brazeau, Marc. 2018. “Edible Cotton: How genetically modified cottonseed could revolutionize food and feed production.” Genetic Literacy Project (November 14).

Sonnad, Nikhil. 2018. “Tea if by sea, cha if by land: Why the world only has two words for tea.” Quartz (January 11).

ACSH News. 2014. “Jon Entine Debunks Theory Linking Neonic Pesticides to Honeybee Collapse.” (November 26).

Zielinski, Sarah. 2014. “Bees and Wasps in Britain Have Been Disappearing For More Than a Century.” Smithsonian Magazine (December 11).

Roberts, Owen. 2017. “Beepocalypse not now: Canada’s honeybee colonies up 10% in 2017 to record high.” Toronto Star (June 29).

Regan, Shawn. 2017. “How Capitalism Saved the Bees. A decade after colony collapse disorder began, pollination entrepreneurs have staved off the beepocalypse.” Reason (August/September).

Entine, Jon. 2018. “Honeybee Population isn’t ‘Crashing’ and Seed Pesticides are not Driving Health Problems-and Here’s Why.” Genetic Literacy Project (April 17).

Porterfield, Andrew. 2018 “Viewpoint: No, wild bees haven’t been decimated by neonicotinoids, glyphosate.” Genetic Literacy Project (September 18).

Hopkins, A., and R. J. Wilkins. “Temperate grassland: key developments in the last century and future perspectives.” The Journal of Agricultural Science (2006), 144: 503-523.

– Soybeans
Gibson, Lance, and Garren Benson. 2005. “Origin, History, and Uses of Soybean (Glycine max).”  Iowa State University, Department of Agronomy.

How Soybeans are Used.” North Carolina Soybean Producers Association, Inc.

Trends in U.S. Agriculture – Oats and Soybeans.” National Agricultural Statistics Service, United States Department of Agriculture.

– Others
Galloway, Jock. H. The Sugar Cane Industry: An Historical Geography from its Origins to 1914. Cambridge University Press (Introduction).

– Bananas
Mihm, Stephen. 2017. “The Bananapocalypse Is Nigh. The failure to diversify makes the world’s favorite fruit vulnerable to a wipeout.” Bloomberg Opinion (December 21).

• Animals
– Entomophagy
Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations (FAO). 2013. Edible Insects – Future Prospects for Food and Feed Security. FAO Forestry Paper.

Bryce, Emma. 2014. “Foodies Unite: Insects Should Be More Food Than Fad.” The Guardian (May 20).

– Domesticated Land Animals
Randal R. Rucker and Walter N. Thurman. 2012. Colony Collapse Disorder: The Market Response to Bee Disease. PERC Policy Series: PS-50.

Smil, Vaclav. 2002. “Eating Meat: Evolution, Patterns and Consequences,” Population and Development Review 28 (4): 599-639.

UN FAO 2010. The State of Food and Agriculture 2009: Livestock in the Balance.

Pew Commission on Industrial Farm Animal Production. 2008. Final Report: Putting Meat on The Table: Industrial Farm Animal Production in America.

Critchell, James and Raymond Joseph Troubridge. 1912. A History of the Frozen Meat Trade: An account of the development and present day methods of preparation, transport, and marketing of frozen and chilled meats. London: Constable & Company Ltd., pp. 1-17.

Schulz, Matthias. 2010. “Neolithic Immigration: How Middle East Milk Drinkers Conquered Europe.” Der Spiegel (October 15).

Thornton, Philip K. 2010. “Livestock Production: Recent Trends, Future Prospects.” Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B (Biological Sciences) 365 (1554) (September 27): 2853-2867.

– Fisheries, Seafood and Aquaculture
– Fisheries
* Overview
UN FAO. 2004. The State of the World Fisheries

Welcomme, Robin L. et al. 2010. “Inland Capture FisheriesPhilosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B (Biological Sciences) 365 (1554) (September): 2881-2896.

Bostock, John et al. 2010. “Aquaculture: Global Status and Trends.” Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B (Biological Sciences) 365 (1554) (September): 2897-2912.

* Problems and solutions
OECD. 2010. While Stocks Last?

Burnett, H. Sterling. Ph.D. 2007. “Ocean Fisheries: Common Heritage or Tragic Commons?Brief Analysis No. 581, National Center for Policy Analysis, February 27.

Ellis, Richard. 2008. “The Bluefin Tuna in Peril.” Scientific American, June 24.

Garcia, Serge M. and Andrew Rosenberg. 2010. “Food Security and Marine Capture Fisheries: Characteristics, Trends, Drivers and Future PerspectivesPhilosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B (Biological Sciences) 365 (1554) (September): 2869-2880.

Gissurarson, Hannes. 2000. Overfishing: the Icelandic Solution. London: Institute of Economic Affairs.

Hannesson, Rögnvaldur. “The Privatization of the Oceans.” The Independent Review, Vol. 11 No 3, Winter 2007.

Leal, Donald R. 2002. “Fencing the Fishery – A Primer on Ending The Race for Fish.” Property and Environment Research Center (PERC).

Safina, Carl. 2009 “A Future for US FisheriesIssues in Science and Technology 25 (4), (Summer).

Marra, John. 2005. “When will we tame the oceans?Nature 436: 175-176, 14 July.

– Aquaculture
* Historical Perspective
Geoffrey Kron. 2005. “Possible Evidence for the Aquaculture of Tilapia in GrecoRoman Antiquity.” Revue d’histoire comparée de l’environnement.

Herminio R. Rabanal. 1988. “History of Aquaculture.” FAO.

Whit Richardson. 2011. “The Mastery of Fish.” Lapham’s Quarterly (Summer).

* Overview and controversies
AIMS & CAI. 2006. Aquaculture: The Blue Revolution. Autumn 2006.

Halweil, Brian. 2008. “Farming Fish for the Future.” WorldWatch Report 176.

FAO – IIRR – World Fish Center. 2001. Integrated agriculture-aquaculture – A primer. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper #407.

Alder, Jacqueline, Brooke Campbell, Vasiliki Karpouzi, Kristin Kaschner, and Daniel Pauly. 2008. “Forage Fish: From Ecosystems to Markets.” Annual Review of Environment and Resources 33: 153-166.

Naylor, Rosamond & Marshall Burke. 2005. “Aquaculture and Ocean Resources: Raising Tigers of the Sea.” Annual Review of Environment and Resources 30: 185-218.

Rosamond L. Naylor et al. 2009. “Feeding Aquaculture in an Era of Finite Resources.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 106 (36): 15103?15110.

– Canada fisheries and aquaculture
Bavington, Dean. 2010. Managed Annihilation. An Unnatural History of the Newfoundland Cod Collapse
Introduction and chapter 1

Young, Nathan and Ralph Matthews. 2010. Aquaculture Controversy in Canada. UBC Press.
Introduction and chapter 1: aquaculture in global context

Neill, Robin. 2006. “It Is Farming, Not Fishing: Why Bureaucrats and Environmentalists Miss the Point of Canadian Aquaculture.” How to Farm the Seas (Paper # 4), Atlantic Institute for Market Studies (AIMS), April.


• Plants
– General
USDA. National Agricultural Library Plants and Crops

– Potato
International Year of the Potato
International Potato Center (CGIAR center)
The Potato Museum

Ontario Potato Board
Ontario Potatoes 
Growing Potatoes 
Potato Varieties 

Dolan DNA Learning Center (Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory)
Explosives Origins of Corn
Maize (Corn) Genome Completed

National Corn Growers Association (USA)

Allow Golden Rice Now

Pulse Canada 

• Chocolat
Smithsonian.com “Chocolate Week”

• Animals
– Entomophagy
UN FAO on Edible Forest Insects

– Land Animals
USDA. National Agricultural Library Animals and Livestock

Pew Commission on Industrial Animal Farm Production

– Fisheries, Seafood and Aquaculture
USDA. National Agricultural Library. Aquaculture

GreenFacts.org on Fisheries

The OECD on fisheries

UN FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Department

The U.S. Commission on Ocean Policy

Breakthrough Institute. “Plenty of Fish on the Farm.”

• Videos
Sushi and the End of the Southern Bluefish Tuna (2009)

Global Sushi: Soft Powers and Hard Realities

Required Videos

Video: USDA (World War II): Victory Garden (watch from 10:20 to 12:45; 13:56 to 16:50).

ACSH. 2014. Enjoy your Holiday Dinner – Chemicals and All! (November 25).

CSIRO. 2018. “Rust: The Fungi that Attacks Plants.”

British Pathé
The Locust Battle (1930) (Palestine)
Morocco – Locusts Invasion (1954)

DW News. 2020. “India and Pakistan face worst locust plague in 30 years.” (May 29, 2020).

CBC News. “Canadians get creative in solving food waste problem.” (August 29, 2018).

Intermarche. 2014. “Inglorious Fruits and Vegetables.”

Required readings

Lecture 9

• Overview
Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada. 2017. An Overview of the Canadian Agriculture and Agri-Food System 2017.

Douglas, David and Linus Blomqvist. Undated. “Is Precision Agriculture the Way to Peak Cropland? The Unsung Hero of Agricultural Innovation.” Breakthrough Institute.

Bryce, Emma. 2018. “Sustainable Intensification is no Longer an Oxymoron. It could be the future.” Anthropocene (September 7).

• Water
Cowen, Richard. Essays on Geology, History and People. (Under contract with Johns Hopkins University Press), Ch 17 (“Ancient Irrigation”).

Molden, David, Charlotte de Fraiture and Frank J. Rijsberman. 2007. “Water Scarcity: The Food Factor.” Issues in Science and Technology 23 (4) (Summer).

• Refrigeration
Yakhchals – Ancient structures used to make and preserve ice in the deserts of Persia.” Atlas Obscura.

Book, Joakim. 2020. “Ice was once only available to society’s wealthy elites.” Human Progress (June 15).

Mirza, Meher. 2018. “The British Couldn’t Take India’s Heat, So They Imported Ice From New England.” Atlas Obscura (September 12).

Hammons, Alexander C. R. 2018. “The Icebox Cometh: How capitalism brought luxury to everyone.” CapX (January 10).

Krasner-Khait, Barbara. 2000. “The Impact of Refrigeration.” History Magazine (February-March) (excerpts).

Tenner, Edward. 2014. “The Refrigerator’s Cool Century.” The American (July 3).

Heap, Robert. 2003. Refrigerated Transport: Progress Achieved and Challenges to be Met. 16th Informatory Note on Refrigerating Technologies. International Institute of Refrigeration, August.

• Animal Reproductive Technologies
Traverso, Vittoria. 2019. “The Egyptian Egg Ovens Considered More Wondrous Than the Pyramids. A hatching system devised 2,000 years ago is still in use in rural Egypt.” Atlas Obscura (March 29).

USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture. Animal Reproduction: Research in Assisted Reproductive Technologies.

Poultry Hub. “Incubation.”

• Veterinary Medicine
(Browse) World Organisation for Animal Health “Animal Disease Information Summaries.”

Joint FAO-IAEA Program. 2005.
History of Battle against Rinderpest
Global Eradication of Rinderpest

Normile, Dennis. 2010. “Deadly Cattle Disease Eradicated.” ScienceNOW, October 14.

World Organisation for Animal Health.
– “Animal Disease Information Summaries: Rinderpest.”
– “A Brief History of Rinderpest (cattle plague).”

• Seeds
Tripp, Robert. 2003. “How to Cultivate a Commercial Seed Sector.” Paper prepared for the symposium “Sustainable Agriculture in the Sahel.” pp. 1-4, 9-10.

Hurst, Blake. 2010. “Green Menace: To Saddle Hungry Haitians with American Romanticism about Agriculture is the Worst Kind of Imperialism.” The American (July).

Monsanto Corporation. “Food Inc, FAQs

• Pest Management
Roser, Max. In Progress. “Pesticides.” Our World in Data.

U.S. Department of Agriculture. 2013. “Pesticide” in In Cutler J. Cleveland (ed.) Encyclopedia of the Earth.

Nelson, Douglas, and Alexander Rinkus. 2011. “The Hi-Tech Agriculture Imperative.” The American Magazine (November 8).

Unsworth, John. 2010. “History of Pesticide Use.” IUPAC.

Locust Swarm in East Africa (2020)
Tren, Richard and Jasson Urbach. 2020. “The West’s Role in Africa’s Day of the Locust.” CapX (January 28).

BBC News. “In Pictures: Hundreds of billions of locusts swarm in East Africa.” (March 10).

Driessen, Paul. 2020. “The Real Reasons Africa Has Another Locust Plague.” Townhall.com (March 21).

World Food Programme. 2020. “‘The Locusts are a Moving Target and We are Racing against Time.” World Food Programme Insight (March 19).

Njoroge, James. 2020. “East Africa faces two plagues: Once-in-a-generation insect infestation and swarms of European activists trying to block the only effective tool, pesticides.” Genetic Literacy Project (February 18).

Lecture 10

• Fertilizers
Cornell, Joseph. D. 2010. “Fertilizer” In Cutler J. Cleveland (ed.). Encyclopedia of the Earth.

Fertilizer Canada. “FAQs.”

McGuire, Andrew. 2017. “Can Manure Supply Nitrogen and Phosphorus to Agriculture?” CSANR (Center for Sustaining Agriculture and Natural Resources), Washington State University (September 7).

Roser, Max and Hannah Ritchie. In progress. “Fertilizers.” Our World in Data.

Cowen, Richard. Essays on Geology, History and People. (Under contract with Johns Hopkins University Press), Ch. 16 (“Guano,” “Nitrates”)

The Canadian Encyclopedia. Fertilizer.

Romero, Simon. 2008. “Peru Guards Its Guano as Demand Soars Again.” The New York Times, May 30.

BBC Bitesize. Fertilisers – The Haber Process.

Morley, Tony. 2019. “Stuff of Progress, Pt. 1: Nitrogen.” Humanprogress.org (October 11).

FitzGerald, Emmett. 2016. “Guano Mania.” 99% Invisible (December 6).

PotashThe Canadian Encyclopedia

Van Kauwenbergh, Steven J. 2010. World Phosphate Rock Reserves and Resources. International Fertilizer Development Center (Executive Summary, pp. 11-12).

Hurst, Blake. 2016. “So Many Regulations to Write, So Many Groups to Offend.” Agri-Pulse (June 17).

Grapedoc. 2016. “How can Pesticides be Safe?Pop Agriculture (December 12).

Burns, Carol J. 2019. Pesticide Facts: Farmers, Pesticides and Cancer (June 26).

Morley, Tony. 2019. “Stuff of Progress, Pt. 5: Chemical Pesticides.” Humanprogress.org (December 8).

• Prescriptive planting
[Schumpeter]. 2014. “Digital disruption on the farm. Managers in the most traditional of industries distrust a promising new technology.” The Economist (May 24).

• History of Greenhouses
Kohlstedt, Kurt. 2017. “Fruit Walls: Before Greenhouses, Walled Gardens Created Urban Micro-Climates.” 99% Invisible (October 23).

• Plasticulture
CIPA (Comité International des Plastiques en Agriculture). “Plasticulture: Definition.”

• Food fortification
BASF. 2009. The Fortification of Food Staples.

• Food waste
Institute of Mechanical Engineers. 2013. Global Food Waste Not, Want Not. Feeding the 9 Billion: The Tragedy of Waste.

Gustavsson, Jenny, Christel Cederberg, Ulf Sonesson, Robert van Otterdijk and Alexandre Meybeck. 2011. “Global Food Losses and Food Waste: Extent, Causes and Prevention.” FAO (Executive Summary).

About the Buzz: Frozen and Canned Fruits and Vegetables vs Fresh.”

Fassler, Joe. 2017. “We’ve all heard the staggering statistics about food waste. A new study says they’re wrong.” The New Food Economy (June 21).

Historian Rachel Laudan on food waste
Isn’t It Crucial to Have Some Food ‘Waste’? (March 15, 2016)
Why I Happily ‘Waste’ Food (March 30, 2017)

Lusk, Jayson. 2013. “Economically Optimal Food Waste.”

Bellemare, Marc F. 2017. “On the Measurement of Food Waste.”

Jansen, Tiffany R. 2019. “Food Sharing Apps Won’t Solve Our Massive Food Waste Problem – Apps to help consumers divert leftovers from landfills may cut down on wasted food, but fail to address the societal norms at the heart of the issue.” Undark (July 2).

Prior, Matthew. 2019. “The Fat of the Land: Estimating the ecological costs of overeating.” Frontier Science News (August 23).

Committee on World Security. 2014. “Food Losses and Waste in the Context of Sustainable Food Systems.” (Read the Policy Recommendations; Full Report available here.)

Taber, Sarah. 2019. “Farms aren’t tossing perfectly good produce. You are.Washington Post (March 8).

Lieber, Chavie. 2019. “A Scientist on the Myth of Ugly Produce and Food Waste. Startups Misfits Market and Imperfect Produce say they’re rescuing food that would otherwise be wasted. Sarah Taber is calling bullshit.” Vox (February 26).

Splitter, Jenny. 2019. “What The Ugly Produce Debate Gets Wrong And What It Gets Right.” Forbes (March 27).

Suggested readings

• Fertilizers
Brunt, Liam. 2007. “Where There’s Muck, There’s Brass: The Market for Manure in the Industrial Revolution.” The Economic History Review, Vol. 60 No. 2, pp. 333-372.

Charlebois, Sylvain. 2010. “Potash: The Pink Gold Rush is Upon Us.” National Post, September 24.

Frink, Charles R., Paul E. Waggoner, & Jesse H. Ausubel. “Nitrogen fertilizer: Retrospect and prospect.” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA Vol. 96, Issue 4, pp. 1175-1180, February 16, 1999.

Martinez, Ibsen. 2008. “Reflections from Latin America – Guano.” Library of Economics and Liberty, August 4.

Smil, Vaclav. 2012. “Jeremy Grantham, Starving for Facts.” The American Magazine (December 5).

Smil, Vaclav. 2005. “Nitrogen in modern European agriculture.” In: Scholliers, P., L. Van Molle and C. Sarasua, eds. Land, Shops and Kitchens: Technology and the Food Chain in Twentieth-Century Europe. Turnhout: Brepols Publishers, pp. 110-119.

Fitzsimmons, Alex. 2016. “Will Humans Run Out of Fertilizer? It helped people spread and multiply. Now critics worry it’s destroying the planet. An Object Lesson.” The Atlantic (December 14). 

• Pest Management
Avery, Alex A. 2006. Organic Pesticide Use: What we Know and don’t Know about Use, Toxicity, and Environmental Impacts. Crop Protection Products for Organic Agriculture. Washington, DC: American Chemical Society. pp. 58-77.

Bahlai, Christine A, Yingen Xue1, Cara M. McCreary, Arthur W. Schaafsma and Rebecca H. Hallett. 2010. “Choosing Organic Pesticides over Synthetic Pesticides May Not Effectively Mitigate Environmental Risk in Soybeans.” Plos One 5 (6).

David Moore, Geoffrey D. Robson and Anthony P. J. Trinci. 2010. 21st Century Guidebook to Fungi.

E.-C. Oerke. 2006. “Centenary Review: Crop Losses to Pests.” Journal of Agricultural Science 144: 31-43.

Entine, Jon. 2011. Scared to Death. How Chemophobia Threatens Public Health. A Position Statement of The American Council on Science and Health. American Council on Science and Health.

Fernandez-Cornejo, Jorge et al. 2014. Pesticide Use in U.S. Agriculture: 21 Selected Crops, 1960-2008. USDA Economic Information Bulletin #124 (May).

Hayes’ Handbook of Pesticide Toxicology (Third Edition)

Insects and Other Arthropods, ARS Image Gallery.

National Research Council (Committee on Comparative Toxicity of Naturally Occurring Carcinogens). 1996. Carcinogens and Anticarcinogens in the Human Diet. A Comparison of Naturally Occurring and Synthetic Substances. National Academy Press

P.E. Russell. 2005. “Centenary Review: A Century of Fungicide Evolution.” Journal of Agricultural Science 145 (1): 11-25.

Sparks, Thomas C. 2013. “Insecticide Discovery: An Evaluation and Analysis.” Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology 107: 8-17.

Conrow, Joan. 2017. “Pest management.”

Tren, Richard. 2020. “Green Colonialism in Africa Led to the Locust Plague.” Wall Street Journal (February 24). 

• Animal Diseases
(Browse) Cattle Diseases on CattleInfo.com

Laying a global cattle killer to rest” BBC News, 20 May 2011.

World declared “free” from deadly cattle disease” United Nations Radio, 28 June 2011.

Global Rinderpest Eradication Programme” FAO.

Disease Facts – Rinderpest” Institute for Animal Health.

Cattle Diseases and Conditions on TheCattleSite.com

• Seeds
Boudreaux, Karol. 2006. “Seeds of Hope: Agricultural Technologies and Poverty Alleviation in Rural South Africa.” Policy Comment No. 6, EnterpriseAfrica!, September 8.

Canadian Seed Trade Association. 1995. The Merchants of Seeds: A History of the Canadian Seed Industry.

A brief history of the UK seed producer Suttons

A brief history of the Gallatin Valley Seed Company

Tripp, Robert. 2002. Seed Provision & Agricultural Development: The Institutions of Rural Change. Overseas Development Institute.

Minister of Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada. 2004. Report of the Seed Sector Advisory Committee.

Bonny, Sylvie. 2017. “Corporate Concentration and Technological Change in the Global Seed Industry.” Sustainability 9 (9: 1632).

• Water
Salzman, James. 2006. “Thirst: A Short History of Drinking Water.” Duke Law School Faculty Scholarship Paper Series. Paper 31.

Smith, Fred. 2016. “Manage Water Like Oil To Increase Supply.” Forbes (July 7).

Wanzala, Justus. 2016. “Irrigation on Rise in Africa as Farmers Face Erratic Weather.” Thomson Reuters Foundation (September 9).

• Refrigeration
Campbell, Sophie. 2017. “Britain’s hidden ice houses offer a glimpse of a world before refrigeration.” The Telegraph (December 12).  

• Food waste
Smil, Vaclav. 2016. “Food Waste.” IEEE Spectrum (February): 25.

Lau, Matthew. 2018. “End Food Waste, Starve a Dumpster Diver.” C2C (June 4). 

Bellemare, Marc F. et al. 2017. On the Measurement of Food Waste (Working Paper). 

WRAP. 2018. Household Food Waste: restated data for 2007-2015.

Mull, Amanda. 2019. “The Murky Ethics of the Ugly-Produce Business. America’s wonkiest fruits and vegetables have ignited a food war.” The Atlantic (January 25).

Holtam, Phil. 2019. “Ugly Produce and Food Waste on Farms. There is an overwhelming concentration of power at the buyer end of our food system.” Feedback.

US EPA. Food Waste Recovery Hierarchy.

Suggested links

• Animal Reproductive Technologies
USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture. Animal Reproduction

• Seeds
BBC4 and the British Museum. “Seed Industry Dodder Counting Machine.” A History of the World in 100 Objects.

Smithsonian Institutions Library on The American Seed and Nursery Industry

• Pest Management
American Phytopathological Society “Common Names of Plant Diseases

Arthropod Pesticide Resistance Database

CBC News In Depth – The Pesticide Debate

Insecticide Resistance Action Committee

USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture. Pest Management

Weis, Judith. 2008. “DDT” In Cutler J. Cleveland (ed.) Encyclopedia of the Earth.

• Fertilizers
International Fertilizer Development Center

Global Phosphorus Research Initiative

• Overview
Breakthrough Institute. “Is Precision Agriculture the Way to Peak Cropland.”

• Nitrogen
Breakthrough Institute. “Fixing Nitrogen.”

• Food Waste
Food Systems Lab

Econtalk. 2017. “Rachel Laudan on food waste.” (December 4).

Required Videos

• Environment
Noack, Rick. 2014. “Watch: How Europe is Greener now than 100 Years Ago.” Washington Post (December 4).

Meat News Network. 2015. “Myth: The Use of Modern Technologies to Raise Animals has done More Harm than Good (with Jayson Lusk).”

Tony Weis. 2012. “What is the Ecological Hoofprint?” 

• Meat
Meet the Truth. 2007 (Full video; Trailer).

Angus TV. 2012. “I Am Angus: Dr. Jude Capper, Washington State University.”

Stossel. “Why Grass-Fed Beef is Worse for the Environment.” (November 19, 2010).

Tony Weis. 2012. “What are the Possible Solutions to Environmental Problems posed by Industrial Livestock Production?” 

CAST. 2013. Animal Feed vs. Human Food: Challenges and Opportunities in Sustaining Animal Agriculture Toward 2050. CAST Issue Paper#53 (Video).

• Biotechnologies and Organic
Stossel. “Would you Feast on Genetically Engineered Food?” (November 19, 2010).

Grocery Store Wars

Mercola. 2015. “The Organic Life” (trailer).

Prager University. 2015. “Are GMOs Good or Bad?

Breakthrough Institute. 2018. “Fixing Nitrogen.”

Monsanto Company. 2018. “Making a GMO Revealed.”

Mangan, Mary. 2018. “‘Well Fed’: Dutch documentary challenges rich countries’ anti-GMO views.” Medium (April 10) (2:00 – 6:00).

Smithsonian.com. 2018. “The Corn of the Future Is Hundreds of Years Old and Makes Its Own Mucus.”

Only Organic 2015. New MacDonald.

• Locavorism and food security
Friend of the Earth Europe. 2014. Feeding Europe: food sovereignty and agro-ecology.

Hellmanns – Buy Canadian Local Food Commercial. 2012.

Marketplace. 2017. Farm Fresh?

Marginal Revolution University. 2015. Are We Better Off If We Buy Local?

PBS Newshours. 2015. “What Cuba can teach America about organic farming.” (January 19).

UK Ministry of Information and Ministry of Agriculture. 1942. Dig for Victory.

Green State TV
– “The idea that you can grow more food by reverting to local production is ludicrous.” (August 18, 2014)
– “Food from a small, local farm isn’t safer than conventionally grown food.” (August 11, 2013)
– “Why Local Grown Food Makes Us Less Food Secure.” (August 4, 2014)
– “What are the Environmental Drawbacks to Buying Local Produce?” (July 21, 2014)
– “Does Buying Local Produce Reduce My Carbon Footprint?” (July 14, 2014)
– “Doesn’t buying local grow the local economy?” (July 7, 2014)
– “How can ‘grow local’ movements hurt a nation’s economy?” (June 30, 2014)
– “Does buying local produce help grow the local economy?” (June 25, 2014)
– “Does ‘growing local’ lead to a smaller food supply?” (June 18, 2014)

Food Myths: The Locavore’s Dilemma.” Stossel (Fox Business Network: May 29, 2014; Fox News Network: June 1, 2014). (30 :27-34-27).

National Film Board. 1943. “He Plants for Victory.”

Required readings

Lecture 11

• Environment
Long-term Historical Perspective
Erle C. Ellis. 2011. “Forget Mother Nature: This is a World of our Making.” New Scientist 2816 (June 14).

Current Perspectives and Debates
Rockefeller University Newswire. “Changes in Population Growth, Consumption and Farming begin to Return Former Farmlands to Nature.”
December 21, 2012.

Stuckey, James, Jean-Charles Le Vallée and Caitlin Charman. 2013. Reducing the Risk: Addressing the Environmental Impacts of the Food System. Conference Board of Canada (Executive Summary).

Searchinger, Tim, Richard Waite, Craig Hanson, Janet Ranganathan and Emily. 2019. Creating a Sustainable Food Future. A Menu of Solutions to Feed Nearly 10 Billion People by 2050. World Bank, World Resources Institute, UN Environment, UN Development Programme, CIRAD and INRA. (Read the Executive Summary) (A longer Synthesis Report is also available).

Ritchie, Hannah. 2019. “Food Production is Responsible for One-quarter of the World’s Greenhouse Gas Emissions.” Our World in Data (November 6).

Ritchie, Hannah. 2020. “You Want to Reduce the Carbon Footprint of your Food? Focus on what you eat, not whether your food is local.” Our World in Data (January 24).

Ritchie, Hannah and Max Roser. 2020. “Environmental impacts of food production.” Our World in Data.

Biodiversity and Monocultures
Biodiversity (General)
Bailey, Ron. 2010. “Invasion of the Invasive Species! Local Biodiversity is Increasing Because of Man, not Despite Him.” Reason (November).

Avery, Dennis. 2010. “Biodiversity: Losing which Species?” CFACT, November 9.

Karlsson, Ida. 2016. “Climate-Resistant Beans Could Save Millions.” ISP News (December).

Bailey, Ronald. 2018. “High Yield Modern Farming Better for the Environment, Says Nature Study. Low yield organic farming uses up lots more land and harms biodiversity.” Reason (September 20).

Pros and Cons of Monocultures
DeGregori, Thomas. 2003. “The Anti-Monoculture Mania.” Butteflies and Wheels.

Singh, Aradhana. 2011. “Diversification in agriculture.” In Cutler J. Cleveland (ed). Encyclopedia of the Earth.

McGuire, Andrew. 2015. “Monoculture vs. Polyculture Part I: “Straight up” beats “cocktails” for cover crop productivity.” CSANR (Center for Sustaining Agriculture and Natural Resources – Washington State University) (June 8).

Soil Erosion, Degradation and Formation
Cutler J. Cleveland (ed). Encyclopedia of the Earth
– Pidwimy, Michael. 2013. “Soil Erosion and Deposition.”

Cunfer, Geoff. 2004. “The Dust Bowl.” Eh.Net Encyclopedia of Economic and Business History.

McGreevy, Nora. 2020. “Ancient Roman Mosaic Floor Unearthed Beneath Italian Vineyard. The intricate, multi-colored tiles likely date to the third century A.D.” Smithsonianmag.com (May 27).

• Meat
Knight, Meredith. 2018. “Why humans started eating meat-and is it critical for our diet? Genetic Literacy Project (March 30).

Canadian Encyclopedia on Agriculture
Ranching history
Beef cattle farming

The Breakthrough Institute
The Meat Problem
The Pasture Problem
Achieving Peak Pasture

Committee on World Food Security. 2016. “Sustainable Agricultural Development for Food Security and Nutrition: What roles for livestock?” (Read the Policy Recommendations; Full Report available here.)

The Livestock Long Shadow Controversy
UN FAO. 2006. Livestock Long Shadow: Environmental Issues and Options, Executive Summary (pp. xx-xxiv).

Mitloehner, Frank. 2018. “Cows are getting a bad rap and it’s time to set the record straight: Giving up meat won’t save the planet.” The Conversation (December 25).

Maday, John. 2019. “The Scientist who Debunked Livestock’s Long Shadow.” Drovers (April 18).

Meat and Climate Change
Bailey, Ronald. 2019. “Why Giving Up Meat Won’t Have Much of an Effect on Climate Change. Going vegetarian would reduce a person’s greenhouse gas emissions by around 2 percent.” Reason (July 29).

Mitloehner, Frank M. 2018. “Yes, Eating Meat affects the Environment, but Cows are not Killing the Climate.” The Conversation (October 25).

Critics of Meat Production
+Longer Reports and articles

Steinfeld, Henning et al. 2010. Livestock in a Changing Landscape, Volume 1: Drivers, Consequences, and Responses. Island Press; Gerber, Peter et al. 2010. Livestock in a Changing Landscape, Volume 2: Experiences and Regional Perspectives. (Island Press) (Read “New Report Reveals the Environmental and Social Impact of the ‘Livestock Revolution’.” Stanford Report, March 16, 2010.)

Pew Commission on Industrial Farm Animal Production. 2008. Final Report: Putting Meat on The Table: Industrial Farm Animal Production in America (Executive Summary).

UN FAO. 2010. The State of Food and Agriculture 2009: Livestock in the Balance (Read Summary).

Shepon, Alon, Gidon Eshel, Elad Noor, and Ron Milo. 2018. “The opportunity cost of animal based diets exceeds all food losses.” PNAS 115 (15) 3804-3809.

+Shorter articles and columns

Hamblin, James. 2017. “If Everyone Ate Beans Instead of Beef. With one dietary change, the U.S. could almost meet greenhouse-gas emission goals.” The Atlantic (August 2).

Harari, Yuval Noah. 2015. “Industrial Farming is One of the Worst Crimes in History.” The Guardian (Sept 25).

FAO. 2014. Tackling Climate Change through Livestock.

Molina Vale, Petterson. 2014. “Book Review: The Ecological Hoofprint: The Global Burden of Industrial Livestock by Tony Weiss.” LSE Review of Books (March 4).

Monbiot, George. 2010. “Strong Meat.” The Guardian, September 7.

Lamey, Andy. 2020. “The Libertarian Case for Rejecting Meat Consumption.” Quillette (January 27).

Martin, Sarah and Ryan Katz-Rosene. 2017. “Meat.” I-PEEL (International Political Economy of the Everyday).

Defenders of Meat and Modern Production Methods
Canadian Cattlemen’s Association
Beef production 101
Cow-calf production
Backgrounding and finishing
Feedlot operation
Feedlot health management

The Truth about Gestation Stalls.” Hoosier Farm Babe Tell Tails (August 8, 2012).

Archer AM, Mike. 2011. “Ordering the Vegetarian Meal? There’s more Animal Blood on your Hands.” The Conversation (December 15).

Chinn, Chris. 2014. “PEDV – Here’s your sign!” ChrisChinn.

Cooper, David. 2012. “Capper: Efficiency the Key to Beef Sustainability.” Progressive Cattleman (January 23).

Hurst, Blake. 2010. “In Defense of Chewers of Cud.” Today’s Farmer Online.

Hayes, Shannon. 2012. “Meat – not Grains – to Live Sustainably.” Robb Wolf (November 15).

Avery, Dennis. 2009. “Giving Up Meat to Save the Planet?CFACT News (August 20).

Wilkinson, James. 2017. “How the rise of veganism could ruin America: Study warns if every person went meat-free there would be a public health disaster.” Daily Mail (November 18) (original study).

Watson, Keir. 2018. “The Case for Sustainable Meat.” Quillette (April 5).

Tree, Isabella. 2018. “If you want to save the world, veganism isn’t the answer.” The Guardian (August 25).

Splitter, Jenny. “Better Living Through Technology: Why Feedlot Cows Might Be Happier Cows.” The Breakthrough 8 (Winter).

Beef Cattle Research Council. 2019. “Isn’t Beef Canada’s Ultimate Plant Based Protein?” (April 22).

Laframboise, Donna. 2019. ” War Against Meat: the Continuum.Big Picture News.

Lecture 12

• Biotechnologies and Organic
Roca, Maria. 2020. “Viewpoint: COVID-19 food shortages-Why the pandemic is a warning to embrace agricultural technology.” Genetic Literacy Project (May 4).

Lusk, Jayson and Glynn Tonsor. 2020. “America’s Indispensable Industry: Long-term strategies are needed to keep the nation’s meatpacking plants open and its food supply chain moving.” City Journal (May 5).

Historical context
Genetic Literacy Project. 2014. “What would Food Look Like without Modifications?” (June 19).

Kastrinos, Amanda. 2015. “Pasta? Ruby grapefruits? Why organic devotees love foods mutated by radiation and chemicals.” Genetic Literacy Project (February 5).

Kaskey, Jack. 2013. “Breeding Mutant Crops Widespread: Seeds, genetically changed by radiation, face no regulatory hurdles, despite safety concerns.” Bloomberg News/Vancouver Sun (November 16).

WHO (World Health Organization) on
Food, Genetically Modified
20 Questions on Genetically Modified (GM) Food

National Research Council (Division on Earth and Life Studies, Board on Agriculture and Natural Resources). 2010. “Genetically Engineered Crops may Benefit Many Farmers, but the Technology Needs Proper Management to Remain Effective.” News from the National Academies (April 13).

Popoff, Mischa. 2015. “There’s no Reason Why GMOs shouldn’t be Considered Organic.” The Daily Caller (November 4).

Katiraee, Layla. 2017. “Infographic: Why single out GMOs-one of many forms of crop modification-for labeling?Genetic Literacy Project (August 24).

Savage, Steve. 2018. “Mother Nature? More like ‘Mad Scientist Mama’-creator of chemicals good and bad for humans.” Genetic Literacy Project (October 19).

Ehrenberg, Rachel. 2019. “Will the Food of the Future be Genetically Engineered or Organic? Knowable (May 9).

Dourson, Michael and Bernard Gadagbui.2020. “Toxicology: Is Organic Food Safer to Eat?ACSH (April 24).

English, Cameron and Kayleen Schreiber. 2020. “Where are GMO Crops Grown? GLP infographics document the global growth of agricultural biotechnology innovation.” Genetic Literacy Project (April 28).

Critics (general)
Friends of the Earth. 2014. Who Benefits from GM Crops? (Executive Summary).

Taleb, Nassim Nicholas et al. 2014. “The Precautionary Principle (with Application to the Genetic Modification of Organisms).” Extreme Risk Initiative (New York University).

Trillium Asset Management. 2018. The Case against Genetically Modified Crops: An Environmental Investor’s View of the Threat oto our Global Food Systems (January).

Supporters (general)
Beyer Beware. “What you Need to Know about Monsanto and GMO Feed.” (May 21, 2013).

Entine, Jon. 2014. “The Debate about GMO Safety is Over, Thanks to a New Trillion Meal Study.” Forbes (September 17).

Ridley, Matt. 2015. “Genetic Modification Raises Yields and Cuts Pesticide Use.” The Rational Optimist (January 20).

Walton, Dave. 2015. “GMO Myth: Farmers “drown” crops in “dangerous” glyphosate. Fact: They use eye droppers.” Genetic Literacy Project (January 22).

Savage, Steven. 2016. “Why I Don’t Buy Organic, And Why You Might Not Want To Either.” Forbes (March 19).

English, Cameron. 2017. “There Is Nothing Unnatural About GMOs.” Real Clear Science (November 25).

Ventura, Luis. 2020. “Viewpoint: Why GMOs? 4 farmers make the case for biotech crops, challenging ‘clueless’ activists to embrace science.” Genetic Literacy Project (March 10).

Fedoroff, Nina. 2020. “Low-hanging Fruit: How the first generation of GMO crops yielded massive economic and environmental benefits.” Genetic Literacy Project (April 15).

• Topical
GMOs and pesticides
Cowen, Tyler. 2012. “GMOs and pesticide use (an email from Greg Conko)Marginal Revolution (October 26).

GMOs and developing economies
Ibrahim, Abdulrazak. 2014. “Africa On GMOs: Scientific Response To Anti-technology NGOs.” Leadership (August 17).

Suresh, Arvind. 2014. “Kenya’s Maize Famine underscores Need for Africa to Confront GMO Fears.” Genetic Literacy Project (December 8).

CGIAR Research Program (Maize). 2014. “Improved Maize to Boost Yields in Nitrogen-starved African Soils.” (December 10).

Ongu, Isaac. 2017. “Hidden hunger: How anti-GMO activists are blocking humanitarian biofortification in Africa and Asia.” Genetic Literacy Project (September 12).

Ridley, Matt. 2017. “Beware the Fall Armyworm.” Rational Optimist (November 27).

Specific crops
De Steur, H. et al. 2015. “Status and Market Potential of Transgenic Biofortified Crops.” Nature Biotechnology 33 (1): 25-29.

Harmon, Amy. 2013. “A Race to Save the Orange by Altering Its DNA.” New York Times (July 27).

Philpott, Tom. 2016. “WTF Happened to Golden Rice?Mother Jones (February 3).

Ridley, Matt. 2020. “Viewpoint: At least 200,000 people die every year GMO Golden Rice is kept off the market.” Genetic Literacy Project (January 9).

Biodiversity Ownership
Gepts, Paul. 2004. “Who Owns Biodiversity, and How Should the Owners Be Compensated? Plant Physiology 134 (4): 1295-1307.

• Organic
Remington, Jess. 2014. “The Truth About Who Owns Organic Food Companies, In One Chart.” Policy.Mic (February 20).

Is Organic Food Worth the Expense?” Room to Debate – The New York Times (September 10, 2012).

Government of Canada. 2018. Organic production systems. General principles and management standards (CAN/CGSB-32.310-2015) (Introduction).

Ritchie, Hannah. 2017. “Is organic really better for the environment than conventional agriculture?Our World in Data.

The Breakthrough. 2018. The Synthetic-Organic Debate.

GMOs and organic foods
Charles, Dan. 2014. “Why The ‘Non-GMO’ Label Is Organic’s Frenemy.” NPR (The Salt) (February 28).

Moore, Patrick and Mischa Popoff. 2014. “Organic Activists Need GMOs Now more than Ever.” Daily Caller (April 1).

Fedoroff, Nina, Ken Cassman and Marshall Matz. 2014. “Americans Need to Rethink their Concern on GMO vs. Organic Crops on Organic Food.” DesMoines Register (November 22).

Ongu, Isaac. 2015. “Death of British journalist after eating organic peanuts highlights absurdity of GMO safety scare.”  Genetic Literacy Project (March 18).

Colwell, Brian. 2017. “A Giant-Sized History of Biotechnology.” Brian D. Colwell Blog (June 1).

Bailey, Ronald. “E.U. Regulators Can’t Detect the Gene-Edited Crops They Banned. The difference between two identical genes-one edited and the other a natural mutation-is entirely metaphysical.” Reason (July 23).

• Supporters
The Soil Association (UK)
What is organic
* Organic Farming
* Organic Animals

Canada Organic Trade Association
Health Benefits
Environmental Benefits
Organics and GMOs 

• Critics
Hurst, Blake. 2012. “Organic Illusions.” The American Magazine (October 1st).

Berezow, Alex B. 2014. “The Lies that Whole Foods Tells.” Real Clear Science (June 16).

Miller, Henry H. 2015. “Chipotle: The Long Defeat Of Doing Nothing Well.” Forbes (December 14).

Lusk, Jayson. 2014. “Organic Vs Conventional Crop Yields.” JaysonLusk.com (May 5).

Savage, Steven. 2016. “Why I Don’t Buy Organic, And Why You Might Not Want To Either.” Forbes (March 19).

Lomborg, Bjørn. 2016. “Think Organic Food is Better for You, Animals, and the Planet? Think again.” Telegraph (June 12).

Zaruk, David. 2017. “Viewpoint: 12 ways organic activists mislead consumers.” Genetic Literacy Project (December 6).

McDivitt, Paul. 2018. “Does GMO corn increase crop yields? 21 years of data confirm it does-and provides substantial health benefits.” Genetic Literacy Project (February 19).

Hurst, Blake. 2018. “CRISPR will Make GMOs Ubiquitous.” National Review (March 19).

Miller, Henry I. 2018. “The Organic Food Industry Gets Fat on Lies.” Real Clear Science (September 29).

Miller, Henry I. 2018. The Organic Food Hoax. Hoover Institution.

Avery, Dennis. 2012. “Where’s the Case for Organic Foods?Canada Free Press.

Porterfield, Andrew. 2019. “Viewpoint: Organic farmer’s New York Times opinion piece perpetuates ‘fantasy’ of small growers feeding the world.” Genetic Literacy Project (July 23).

Hanson, Mark. 2013. “A Political Hot Potato.” C2C (January 21).

Porterfield, Andrew. 2018. “Sustainability advantage: ‘High-yield’ intensive agriculture outpaces organic farming, large study shows.” Genetic Literacy Project (October 1).

Afedraru, Lominda. 2018. “Why Ugandan banana breeders say it’s critical to add genetic engineering to their toolbox.” Genetic Literacy Project (October 10).

Schaefer Riley, Naomi. 2014. “The Tyranny of the Organic Mommy Mafia.” The New York Post (April 19).

Kloor, Keith. 2014. “The GMO-Suicide Myth.” Issues in Science and Technology 30 (2) (Winter).

Brandt, Michelle. 2012. “Little evidence of health benefits from organic foods, Stanford study finds.” Office of Communications & Public Affairs – Stanford University School of Medicine (September 3).

Porterfield, Andrew. 2017. “Vitamins, nutrients can be harder to find in organic, non-GMO foods.” Genetic Literacy Project (August 4).

Iltan, Cigdem. 2010. “Organic Pesticides can be Worse than Synthetic: Study.” The Globe and Mail (June 22).

Berezow, Alex. 2017. “What Good Is Whole Foods If Its Food Is Poisoned?ACSH (January 25).

Porterfield, Andrew. 2017. “Winemakers abandoning organic status for sustainability, improved taste.” Genetic Literacy Project (June 9).

Israel, Brett. 2017. “Heavily used pesticide linked to breathing problems in farmworkers’ children.” Berkeley News (August 14).

Porterfield, Andrew. “Organic fungicide copper sulfate poses dangers to humans, animals, insects-how does it compare to conventional pesticides?Genetic Literacy Project (November 16).

Finz, Stacy. 2009. “Bill would restrict antibiotics in food animals.” San Francisco Chronicle (July 30).

Kim Klotins. 2005. “Antibiotic Use For Growth Improvement – Controversy And Resolution.” OMAFRA.

• Locavorism and food security
Historical perspective
BBC News. 2012. “Groceries ‘cheaper’ now than in 1862, Grocer magazine finds.” (January 6).

Overview of the issues
Bellemare, Marc F. 2008. “Why Africa’s Food Markets Are Thin.” The News & Observer (Raleigh). April 25.

Mosby, Ian. 2015. “Victory Gardens.” Canadian Encyclopedia.

2016. “Victory Gardens – Editorial.” Canadian Encyclopedia.

Bryce, Emma. 2020. “A Global Crop Reshuffle Could Reduce Agricultural Land by Half.” Anthropocene (April 24).

Current debates
Infographic: Locavorism vs. globavorism.” MNN – Mother Nature Network, August 10, 2011.

Rees, William. 2019. “Why Place-based Food Systems? Food security in a chaotic world.” Journal of Agriculture, Food Systems, and Community Development 9 (1).

Ikerd, John. 2019. “Place-based Food and Farming Systems: Reconnecting people with purpose and place.” Journal of Agriculture, Food Systems, and Community Development 9 (1).

Bailey, Ronald. 2008 “The Food Miles Mistake – Saving the Planet by Eating New Zealand Apples,” Reason, November 4.

Gray, Nathan. 2013. “Frozen Fruit and Vegetable might be more Nutritious than Fresh: Research.” Food Navigator (October 11).

Sexton, Steven, 2009. “Does Local Production Improve Environment and Health Outcomes?” ARE Updates 13 (2): 5-8.

Balanced diet includes local and imported food, say IIED, Oxfam” IIED (Press Release), December 3rd, 2009.

Ritchie, Hannah. 2020. “You want to reduce the carbon footprint of your food? Focus on what you eat, not whether your food is local.” Our World in Data (January 24).

Hunger and Food Security
World Food Programme. 2018. 2018 Global Report on Food Crises (Key Messages).

Famine and Its Eradication (Historical Perspective)
Carmody, Pádraig. 2009. “Famine: A Short History.” Policy & Practice: A Development Education Review 9 (Autumn): 82-85.

Tupy, Marian L. 2018. “How Humanity Won the War on Famine.” CapX (August 16).

Food Sovereignty or Trade Liberalization?
Clapp, Jennifer. 2015. Food Security and International Trade. Unpacking Disputed Narratives. (Read the Executive Summary) FAO.

Philip D. Roberts. 2013. What is the Evidence of the Impact of Agricultural Trade Liberalisation on Food Security in Developing Countries? A Systematic Review. London: EPPICentre, Social Science Research Unit, Institute of Education, University of London (Abstract and Executive Summary).

Food Sovereignty
Food Secure Canada. What is Food Sovereignty?

Edelman, Marc. 2002. “Price of Free Trade Is Famine.” Los Angeles Time (March 22).

Patel, Raj. 2008. “Food Sovereignty: A Brief Introduction.” Food Magazine.

Patel, Raj. 2008. “A man-made famine.” The Guardian (April 15).

Trade Liberalization and Food Security
Peron, James. 2000. “Food, Famine, and Free Trade. Ehrlich Fails to See That Incentives Change Behavior.” Fee.org (April 1).

DeCapua, Joe. 2011. “Trade Barriers Impede Food Security.” VOA (May 15).

Henderson, Victoria L. 2013. “Celebrity Scientist Thinks Canadians Should Sustain Poverty, Cuban-Style.” Panam Post (November 5, 2013).

Suggested readings

• Overview
Garnett, Tara. 2008. Cooking Up a Storm: Food, Greenhouse Emissions and our Changing Climate, Food Climate Research Network (University of Surrey), pp. 3-4.

• Agriculture & Environment, Current perspectives and debates
Agriculture and Climate Change.” In Cleveland, Cutler J. (ed.) Encyclopedia of the Earth.

Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada. 2009. Impact of Agricultural Management Practices on the Environment.

• Environment (General)
Avery, Dennis T. 2003. “Sustaining Both Planet and People: The Moral Challenge of the 21st Century,” University of Maryland’s First Annual Conference on Hunger, October 14.

Erle Ellis and Navin Ramankutty. 2009. “Anthropogenic biomes.” Encyclopedia of Earth.

McNeill, J.R. and Verena Winiwarter. 2004. “Breaking the Sod: Humankind, History, and Soil.” Science 304 (5677) (June 11): 1627-1629.

Thomas E. Dahl and Gregory J. Allord. 1997. “History of Wetlands in the Conterminous United States.” United States Geological Survey Water Supply Paper 2425.

• Biodiversity and monocultures
Angelson, A. and D. Kaimowitz (edited by). 2001. Agricultural Technologies and Tropical Deforestation. CABI Publishing in association with Center for International Forestry Research.

• Biotechnologies
Andrew, Toby. 2002. “Lost in the Maize.” Spiked Online.

Brazeau, Marc. 2014. “The 10 Minor Realizations That Flipped My Thinking About GMOs.” Daily Kos (April 15).

Cayford, Jerry. 2003. “Breeding Sanity into the GM Food DebateIssues in Science and Technology, Winter.

Committee on the Impact of Biotechnology on Farm-Level Economics and Sustainability; National Research Council. 2010. “Impact of Genetically Engineered Crops on Farm Sustainability in the United States.” National Academies Press.

Gruère, Guillaume P., Purvi Mehta-Bhatt and Debdatta Sengupta. 2008. “Bt Cotton and Farmer Suicides in India: Reviewing the Evidence.” IFPRI Discussion Paper 00808.

Prakash, C. S. and Gregory Conko. 2004. “Technology for Life: How Biotech Will Save Billions from Starvation.” The American Enterprise (March): 16-20.

Haruko Okusu. 2009. “Biotechnology Research in the CGIAR: An Overview.” AgBioForum 12 (1).

Herdt, Robert W. 2006. “Biotechnology in Agriculture.” Annual Review of Environment and Resources 31: 265-295 (November).

Kathage, Jonas and Matin Qaim. 2012. “Economic impacts and impact dynamics of Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) cotton in India.” Proceedings of the National Academy of the Sciences 109 (29): 11652-11656.

McWilliams, James E. 2009. “Could Frankenfoods be Good for the Environment?Slate, January 28.

Miller, Henry I. 2005. “The UN’s Biotech for Food Scandal.” Tech Central Station, September 28.

Susman, Megan M. 2000. “Biotechnology in Food and Agriculture – Facts and Fears.” Progressive Policy Institute, May 1.

Trewavas, Anthony. “A Critical Assessment of Organic Farming-and-Food Assertions With Particular Respect to the UK and the Potential Environmental Benefits of No-Till Agriculture.” Crop Protection 23 (2004) 757-781.

Woodall, Jack. 2006. “Our Food is Dying – Infectious Agents are Threatening the World’s Crops.” The Scientist, March, Vol. 20, Issue 3, p. 62.

World Bank. 2007. World Development Report 2008: Agriculture and Development, Policy Briefs
Science and Technology

Miller, Henry. 2015. “Out of his depth, Nassim Taleb bungles risk assessment of GMOs.” Forbes (July 21).

Tagliabue, Giovanni. 2015. “Nassim Taleb’s Precautionary Principle nonsense and warped “GMO” pseudo-category.” Genetic Literacy Project (October 7).

Bailey, Ronal.d 2016. “GMO Alarmist Nassim Taleb Backs Out of Debate. I Refute Him Anyway.” Reason (February 19).

Miller, Michelle. 2017. “Farm Babe: Monsanto vs. organic: the hypocrisy of shill campaigns.” Farm Babe (December 5).

English, Cameron and Kevin Folta. 2017. “The Real Story Behind the Dicamba Controversy.” Real Clear Science (December 12).

Genetic Literacy Project. 2018. “Nassim Taleb: Financial risk analyst turned anti-GMO propagandist.” (July 17).

Späth, Beat. 2018. 2018. “BLOG: Misinformation is the only poison: the end of the Seralini Affair?GMO Info (December 13) End of Seralini affair.

Bailey, Ronald. 2008. “Are Farmers Stupid, or Deluded, or Both? – Friends of the Earth Misinforms on Crop Biotech Again.” Reason Online, February 19.

Ridley, Matt. 2011. “Africa Needs Biotech Crops.” Rational Optimist (December 12).

The Seralini Affair
Elsevier. 2013. “Elsevier Announces Article Retraction from Journal Food and Chemical Toxicology.” (November 28).

• Organic
Intelligence2 USA on Organic Food Debate (February 2010) – Briefing Paper.

About.com – An Overview of Some Common Organic Pesticides

Alan D. Dangour, Sakhi K. Dodhia, Arabella Hayter, Elizabeth Allen, Karen Lock and Ricardo Uauy. 2009. “Nutrional Quality of Organic Foods: A Systematic Review.” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 93 (6): 680-685.

Center for Consumer Freedom
– “Eco-Unfriendly Organic?” June 17, 2010
– “Spraying Context on Organic Pesticides Claims,” May 27, 2010
– “Organic’s Nutritional Superiority (Still) Nonexistent,” May 27, 2010

Brian Dunning. 2007. “Organic Food Myths.” Skeptoid Podcast. Skeptoid Media, Inc., (January 5).

Byrne, Jay, Gregory Conko, Jon Entine, Tony Gilland, Thomas Jefferson Hoban, Patrick Moore, Andrew S. Natsios, Martina Newell-McGloughlin, Robert L. Paarlberg, C.S. Prakash, & Carol Tucker Foreman. Let Them Eat Precaution. How Politics Is Undermining the Genetic Revolution in Agriculture, Edited by Jon Entine. AEI Press (Washington) January 2006.

Leonard, Andrew. 2006. “Save the Rain Forest – Boycott Organic?Salon, December 12.

Popoff, Mischa. 2012. “Time to Deregulate Organic.” bigthink.com (January 13).

-, “Organic Agriculture Can Contribute to Fighting Hunger – But Chemical Fertilizers Needed to Feed the World.” FAO Newsroom, 10 December 2007.

Report from the Bichel Committee (Danish Government). 2001. Organic Scenarios for Denmark.

Rosenthal, Elisabeth. 2011. “Questions About Organic Produce and Sustainability.” NYTimes.com (December 30).

Soupcoff, Marni. 2012. “Stanford study shows organic food no safer or healthier than conventional food.” National Post (September 5).

Winter, Carl K. and Sarah F. Davis. 2006. “Organic Foods.” Journal of Food Science 71 (9): R117-R124.

Suresh, Arvind. 2014. “Kenya’s Maize Famine underscores Need for Africa to Confront GMO Fears.” Genetic Literacy Project (December 8).

Miller, Henry. 2014. “Why Organic Isn’t ‘Sustainable’.” Forbes (November 19).

Fedoroff, Nina, Ken Cassman and Marshall Matz. 2014. “Americans Need to Rethink their Concern on GMO vs. Organic Crops on Organic Food.” DesMoines Register (November 22).

Perrone, Joseph. 2017. “Chipotle’s problems are bigger than its messaging.” The Hill (July 25) (summary available here).

Lynas, Mark. 2017. “Organic farming can feed the world – until you read the small print.” Cornell Alliance for Science (November 22).

Zambrano, Sierra. 2017. “Viewpoint: Anti-GMO scare tactics show need for scientific literacy.” Sierra Genetic Literacy Project (December 1).

Mangan, Mary. 2018. “Viewpoint: Anti-GMO activists crave a return to ‘simpler times’ in farming. Here’s why that would be disastrous.” Genetic Literacy Project (July 3).

Novella, Steven. 2018. “The Science Behind the Roundup Lawsuit. A jury has awarded a man $289 million for allegedly contracting cancer from exposure to Roundup, but the science is not on their side.” Science-Based Medicine (August 15).

Novella, Steven. 2018. “More Evidence Organic Farming is Bad.” Neurologica blog (December 14).

Shennan, Carol, Timothy J. Krupnik, Graeme Baird, Hamutahl Cohen, Kelsey Forbush, Robin J. Lovell, Elissa M. Olimpi. 2017. “Organic and Conventional Agriculture: A Useful Framing?Annual Review of Environment and Resources 42: 317-346.

• Meat Production and the Environment
Mario Herrero, Stefan Wirsenius, Benjamin Henderson, Cyrille Rigolot, Philip Thornton, Petr Havlík, Imke de Boer, Pierre J. Gerber. 2015. “Livestock and the Environment: What Have We Learned in the Past Decade? Annual Review of Environment and Resources 40: 177-202.

Nierenberg, Danielle. 2005. “Happier Meals: Rethinking the Global Meat Industry.” Worldwatch Paper #171 (September).

UN FAO. 2006. Livestock Long Shadow: Environmental Issues and Options.

Lomborg, Björn. 2019. “Vegetarianism as Climate Virtue Signaling.” Wall Street Journal (August 8).

Critics of Meat Production
Motavalli, Jim. 2008. “The Meat of the Matter: Our Livestock Industry Creates More Greenhouse Gas than Transportation Does.” E Magazine (July-August).

Belli, Brita. 2008. “Fixing the Animal Farms: An Interview with Robert MartinE Magazine (July-August).

Colleran, Brian. 2008. “Think Before You Eat: The Widespread Effects of Factory-Farmed MeatE Magazine (July-August).

Gerber, P.J., Steinfeld, H., Henderson, B., Mottet, A., Opio, C., Dijkman, J., Falcucci, A. & Tempio, G. 2013. Tackling climate change through livestock – A global assessment of emissions and mitigation opportunities. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), Rome.

Morgan, Nathan. 2010. “The Hidden History of Greco-Roman Vegetarianism.” Advocacy for Animals (August 10).

Katz-Rosene, Ryan M. and Sarah J. Martin (eds). 2020. “Green Meat? Sustaining Eaters, Animals, and the Planet.” McGill-Queen’s University Press.

Shapiro, Paul. 2020. “One Root Cause of Pandemics Few People Think About: It’s our seemingly insatiable desire to eat meat.” Scientific American (March 24).

Jackson, Randall. D. 2020. “A vision for agriculture: We know how to replace toxic, intensive livestock raising with beautiful, efficient grasslands. Do we have the will?Aeon (March 17).

Defenders of Meat and Modern Production Methods
Eating Less Meat and Dairy Products won’t Have Major Impact on Global Warming, Expert ArguesScience Daily, March 22, 2010.

Avery, Dennis T. 2010. “Confined Livestock Better for the Planet.” CFGI Blog, July 6.

Jamieson, Alastair. 2010. “UN admits flaw in report on meat and climate change. The UN has admitted a report linking livestock to global warming exaggerated the impact of eating meat on climate change.” Telegraph (MARch 24).

Hayes, Shannon. 2012. “Meat – not Grains – to Live Sustainably.” Robb Wolf (November 15).

Taylor, Peter Shawn. 2016. “Next on the carbon hit list: Meat.” C2C (December 30).

Radke, Amanda. 2018. “Researchers conclude livestock have no detectable effect on climate.” Beef (December 5).

Stossel, John. 2010. “Busting Another Food Myth.” Fox News (November 18).

• Soil Erosion and Degradation
Cutler J. Cleveland (ed). Encyclopedia of the Earth
– Buonanduci, Michele. 2009. “Dust Bowl.”

Avery, Dennis T. 2010. “Muddy Rivers: Don’t Blame Farmers.” CFACT, November 18.

Center for Consumer Freedom. 2010. “‘Chef Pollan’s Daily Special: Lousy Advice” January 19.


• Food Sovereignty
Edelman, Marc, Tony Weis, Amita Baviskar, Saturnino M. Borras Jr, Eric Holt-Giménez, Deniz Kandiyoti & Wendy Wolford. 2014. “Introduction: Critical Perspectives on Food Sovereignty.” The Journal of Peasant Studies 41 (6): 911-931 (Global Agrarian Transformations Volume 2: Critical Perspectives on Food Sovereignty).

McCorriston, Steve, David J. Hemming, Julien D. Lamontagne-Godwin, Janice Osborn, Martin J. Parr and FAO. 2013. Food Security and Sovereignty (Base Document for Discussion).

Desmarais, Annette Aurélie, Nettie Wiebe, Hannah Wittman (eds). 2011. Food Sovereignty in Canada: Creating Just and Sustainable Food Systems. Fernwood Publishing. Chapter 1: Nurturing Food Sovereignty in Canada.

Patel, Raj. 2009. “Food Sovereignty.” Journal of Peasant Studies 36 (3): 663-706.

Pimbert, Michel. 2009. “Towards food sovereignty: reclaiming autonomous food systems.” IED (International Institute for Environment and Development).

• Trade and Food Security
Please look the various readings listed in GGR 489: LONG DISTANCE TRADE AND FOOD SECURITY.

Kym Anderson, Anderson. 2014. “The Intersection of Trade Policy, Price Volatility, and Food Security.” Annual Review of Resource Economics 6: 513-532.

Headey, Derek D. and William J. Martin. 2016. “The Impact of Food Prices on Poverty and Food Security.” Annual Review of Resource Economics 8: 329-351.

Martin, Will. 2017. Agricultural Trade and Food Security. ADBI Working Paper Series No. 664 (February).

Orford, Anne. 2015. “Food Security, Free Trade, and the Battle for the State.” Journal of International Law and International Relations 11 (2): 1-67.

Brooks, J. and A. Matthews. 2015. Trade Dimensions of Food Security. OECD Food, Agriculture and Fisheries Papers, No. 77, OECD Publishing, Paris.

FAO. 2003. Trade Reforms and Food Security.

Anderson, Kym. 2001. “Trade Liberalization and Food Security.” Asia-Pacific Social Science Review 3 (1) : 1-51.

Chandra, Alexandra C. and Lucky A. Lontoh. 2010. Regional Food Security and Trade Policy in Southeast Asia: The Role of ASEAN. Series on Trade and the Food Security – Policy Report 3. International Institute for Sustainable Development.

• Urban Agriculture
Satthertwaite, David, Gordon McGranahan and Cecilia Tacoli. 2010. “Urbanization and its Implications for Food and Farming.” Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 365 (1554): 2809-2820.

– 2010. Fighting Poverty and Hunger: What Role for Urban Agriculture? Policy Briefs, August.
– 2007. Profitability and Sustainability of Urban and Peri-Urban Agriculture, Agricultural Management, Marketing and Finance Occasional Paper, Executive Summary (xi-xii).
– 1999. “Issues in Urban Agriculture” FAO Spotlight

Eames-Sheavly, Marcia. Discovering the Food System: A Primer on Community Food Systems (Linking Food, Nutrition and Agriculture), Cornell University.

Despommier, Dickson on “The Vertical Farm

Avery, Dennis T. 2010. “City Farming – Pigs in the Sky?CGFI , October 19th.

Robert Kunzig. 2011. “The City Solution – Why cities are the best cure for our planet’s growing pains.” National Geographic Magazine (December).

Charles W. Lesher. Urban Agriculture: A Literature Review, USDA.

Mark Redwood. 2008. Agriculture in Urban Planning. Generating Livelihoods and Food Security. Earthscan/IDRC.

Luc J.A. Mougeot. 2005. Agropolis: The Social, Political, and Environmental Dimensions of Urban Agriculture. Earthscan/IDRC 2005.

Maria Caridad Cruz and Roberto Sánchez Medina. 2003. Agriculture in the City: Key to Sustainability in Havana, Cuba. Ian Randle Publishers/IDRC

Olanrewaju B. Smith. 1999. Urban Agriculture in West Africa. Contributing to Food Security and Urban Sanitation. IDRC/CTA

Auxumite G. Egziabher, Diana Lee-Smith, Daniel G. Maxwell, Pyar Ali Memon, Luc J.A. Mougeot, and Camillus J. Sawio (eds). 1994. Cities Feeding People. An Examination of Urban Agriculture in East Africa. IDRC.

• Locavorism
– Substantial Reports
Rai Chi, Kelly, James McGregor and Richard King. 2009. Fair Miles: Recharting the Food Miles Map. IIED and Oxfam.

Desrochers, Pierre and Hiroko Shimizu. 2008. “Yes We Have No Bananas: A Critique of the Food Mile Perspective.” Mercatus Policy Series, Policy Primer No. 8.

Garnett, Tara. 2008. Cooking Up a Storm: Food, Greenhouse Emissions and our Changing Climate, Food Climate Research Network (University of Surrey).

McIntyre, Lynn, and Kristen Rondeau. 2011. “Individual consumer food localism: A review anchored in Canadian farmwomen’s reflections.” Journal of Rural Studies 27 (2) (April): 116-124.

Saunders, Caroline, & Peter Hayes. 2007. “Air Freight Transport of Fresh Fruit and Vegetables.” Research Report No. 299, Lincoln University.

Saunders, Caroline, Andrew Barber and Greg Taylor. 2006. Food Miles – Comparative Energy/Emissions Performance of New Zealand’s Agriculture Industry, Lincoln University, Agribusiness and Economics Research Unit (AERU), Research Report 285. Chapters 1-6, 8.

Watkiss, Paul et al. 2005. “The Validity of Food Miles as an Indicator of Sustainable Development.” DEFRA Report ED50254.

Halweil, Brian. 2002. “Home Grown: The Case for Local Food in a Global Market.” WorldWatch paper #163, Worldwatch Institute.

Steve Martinez, Michael Hand, Michelle Da Pra, Susan Pollack, Katherine Ralston, Travis Smith, Stephen Vogel, Shellye Clark, Luanne Lohr, Sarah Low and Constance Newman. 2010. Local Food Systems: Concepts, Impacts, and Issues. Economic Research Report #97. United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Economic Research Service.

Roosevelt, M. 2006. “The Lure of the 100-Mile Diet.” Time, June 11.

USDA. Know your Farmer, Know your Food
Support Local Farmers
Strengthen Rural Communities
Promote Healthy Eating
Protect Natural Resources

USDA. 2010. “Beans are Bullets” and “Of Course I Can!” War-Era Food Posters

Ronald G. McCormick. 2010. “An Insider’s Account of Walmart’s Local Foods Program.” The Atlantic (November 17).

Leeder, Jessica. 2009. “Debunking our ‘Fetish of the Fresh‘” The Globe and Mail, Nov. 24.

Zezima, Katie. 2010. “Push to Eat Local is Hampered by ShortageThe New York Times, March 27.

Nolan Brown, Elizabeth. 2016. “Five Years and $500 Million Later, USDA Admits That ‘Food Deserts’ Don’t Matter. You can lead people to Whole Foods, but you can’t make them buy organic kale.” Reason (June 13).

– Varia
History of Urban Agriculture.” Sprouts in the Sidewalk.


Sanderson, Allen R. 2007. “De Minimis.” The Library of Economics and Liberty, September 3.

Sellick, Karen. 2008. “The Buy Locally-Owned Fallacy.” Library of Economics and Liberty, November 3.

Econtalk (audio)”Boudreaux on the Economics of Buy Local,” April 16, 2007.

-. “Food Movement ‘Harms Environment‘.” BBC News, July 15, 2005.

Averill, Victoria. 2007. “African Trade Fears Carbon Footprint Backlash.” BBC News, February 21.

Bennett, Drake. 2007. “The localvore’s dilemma.” The Boston Globe, July 22.

Cowen, Tyler. 2010. “The Economics of Air Freight” Marginal Revolution, April 18.

Desrochers, P., & Hiroko Shimizu. 2008. “Buy Global – The ‘Food Mile’ Perspective Severely Distorts the Environmental Impacts of Agricultural Production.” National Post, November 7.

Edwards-Jones, Gareth. 2006. “Food Miles don’t go the Distance.” BBC News Viewpoint, March 16.

Foster, Peter. 2008. “Just Plain Bananas.” National Post, November 7.

Freakonomics » The Inefficiency of Local Food

Walmart’s Agriculture Heritage Program

• Urbanization and the Environment
Rifkin, Jeremy. 2006. “The Risks of Too Much City.” The Washington Post, December 17.

Bailey, Ronald. 2006. “The Lingering Stench of Malthus – Debunking Jeremy Rifkin’s Beef with Cities.” ReasonOnline, December 22.

Suggested links

• Environment (General)
Anthromes: The Global Ecological Patterns Created by Humans


• Urban Agriculture
Community gardening
Urban agriculture
Community food systems and civic agriculture

• Locavorism
IATP | Local Foods

The Locavore.ca (Sarah Elton’s blog)

PlanetGreen.com on the 100 mile challenge

Southwestern Ontario Locavore

Special issue “Local Food – Perceptions, Prospects and Policies” of Choices: The Magazine of Food, Farms, and Resource Issues 25 (1) 2010.

Toronto Food Policy Council

Twigs Way and Mike Brown. 2010. Digging for Victory: Gardens and Gardening in Wartime Britain. Sabrestorm Publishing.

Video: USDA (World War II):Victory Garden

• Food Security
Global food security index

Food Secure Canada 

• Food Sovereignty
La Via Campesina on food sovereignty

Canadian Federation of Agriculture 2017. Towards a National Food Strategy.

European Commission (European Union). Agriculture and Rural Development – Agriculture and the Environment

– Indicators (Overview)
(Browse) OECD. 2008. Agri-Environment Indicators (Key points)

• Meat Production and the Environment
Mitloehner, Frank. 2009. Clearing the Air: Livestock’s Contribution to Climate Change (Power Point Presentation)

Pitesky, Maurice E., Kimberly R. Stackhouse and Frank F. Mitloehner. 2009. “Clearing the Air: Livestock’s Contribution to Climate Change.” Advances in Agronomy 103: 1-40.

Toronto Vegetarian Association. 2007. Meat’s Production Environmental Toll.

• Biotechnologies
The Pew Initiative on Food and Biotechnology

A debate on the future of GM technologies, Spiked-Science Debates.

Council for Biotechnology Information

Frankenfood” Frenzy on ReasonOnline. A pro-technology Website, but with several links to GM opponents.

Harvest of Fear,” a 2001 Nova (PBS) documentary.

WHO (World Health Organization) on
Biotechnology (GM Foods) and Nanotechnology

Transgenic Plants for Food Security in the Context of Development: Proceedings of a Study Week of the Pontifical Academy of Sciences.” New Biotechnology 27 (5): 2010.

• Organic Production
International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements

International Organic Inspectors Association

Organic Materials Review Institute

OMAFRA. Organic Agriculture (in Ontario)

Public Works and Government Services Canada. Organic Agriculture

Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada. Organic Production

Canadian Food Inspection Agency. Organic Products

Canadian Consumer Information Gateway – Organic Food

The Soil Association (UK)

Intelligence2 USA (February 2010): Is Organic Food Marketing Hype?

Debate surrounding movie Food Evolution (Letter of complaint; Reply).