Pierre Desrochers

GGR 489 – Special Topics in Human Geography – Cities, Industry and the Environment

Period: SPRING 2009
Instructor: Pierre DesrochersOffice: Davis Building, room 3273
Lectures: Monday 7-9 PMLecture room: CC 2150
Phone: (905) 828-5206E-mail: pierre.desrochers@utoronto.ca

In-person or video contact hours:

  • Office hours are Monday 5:30 – 7:00PM in DV 3273.
  • If this time is not convenient, please e-mail me to schedule an alternative time.
  • E-mail is the primary mode of contact outside of office hours. I do not recommend phoning me at my office.

General information and rules about e-mailing me:

  • Please read the course syllabus carefully. Answers about course-specific rules, content and procedures (e.g., how to submit documentation regarding a missed assignment, policies about missed quizzes and tests) are already there.
  • Always use your University of Toronto e-mail address (@utoronto.ca) for all course-related communications. E-mails from other domains (e.g., hotmail, Rogers, gmail, yahoo, etc.) may be filtered as spam and will at any rate be ignored.
  • You can contact me anytime at pierre.desrochers@utoronto.ca. I will do my best to answer you promptly during office hours (Monday-Friday 9AM-5PM).
  • Always include the course code (e.g., GGR489) as part of your subject line, along with your full name and student number in the body of the e-mail.
  • I do not open attachments and will not answer during weekends.
  • E-mail should NOT be viewed as an alternative to meeting with the TA or professor during office hours. Nor should e-mail be used as a mechanism to receive private tutorials (especially prior to tests) or to explain material that was covered in missed lectures. Not receiving replies to e-mails from the TA or professor, or not receiving them in time, will not be an acceptable excuse for pleas for extensions to assignment or exam deadlines.
  • Students are advised to consult http://www.enough.utoronto.ca/ for information on university policy concerning the appropriate use of information and communication technology.

Questions about departmental and program-related policies and procedures:

  • Questions and queries about departmental or program-related rules and procedures should be directed at the Academic Counsellor for Geography/Environment, Darcy McKenzie (darcy.mckenzie@utoronto.ca).

This reading seminar is devoted to the study of the environmental impacts of (mostly urban) industrialization and to past, current and potentially new ways of analyzing and addressing them. The topics discussed range from the history of deforestation and the creation of recycling linkages between firms to the role of institutions in promoting innovative behavior and the impact of geographical distance on the sustainability of industrial practices.

Unlike many seminars discussing the relationship between economic growth and the environment, the perspective favored in “Cities, Industry and the Environment” will be generally optimistic.

The course format will alternate between formal classes and open discussions. Students are expected to have read the assigned texts in advance.

The course has five (5) main objectives:

  1. To introduce you to the economic and political factors that shape the global organization of business activity;
  2. To provide you with a good grasp of the global economic map;
  3. To improve your ability to critically analyse and write clearly on a number of issues;
  4. To memorize and use, without aids, the basic terminology with which professionals in relevant disciplines communicate their work and their research findings;
  5. To apply a wide range of academic skills in active listening, note-taking, studying, reading, and test-taking to upper-level university courses.
1) Written Assignment 110%September 30
2) Term Test20%October 21
3) Written Assignment 220%December 2
4) Written Assignment 315%December 2
5) Final Exam35%TBA

As per the University Grading Practices Policy, please note that “after the methods of evaluation have been made known, the instructor may not change them or their relative weight without the consent of at least a simple majority of the students enrolled in the course. Any changes shall be reported to the division or the department.”

How to Query or Challenge a Mark

Please note that you have two weeks from the date an item is discussed in class to ask for the item to be remarked. Contact the Course Instructor for all queries about course marks, or if you wish to challenge a mark. Absolutely no item will be remarked after the two-week period has passed. Material submitted for remarking must be accompanied by a brief written explanation detailing your reasons for dissatisfaction with the original mark (such as an addition error or something you think the marker may have missed). A request for a remark without a written explanation will not be acted upon.

Please note that you are allowed two questions where you and the instructor can agree to disagree (meaning you believe that you are entitled to a higher mark, but your instructor disagrees) without penalty. Beginning with the third question where you and your instructor disagree, one point will be taken off your final mark by question for which a revised mark was requested by you and denied by the instructor.

Discussions of the test/exam and written assignments can be found below.

All readings for this course are freely available to U of T’s students through the course Website.

Most of the suggested readings are freely accessible from anywhere. Some of them, however, may require you to use a UofT terminal or user code.

A set of questions will be given in advance. Students will be asked to answer a number of these during the test along with one or two open-ended questions. PowerPoint slides presented during the lectures WILL NOT be posted online. Note that everything discussed in class can the subject of the open-ended questions. No documentation is allowed during the tests.

You will be asked 6-8 questions from the following list (more questions will be added each week). Your answers should rely on both the mandatory readings and your class notes. You are strongly encouraged to use bullet point form. The questions will be weighted differently (in other words, some questions require very brief answers, while others will require more detailed treatments). Please write legibly and leave enough space between each answer in your exam booklet (in other words, try to make the life of your TA easier…)



What is the point of these assignments?

  • To acquire more in-depth learning about a topic discussed in this course and its relevance to broader policy discussions
  • To develop your writing skills
  • To learn to think critically
  • To learn the basics of scholarly and policy work

Useful links to help you write your assignments
The University of Toronto Library staff has compiled several links on researching and writing term papers and other types of work. Please look them up, along with the various university resources available to you:

Citation styles
Please look up the University of Toronto Library webpage devoted to citing sources and creating your bibliography.

For written assignments 1 and 2 your are free to follow any of the Standard Documentation Formats, but I insist you use endnotes in assignment #2 (try to mimick the Ottawa documents as closely as possible).

For assignment 3 you will use embedded hyperlinks instead of traditional citations. Here is how to create or edit a hyperlink. Please note that a hyperlink is only a link to the original document. You are not expected to provide a page or any further information.

Students unfamiliar with Turnitin are directed to the Turnitin guide from the University of Toronto’s Centre for Teaching Support and Innovation.

Normally, students will be required to submit written assignments to Turnitin.com for a review of textual similarity and detection of possible plagiarism. In doing so, students will allow their assignments to be included as source documents in the Turnitin.com reference database, where they will be used solely for the purpose of detecting plagiarism. The terms that apply to the University’s use of the Turnitin.com service are described on the Turnitin.com web site (www.Turnitin.com). If you have an objection to the use of Turnitin for the submission of your work, please make an appointment to speak personally with the Course Instructor to discuss alternative arrangements.

Please note that submitting your paper through Turnitin.com or making alternative arrangements with your professor before the relevant deadlines is not optional. Failure to do so will result in a grade of 0 for your assignment. The late penalties describe in this syllabus will apply.

Turnitin.com course ID: XXXXX.
The Turnitin key (password) will be given in class and through Quercus.


Written assignment #1 (10% of your final mark)
Please choose your topic for this assignment carefully as it will apply to all your written assignments this semester. [Hint: I strongly encourage you to look at the relevant required readings for each potential subject so that you select the one that is of greatest interest to you.]

Write a 2-3 page reflection on ONE of the following questions. The choice is yours. Please use the relevant required readings of the lectures listed in parenthesis as a basis for your reflection. Cite these relevant readings in your paper. You may cite additional sources if you want to, but this is not required for this assignment.


  • Can the lack of economic development in most parts of the tropical world today be attributed to some unique environmental characteristics (e.g., soils, diseases) of tropical regions? (Lectures 1 and 12)
  • Was agriculture humanity’s worst mistake and would we and the planet have been better off if our ancestors had remained hunter-gatherers? (Lectures 4-5)
  • Can the fact that some tropical forested regions such as the Amazon basin are not as pristine as was once thought justify their large-scale economic development? (Lectures 7-8)
  • What is environmental colonialism and can we use this concept to justify greater human activities / encroachments in wildlife preserves in Africa and other parts of the world where employment opportunities are limited? (Lectures 7-8)

In short, what your professor wants to know is 1) what is the topic about (i.e., define the concept and summarize the relevant controversy if applicable)? 2) What do you think of the debate/controversy on this topic based on your preliminary readings?


  • Text should be written in full sentences and paragraphs organized in a clear and coherent fashion.
  • The reflection should be written from a first-person perspective (i.e., you can use “I”, “me”, and “my” in this assignment).
  • Text should be 11-12 point font and 1.5-2.0 line spacing on all pages. If applicable, block quotes and bibliography should use 1.0 line spacing.
  • Pages should have regular 1 inch (2.54 cm) margins.

Due: Monday, September 30th @ 23:59 (week 4) via Turnitin

Written assignment #2 (20% of your final mark)
The goal of this assignment is to write a document similar to the “In Brief” notes produced by the Library of Parliament’s Information and Research Service (Ottawa).

Here are links to a few “In Brief” notes:

As specified on the Library of Parliament’s website, their publications aim to “provide analysis to parliamentarians, parliamentary committees and parliamentary associations on current and emerging key issues, legislation and major public policy topics. The publications provide non-partisan, reliable and timely information on subjects that are relevant to parliamentary and constituency work (my emphasis).”

Your goal is to follow the spirit of these “In Brief” notes and produce a short document for busy people that presents all aspects of a particular problem in a non-partisan way. You must present and define the issue or problem, provide some background or context, explain why it is important and list all arguments for and against the problem or issue discussed. You can use bullet points, graphs or maps, but each claim or piece of evidence must be supported through an endnote.


  • Cover page. Must include subject title, first and last name, student number, course number, year and the exact wording of the question you are answering in your assignment;
  • Table of contents, including page number for each section;
  • Between 6 and 9 pages of text, excluding cover page, table of contents and endnotes;
  • Text should be 11-12 point font; 1.0 line spacing on all pages, including cover page, block quotes, and endnotes;
  • Pages should have regular 1.0 inch margins and be numbered;
  • Reference/Citation style: ENDNOTES. Format of your choice, but you must be consistent.

Due: Monday, December 2nd @ 23:59 via Turnitin

Written assignment #3 (15% of your final mark)
An op-ed (originally short for “opposite the editorial page”) is a written prose piece which presents a specific opinion as opposed to a balanced perspective.

Your task in assignment #3 is to your write your own commentary on the question you have researched in assignments 1 and 2. Present and support your one-sided position with ideas and facts learned while researching your previous assignments and in other lectures and readings during the semester. In the old days of printed newspapers citations and references were not expected in an op-ed. Nowadays, editors typically ask for hyperlinks. Please use them to provide links to the original documents your are quoting or using numbers from. Limit your use of hyperlink to one word or number. For instance, use the link for an author’s name rather than a full quote.

Your op-ed should be between 650-750 words, excluding your name, course number and student number. This assignment does not require a cover page, but it requires you to write the word count of your piece at the end of your assignments (e.g., word count: 673 words.)

Keep in mind that your audience is the general reading public, meaning people who are likely not familiar with your topic and who may not have had a post-secondary education. You must therefore draw their interest by using a catchy title and, ideally, a “hook” at the beginning of your story (e.g., “poachers have killed government officials in a nature preserve”; “ruins of a gigantic city have been discovered in the Amazon”). Explain your position using simple language, do your best to persuade and do not simply make assertions (e.g., “every expert agrees with me”).

Keep in mind that your word count is low and that you might have to use only your BEST arguments, not all the arguments that support your position.

The University of Toronto offers the following guidelines to write an effective op-ed piece:

  • Focus on one main idea or a single theme in your op-ed.
  • Have a clear editorial viewpoint. State that point in your first paragraph, and then proceed to back up your opinion or prove your thesis.
  • Look for opportunities to wed your specific area of expertise or interest with news developments.
  • If you can, be controversial in your opinion.
  • Always write for the lay reader. Be clear and straightforward. Use simple words, short declarative sentences. Even the brainiest of readers will lose interest if your submission is replete with long, complex sentences and paragraphs.
  • Make your submission as argumentative as possible. It should not appear driven by anger and it should follow methodological reasoning.
  • Express a strong call to action. Write with passion and “fire in your gut.”
  • Take pains to educate the reader with your insight, but don’t condescend or preach.

See also the op-ed guidelines of Carleton College.

Op-ed links: New York Times op-ed page

Due: Monday, December 2nd @ 23:59 via Turnitin

Required Policy Statements:
Use of ChatGPT / Generative AI
Students may choose to use generative artificial intelligence tools as they work through the assignments in this course; this use must be documented in an appendix for each assignment. The documentation should include what tool(s) were used, how they were used, and how the results from the AI were incorporated into the submitted work. Failure to provide an appendix in this case will be penalized.
Student Technology Requirements and Connection Tools
Students are expected to review and be in compliance with the University’s requirements for online learning (https://www.viceprovoststudents.utoronto.ca/tech-requirements-online-learning/). More resources are available on the UTM Library’s Learn Anywhere website (https://utm.library.utoronto.ca/students/quercus/learn-anywhere). Zoom may be used in the delivery of components of this course. Students are required to register for a UTM Zoom account (https://utoronto.zoom.us) prior to the first lecture. Only authenticated users can join the zoom meetings; please follow the instructions to ensure that your account is authenticated.
Privacy and Use of Course Materials Notifications
(Please note that this policy statement does not apply for this course) This course, including your participation, will be recorded on video and will be available to students in the course for viewing remotely and after each session. Course videos and materials belong to your instructor, the University, and/or other sources depending on the specific facts of each situation, and are protected by copyright. Do not download, copy, or share any course or student materials or videos without the explicit permission of the instructor. For questions about recording and use of videos in which you appear please contact your instructor.
Communications Policy
Students are encouraged to be available during posted office hour(s). Correspondence by email or requesting a meeting outside of the scheduled office hour(s) is also acceptable. In all email correspondence regarding this course, please note the following:
  1. Always use your University of Toronto email address (…@mail.utoronto.ca) for all course-related communications.
  2. Include the course code as part of your subject line, and include your full name and student number in the body of the email
  3. Check the course Quercus site before emailing a question, to make sure that it has not already been answered
Please contact the department’s Academic Advisor Darcy McKenzie (advisor.gge.utm@utoronto.ca) for any department- or program-related queries or to submit documentation regarding a missed quiz or test.
Snow days
If a snow day is declared, all classes are cancelled, whether online or in-person. Campus closures are posted on the Campus Status page. Instructors may not schedule additional “make-up” class meetings beyond the class hours already in the UTM Timetable.
Missed Term Work
Late assignments will be subject to a late penalty of 10% per day (including weekends) of the total marks for the assignment. Assignments submitted five calendar days beyond the due date will be assigned a grade of zero. Term Work – Accommodations
  1. Accommodations due to late registration into the course will NOT be approved.
  2. In courses with final exams, there will be no re-writes or make-ups for term tests/quizzes missed for University-accepted, verifiable reasons. Instead, the final exam will be re-weighted by the value of the term test/quiz.
  3. For in-class or online quiz/test, students CANNOT petition to re-write a quiz/test once it has begun. If you are feeling ill, please do not start the online or in-class test and seek medical attention immediately.
  4. Extension requests are not permitted for open-book, take home tests. Extensions are built into the time provided for the test.
  5. Assignments cannot be re-weighted to the final exam.
  6. For extension requests, maximum extension (where/when possible) is ONE week.
  7. Extension requests must be made IN ADVANCE of the assignment due date.
  8. Assignments handed in AFTER the work has been returned to the class cannot be marked for credit.
  9. Students are responsible in ensuring strong reliable internet connection. Special consideration requests due to poor internet connection (ie. unable to complete online quiz / unable to submit assignment before deadline) will not be accepted.
  10. Students are expected to back up their work at all times. As such, extension requests due to computer issues (stolen, crashed, damaged etc.) will not be considered.
  11. Extension requests will NOT be approved for Group Assignments
  12. It is every student’s responsibility to ensure that their online submission is submitted successfully by the due date. Accommodations will not be made for unsuccessful submissions due to, but not limited to: i) the system timing out ii) submitting the incorrect document(s) iii) poor internet connection / no internet connection etc.
  13. Holidays and pre-purchased plane tickets, family plans, your friend’s wedding, lack of preparation, or too many other tests/assignments are not acceptable excuses for missing a quiz, a test, an item of term work, or requesting an extension of time. Such requests will be denied.
  14. For extensions of time beyond the examination period you must submit a petition through the Office of the Registrar. https://www.utm.utoronto.ca/registrar/forms
How to Request an Accommodation In the Geography, Geomatics and Environment department, professors cannot grant extensions on term work or allow makeups for missed items. Instead, you must follow the following steps:
  1. You must submit an online Special Consideration Request using the following link: https://utmapp.utm.utoronto.ca/SpecialRequest within 24 hours. Note: The system only supports Microsoft Internet Explorer and Firefox for the time being.
  2. Students registered with Accessibility Services are also required to submit an online Special Consideration Request using the following link: https://utmapp.utm.utoronto.ca/SpecialRequest
  3. Email your course instructor.
  4. ACORN Absence Declaration Tool: Use of this new online declaration does not require supporting documentation and should be used in addition to the missed term work policy outlined in the course syllabus. Students can use this absence declaration tool only once per term. When using this tool, students should expect to receive reasonable academic consideration from their instructor without the need to present additional supporting documentation. In addition, Instructors may exclude one test or quiz from the one-time absence declaration, in which case the student would be required to provide supporting documentation. To submit a request: https://www.utm.utoronto.ca/registrar/utm-absence
Please note that students are required to submit their assignment/lab as soon as they are able and they should NOT wait for the decision of the committee. Number of days approved for an extension will be calculated from the original assignment due date. It is your responsibility to follow the appropriate procedures and submit requests for special consideration on time. Failure to do so may result in the committee denying your request. Should you require further information regarding Special Considerations, please contact the GGE Academic Advisor Darcy McKenzie (advisor.gge.utm@utoronto.ca). Please note that the written explanation and documentation that you submit represents an appeal from you, requesting the opportunity to account for that portion of your grade in some other manner. If a special consideration request is not received, or if the special consideration request is denied, you will receive a grade of zero for the item you missed. If the special consideration request is granted – that is, your reason for missing the item is considered acceptable by the committee – your grade will be accommodated accordingly. A Departmental committee evaluates each request. Decisions will be communicated by email within two weeks of receipt of all completed documents. Note: It is your responsibility to ensure your email account is working and able to receive emails. Claims that a Departmental decision was not received will NOT be considered as a reason for further consideration. Contact the GGE Academic Advisor Darcy Mckenzie (advisor.gge.utm@utoronto.ca), should you NOT receive notification of your decision within 2 weeks of submission.
Equity Statement and Academic Rights
The University of Toronto is committed to equity and respect for diversity. All members of the learning environment in this course should strive to create an atmosphere of mutual respect. As a course instructor, I will neither condone nor tolerate behaviour that undermines the dignity or self-esteem of any individual in this course and wish to be alerted to any attempt to create an intimidating or hostile environment. It is our collective responsibility to create a space that is inclusive and welcomes discussion. Discrimination, harassment and hate speech will not be tolerated. If you have any questions, comments, or concerns you may contact the UTM Equity and Diversity officer at edo.utm@utoronto.ca or the University of Toronto Mississauga Students’ Union Vice President Equity at vpequity@utmsu.ca. The Department of Geography, Geomatics, and Environment at the University of Toronto Mississauga strives to uphold a commitment to equity, diversity, and inclusiveness which requires that we:
  • address the complexity of our disciplines’ histories, and
  • hold ourselves and others to account in order to challenge how we, as individuals and as part of larger institutions, continue to perpetuate inequity and injustice as we seek to create a more equitable and inclusive future.
Geographical and environmental disciplines – both in science and social science – have complicated histories. As academic pursuits and as practical tools for research and teaching, our disciplines have played core roles in settler colonialism and the institutionalization of racism and white supremacy – in the displacement and dispossession of Indigenous peoples, racist immigration policies, and environmental injustices perpetrated against Indigenous and Black populations, among many other forms of oppression. As a department, as a collective, and as a group of colleagues, we recognize our shortcomings—but we also acknowledge our fundamental commitment to diversity and inclusion. We seek to cultivate a departmental culture that welcomes and supports our students, staff, and faculty with diverse education and experiential backgrounds into our community, especially those who belong to groups that are currently underrepresented in academia. We are committed to providing a fair, equitable, and mutually supportive learning and working environment for all students, staff, and faculty.
Academic Rights
You, as a student at UTM, have the right to:
  • Receive a syllabus by the first day of class.
  • Rely upon a syllabus once a course is started. An instructor may only change marks’ assignments by following the University Assessment and Grading Practices Policy provision 1.3.
  • Refuse to use plagiarism detection tool (you must be offered an alternative form of submission).
  • Have access to your instructor for consultation during a course or follow up with the department chair if the instructor is unavailable.
  • Ask the person who marked your term work for a re-evaluation if you feel it was not fairly graded. You have up to one month from the date of return of the item to inquire about the mark. If you are not satisfied with a re-evaluation, you may appeal to the instructor in charge of the course if the instructor did not mark the work. If your work is remarked, you must accept the resulting mark. You may only appeal a mark beyond the instructor if the term work was worth at least 20% of the course mark.
  • Receive at least one significant mark (15% for H courses, 25% for Y courses) before the last day you can drop a course for H courses, and the last day of classes in the first week of January for Y courses taught in the Fall/Winter terms.
  • Submit handwritten essays so long as they are neatly written.
  • Have no assignment worth 100% of your final grade.
  • Not have a term test worth 25% or more in the last two weeks of class.
  • Retain intellectual property rights to your research.
  • Receive all your assignments once graded.
  • View your final exams. To see a final exam, you must submit an online Exam Reproduction Request within 6 months of the exam. There is a small non-refundable fee.
  • Privacy of your final grades.
  • Arrange for representation from Downtown Legal Services (DLS), a representative from the UTM Students’ Union (UTMSU), and/or other forms of support if you are charged with an academic offence.
Academic Integrity/Honesty or Academic Offenses
It is your responsibility as a student at the University of Toronto to familiarize yourself with, and adhere to, both the Code of Student Conduct and the Code of Behaviour on Academic Matters. This means, first and foremost, that you should read them carefully.
  • The Code of Student Conduct is available from the U of T Mississauga website (Registrar > Academic Calendar > Codes and Policies) or in your print version of the Academic Calendar.
  • The Code of Behaviour on Academic Matters is available from the U of T Mississauga website (Registrar > Academic Calendar > Codes and Policies) or in your print version of the Academic Calendar.
Another helpful document that you should read is How Not to Plagiarize, by M. Proctor. With regard to remote learning and online courses, UTM wishes to remind students that they are expected to adhere to the Code of Behaviour on Academic Matters regardless of the course delivery method. By offering students the opportunity to learn remotely, UTM expects that students will maintain the same academic honesty and integrity that they would in a classroom setting. Potential academic offences in a digital context include, but are not limited to:
  • Accessing unauthorized resources (search engines, chat rooms, Reddit, etc.) for assessments.
  • Using technological aids (e.g. software) beyond what is listed as permitted in an assessment.
  • Posting test, essay, or exam questions to message boards or social media.
  • Creating, accessing, and sharing assessment questions and answers in virtual “course groups.”
  • Working collaboratively, in-person or online, with others on assessments that are expected to be completed individually.
All suspected cases of academic dishonesty will be investigated following procedures outlined in the Code of Behaviour on Academic Matters. If you have questions or concerns about what constitutes appropriate academic behaviour or appropriate research and citation methods, you are expected to seek out additional information on academic integrity from your instructor or from other institutional resources.
University Plagiarism Detection Tool Conditions of Use Statement
“Normally, students will be required to submit their course essays to the University’s plagiarism detection tool for a review of textual similarity and detection of possible plagiarism. In doing so, students will allow their essays to be included as source documents in the tool’s reference database, where they will be used solely for the purpose of detecting plagiarism. The terms that apply to the University’s use of this tool are described on the Centre for Teaching Support & Innovation web site (https://uoft.me/pdt-faq).”
How to Query or Challenge a Mark
Please note that, according to UTM policy, you have one month from the date an item is returned to you, during which time you may query the mark or submit the item for remarking. Contact the Course Instructor in person or by email (@utoronto.ca) for all queries about course marks, or if you wish to challenge a mark. Absolutely no item will be remarked after the one-month period has passed. Material submitted for remarking must be accompanied by a brief written explanation detailing your reasons for dissatisfaction with the original mark (such as an addition error, or something you think the marker may have missed). The item may be returned first to the TA who originally marked it. If you are still dissatisfied, it may be passed on to the Course Instructor for reconsideration. If a remarking is granted by an instructor, the student must accept the resulting mark as the new mark, whether it goes up or down or remains the same.
Students with diverse learning styles and needs are welcome in our courses. In particular, if you have a disability/health consideration that may require accommodations, please approach UTM’s Accessibility Services as soon as possible. Accessibility staff (located in room 2037B, Davis Building) are available by appointment to assess specific needs, provide referrals, and arrange appropriate accommodations. Please call 905-569-4699 or email access.utm@utoronto.ca. The sooner you let UTM’s Accessibility Services know your needs, the quicker they can assist you in achieving your learning goals.
Policy on Religious Observances
As noted in the Policy on Scheduling of Classes and Examinations and Other Accommodations for Religious Observances, the following provisions are included:
  • “It is the policy of the University of Toronto to arrange reasonable accommodation of the needs of students who observe religious holy days other than those already accommodated by ordinary scheduling and statutory holidays.
  • Students have a responsibility to alert members of the teaching staff in a timely fashion to upcoming religious observances and anticipated absences. Instructors will make every reasonable effort to avoid scheduling tests, examinations or other compulsory activities at these times. If compulsory activities are unavoidable, every reasonable opportunity should be given to these students to make up work that they miss, particularly in courses involving laboratory work. When the scheduling of tests or examinations cannot be avoided, students should be informed of the procedure to be followed to arrange to write at an alternate time.
  • It is most important that no student be seriously disadvantaged because of her or his religious observances. However, in the scheduling of academic and other activities, it is also important to ensure that the accommodation of one group does not seriously disadvantage other groups within the University community.”
  • With respect to minimum advance notice, the Policy provides that “Students have a responsibility to alert members of the teaching staff in a timely fashion to upcoming religious observances and anticipated absences.” Since students would normally be aware of upcoming religious observances as well as examination schedules in advance, a minimum of three weeks advance notice will be considered sufficient.
  • More information and some dates of potential relevance for the U of T community are available at viceprovoststudents.utoronto.ca/publicationsandpolicies/guidelines/religiousobservances.htm.
  • As with any academic accommodation request, students must submit an on-line Special Consideration Request @ https://utmapp.utm.utoronto.ca/SpecialRequest
RGASC Statement
The Robert Gillespie Academic Skills Centre (RGASC) is located in Room 3251 on the third floor of the Maanjiwe nendamowinan Building. The RGASC offers individual consultations, workshops (many CCR-accredited), and a wide range of programs to help students identify and develop the academic skills they need for success in their studies. Visit the RGASC website to explore their online resources, book an in-person or online appointment, or learn about other programming such as Writing Retreats, the Program for Accessing Research Training (PART), Mathematics and Numeracy Support, and dedicated resources for English Language Learners.
UTM Library’s Statement
The University of Toronto Libraries connect students with the world-class collections needed to successfully conduct research and complete assignments. At the UTM Library, located within the Hazel McCallion Academic Learning Centre, students will find dedicated support for their courses:

Week 1 (January 5): Introduction
Week 2 (January 12): Environmentalism in Historical Perspective
Week 3 (January 19): Economic Growth and the Environment
Week 4 (January 26): Industrialization and the Environment
Week 5 (February 2): Forests through Time DEADLINE ASSIGNMENT #1
Week 6 (February 9): Urban Pollution Through Time
Week 7 (February 16): Reading Week
Week 8 (February 23): Industrial Ecology and Eco-Industrial Development
Week 9 (March 2): Institutions and Economic Behaviour
Week 10 (March 9): Guest Lecture: Private Property Rights and Environmental Protection
Week 11 (March 16): Geography and Production Activities I
Week 12 (March 23): Geography and Production Activities II
Week 13 (March 30): Population / Consumption Growth and the Environment I
Week 14 (April 6): Population / Consumption Growth and the Environment II DEADLINE ASSIGNMENTS #2 & 3


Nothing for now


Bailey, Ronald. 2014. “Liberty and the Environment.” The New Atlantis (Spring). 

Bailey, Ronald. 2008. “Decrying the ‘Pursuit of Unnecessary Things’ – Are We Overconsuming Our Way to Doomsday?” Reason Online,  February 12.

Basil Utley, Jon. 2010. “Job-Killing Environmentalists.” Reason Magazine, November 10.

Ben-Ami, Daniel. 2006. “Who’s afraid of economic growth?” Spiked, May 4.

Black, Tim. 2010. “Six-and-a-half billion reasons to be cheerful.” Spiked, June 1st.

Collins, Sean. 2010. “Why more really is more.” Spiked, June 1st.

Goklany, Indur M. 2007. “On Earth Day, Remember The Humans.”  The American, April 22.

Lyons, Rob. 2010. “Down with the doom-mongers!” Spiked, June 1st.

Matson, Pamela. 2009. “The Sustainability Transition.” Issues in Science and Technology 25 (4), Summer.

Russell Mead, Walter. 2010. “Save the Planet: Shop Walmart.” The American Interest Online, September 14.

Taylor, Matthew. 2008. “Why life is good.” New Statesman, 3 January.


Bugliarello, George. 2005. “Urban Sustainability: Dilemmas, Challenges and Paradigms.” Technology in Society 28 (1-2): 19-26.

Bai, Xuemei. 2003. “Cities and Sustainability.” Journal of Industrial Ecology 7 (1): 143-144.

Capello, R. and P. Nijkamp. 2002. “In Search of Sustainable Human Settlements. Prefatory Remarks.” Ecological Economics 40 (2): 151-155.

Camagni, Roberto, Roberta Capello and Peter Nijkamp. 1998. “Towards Sustainable City Policy: An Economy-Environment Technology Nexus.” Ecological Economics 24 (1): 103-118.

CloughertyTom (ed.). 2007. “Positive Environmentalism: A Convenient Truth.” Globalisation Institute.

Grunkemeyer, William, & Myra Moss. 1999. Key Concepts in Sustainable Development. Regional Research Institute, WVU.

Hanson, Susan and Robert W. Lake. 2000. “Needed: Geographic Research on Urban Sustainability.” Economic Geography 76: 1-3.


Copenhagen Consensus Center

Special issue of Technology in Society (volume 28, issue 4, November 2006) on Urban Sustainability

Urban Environmental Management, The Global Development Research Center

Western Fuels Association Inc. 1992. The Greening of Planet EarthPart 1 | Part 2


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 Historical Perspective

Cutcliffe, Stephen H. 2007. Review of The Origins of Modern Environmental Thought. By J. E. de Steiguer. Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 2006. Environmental History 12 (3).

Osborn, Fairfield. 1948. Our Plundered Planet. Boston: Little, Brown and Company (vi-ix, 3-5, 10-11, 32-38).

 Current Perspective

Grunkemeyer, William and Myra Moss. 1999. “Key Concepts in Sustainable Development.” The Web Book of Regional Science, Regional Research Institute, West Virginia University (Read from “Introduction” to “Traditional and Sustainable Development: Compared and Contrasted” inclusively).

Oy Vey!” Peter Gordon’s blog, January 2, 2008 (read the short text by J. Diamond and Craig Newmark’s list).


-On the History of Environmental Thought and Sustainable Development

Caldwell, Lynton Keith. “Is Humanity Destined to Self-Destruct?

Tainter, Joseph A. 2006. “Archaeology of Overshoot and Collapse.” Annual Review of Anthropology 35:59-74.

Von Storch, Hans; Stehr, Nico. 2006. “Anthropogenic Climate Change: A Reason for Concern Since the 18th Century and Earlier.” Geografiska Annaler: Series A, Physical Geography 88 (2): 107-113.

2.0 A Brief History of Sustainable Development.” Human Resources and Social Development Canada.

History of Dialogue Related to U.S. Government Commitment to Sustainable Forest / Resource Management.” (Word document – Updated October 2002 by Ruth McWilliams of the USDA-Forest Service).

A Brief History of Sustainable Development.” Sustainable Development Commission (UK).

-1948 and Environmental Thought

On Wikipedia
Henry Fairfield Osborn, Jr.
William Vogt

McCormick, Maureen A. 2005. “Of Birds, Guano, and Man: William Vogt’s ‘Road to Survival.’” PhD Dissertation, University of Oklahoma.

-Optimistic Perspective

O’Neill, Brendan. 2007. “Help! I’m a Marxist Who Defends Capitalism.” The Spectator, November 28.

Tierney, John. 1990. “Betting on the Planet.” New York Times.

Hayward, Steven F. 2006. “Fate of the World Redux. Assessing the Millenium Ecosystem Assessment.” Environmental Policy Outlook. American Enterprise Institute, March 20.


American Environmental History Bibliography

Bibliography of Environmental History

Environmental History Timeline

Environmental History on the Web

Environmental History Bibliographies

ESEH Environmental History Bibliography

Arizona State professor Stephen Pyne’s Websites “Environmental Historiography – Canon and Counter-Canon” and “Introducing Environmental History.”

Georgetown University historian John McNeill on “Issues and Literature” in Environmental History.


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Levinson, Arik, Clemen Rasmussen, Karsten Stæhr & Kasper Wrang. 2006. “Framework Paper.” Green Roads to Growth Project. Danish Environmental Assessment Institute.


Organization of Economic Co-Operation and Development on Sustainable Development

Goklany, I. M. 2004. “Economic Growth, Technological Change, and Human Well-Being.” In Anderson, T. (ed.) You Have to Admit It’s Getting Better. Hoover Institution Press, p. 53-81.

Levinson, Arik. Forthcoming. “Environmental Kuznets Curve.” New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics, 2nd edition.

Levinson, Arik. 2002. “The Ups and Downs of the Environmental Kuznets Curve,” in John List and Aart de Zeeuw, eds., Recent Advances in Environmental Economics. Edward Elgar Publishing.

Kolata, Gina. 2006. “The New Age: So Big and Healthy Grandpa Wouldn’t Even Know You.” New York Times, July 30.

Scorse, Jason (2008).” What Environmentalists need to Know about Economics.” Monterey Institute of International Studies.

Stern, D. I. 2004 “The Rise and Fall of the Environmental Kuznets Curve,” World Development 32 (8): 1419-1439.


The National Round Table on the Environment and the Economy (Canada)

The Danish Environmental Assessment Institute‘s Green Roads to Growth Project.
– Expert Papers to Green Roads to Growth
– Proceedings of Expert and Policy Maker Forums

Global Environment Outlook

Sustainable Prosperity

Is Sustainable Development Feasible? | State of the Planet 2006


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• Overview
The World Business Council on Sustainable Development
– on eco-efficiency
– Eco-efficiency module (read pp. 1-40)

• Dematerialization
Ausubel, Jesse H., and Paul E. Waggoner. 2008. “Dematerialization: Variety, Caution, and Persistence.” PNAS, September 2, vol. 105, no. 35, p. 12774–12779.

Bailey, Ronald. 2014. “Can We Save Nature by Making It Economically Useless?” Reason (November 10).

Cleveland, Cutler J. 2006. “Material intensity of use.” Encyclopedia of Earth, November 22.

• Rebound Effect
Alcott, Blake, 2005. “Jevons Paradox.” Ecological Economics 51 (1): 9-21.

Gottron, Frank. 2001. “RS20981: Energy Efficiency and the Rebound Effect: Does Increasing Efficiency Decrease Demand?” CRS Report for Congress, July 30.


• Canadian Governmental Policy

Industry Canada.
Building a 21st Century Economy: Sustainable Development in Canadian Industry
   – Corporate Social Responsibility
   – Eco-efficiency

Natural Resources Canada
   – Sustainable Development
   – Corporate Social Responsibility

Corporate Social Responsibility: Lessons Learned (2004)
   – Summary Report
   – Case Studies

Corporate Social Responsibility: An Implementation Guide for Canadian Business. Cat. No. Iu23-12/2006E 0-662-42873-0 54416E

Sustainable Development Strategy 2006-2009: Selling the Sustainability Value Proposition.

• Jevons Paradox, a.k.a., Rebound Effect

Stott, Philip. 2008. “The Jevons’ Paradox.” Global Warming Politics, February 12.

Hertwich, Edgar G. 2005. “Consumption and the Rebound Effect: An Industrial Ecology Perspective.” Journal of Industrial Ecology, Vol. 9, 1-2 (Special Issue on Consumption and Industrial Ecology – Winter-Spring) pp. 85-98.

A special issue of the journal Energy Policy, Volume 28, Numbers 6-7, 2000: “On the Rebound: The Interaction of Energy Efficiency, Energy Use and Economic Activity.”


Industry Canada on Sustainable Development
– Research
– Links

Natural Resources Canada
– On Sustainable Development

Environment Canada on Economics and Sustainability


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• Overview
Riebeek, Holli. 2008. “Ancient Forest to Modern City.” Earth Observatory (February 1st).

Noack, Rick. 2014. “Watch: How Europe is Greener now than 100 Years Ago.” Washington Post (December 4). 

Our World in Data on Forests and Deforestation

• Historical Perspective
Avery, Dennis T. 2000. “Earth Day celebrate the gas-powered tractor.” The Des Moines Register, April 2.

Libecap, Gary. 2003. “Review of Michael Williams’ Deforesting the Earth: From Prehistory to Global Crisis“. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2003. EH.NET.

Saito, Osamu. 2009. “Forest history and the Great Divergence: China, Japan, and the West compared.” Journal of Global History 4 (3): 379-404.

Williams, Michael. 2008. “A New Look at Global Forest Histories of Land Clearing.” Annual Review of Environment and Resources, Vol. 33: 345-367.

History Orbit. 2018. “Neolithic Farmers Cut Europe’s Forests In Half.” (January 26).

• Current Trends and Debates
Ausubel, Jesse. 2015. Nature Rebounds. Long Now Foundation Seminar (January 13).

Birkett, Terri. 1995. “The Truax.”

Ehrenberg, Rachel. 2015. “Global Count Reaches 3 trillion Trees.” Nature (News) (September 2). 

Kauppi, Pekka E., Jesse H. Ausubel, Jingyun Fang, Alexander S. Mather, Roger A. Sedjo and Paul E. Waggoner. 2006. “Returning Forests Analyzed with the Forest Identity.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 103 (46): 17574-17579.

Matson, Pamela and Peter Vitousek. 2006. “Agricultural Intensification: Will Land Spared from Farming be Land Spared for Nature?” Conservation Biology 20 (3): 709 – 710.

Mooney, Chris. 2015. “Scientists Discover that the World contains Dramatically more Trees than Previously Thought.” Washington Post (September 2). 

O’Toole, Randall. 2021. “The West is a Fire Plain. Get Over It.” Liberty and Ecology Blog (August 23).

Parviainen, Liisa. 2006. “UH: End of Deforestation in View? Experts Advance New Way to Size Up Global Forest Resources.” University of Helsinki (University Communications), November 14th.

Ridley, Matt. 2011. “Eating Your Greenery—And Having It, Too.” The Wall Street Journal, July 2.

Rosenthal, Elizabeth. 2009. “New Jungles Prompt a Debate on Rain Forests.” The New York Times, Januray 29.

Ridley, Matt. 2013. “The Greening of the Planet.” RationalOptimist.com (January 5). 

Harrabin, Roger. 2016. “Rise in CO2 has ‘greened Planet Earth.” BBC News (April 25). 

Kauppi Pekka E, Vilma Sandstro and Antti Lipponen. 2018. “Forest Resources of Nations in Relation to Human Well-being.” PLoS ONE 13(5): e0196248.

Song, Xiao-Peng, Matthew C. Hansen, Stephen V. Stehman, Peter V. Potapov, Alexandra Tyukavina, Eric F. Vermote & John R. Townshend. 2018. “Global Land Change from 1982 to 2016.” Nature 560: 639-643. (Summary in Bailey, Ronald. 2018. “Global Tree Cover Has Expanded More Than 7 Percent Since 1982. Satellite data finds that gains temperate and boreal forests offset reductions in tropical forests.” Reason (September 4)).

NASA Earth Observatory. 2019. “China and India Lead the Way in Greening.” 

McKay, Susan. 2019. ‘This is load-of-crap forestry, miles upon miles of it. Everything is dead in there.’ Irish Times (March 16).

Shellenberger, Michael. 2019. “Why Everything They Say About California Fires – Including That Climate Matters Most – Is Wrong.” Forbes (November 4). 

Book, Joakim. 2020. “Brazilians Should Keep Slashing Their Rainforest.” AIER (March 27).

Ridley, Matt. 2019. “Rejoice, the Earth Is Becoming Greener. The greening of the earth means more food for animals and greater crop yields for humans.” Human Progress (July 8).

Book, Joakim. 2020. “Reforestation in Iceland and Other Wealthy Countries.” Human Progress (July 10).


• Overview
MacCleery, Douglas W. 1992. “American Forests – A History of Resilience and Recovery.” United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service.

dos Santos, J. , Fushita, A. , de Souza, I. , Amorim, L. and Andrade, V. (2015) Agriculture and Forest Transition: Understanding of Land Use Change in a Cultural LandscapeOpen Journal of Applied Sciences 5: 797-807.

Pendrill, Florence, Martin Persson, Javier Godar and Thomas Kastner. 2019. “Deforestation displaced: trade in forest-risk commodities and the prospects for a global forest transition.” Environmental Research Letters, vol. 14, no. 5: 055003.

Chen, Chi et al. 2019. “China and India lead in greening of the world through land-use management.” Nature Sustainability vol. 2: 122–129.

Rudel, Thomas K. et al. 2020. “Whither the forest transition? Climate change, policy responses, and redistributed forests in the twenty-first century.” Ambio. 49 (1): 74–84.

• Historical record

Chamberlin, Joseph Edgar. “Will the Land become a Desert?” The Century (November 1885 – April 1886) 31 (NS 9): 532-536.

Goldammer, Johann G. 1998. History of Fire in Land-Use Systems of the Baltic Region: Implications on the Use of Prescribed Fire in Forestry, Nature Conservation and Landscape Management. (Paper presented at the First Baltic Conference on Forest Fires, Radom-Katowice, Poland, 5-9 May 1998).

Greeley, W. B. 1925. “The Relation of Geography to Timber Supply.” Economic Geography 1 (1): 1-14.

Kirch, Patrick V. 2005. “Archeology and Global Change: The Holocene Record.” Annual Review of Environment and Resources 30: 409-440.

Oswald, Felix Leopold. 1879. “The Preservation of Forests.” North American Review 128: 35-46.

Perz, Stephen G. (2007) “Grand Theory and Context-Specificity in the Study of Forest Dynamics: Forest Transition Theory and Other Directions.” The Professional Geographer 59 (1), p. 105-114.
  > Walker, Robert. (2008) “Forest Transition: Without Complexity, Without Scale.” The Professional Geographer 60 (1), p. 136-140.
  > Perz, Stephen G. (2008) “Forest Transitions, Environmental Social Theory, and Land Science Research: Reply to Walker.” The Professional Geographer 60 (1), p. 141-145.

Saito, Osamu. 2009. “Forest history and the Great Divergence: China, Japan, and the West compared.” Journal of Global History 4 (3): 379-404.

Williams, Michael. 2003. Deforesting the Earth. From Prehistory to Global Crisis. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Williams, Michael. (2000). “‘Dark Ages and Dark Areas’: Global Deforestation in the Deep Past.” Journal of Historical Geography 26 (1): 28-46.

Kusmer, Anna. 2018. “New England Is Crisscrossed With Thousands of Miles of Stone Walls. That’s enough to circle the globe-four times.” Atlas Obscura (May 4).

McKibben, Bill. 1995. “An Explosion of Green.” The Atlantic (April). 

• Recent trends

–, 2007. “Are Forests Making a Comeback? New Findings Suggest Optimism on Global Outlook.” Resources (Winter): 8-10.

Wernick, Iddo K., Paul E. Waggoner, and Jesse H. Ausubel. 1997. “Searching for Leverage to Conserve Forests: The Industrial Ecology of Wood Products in the U.S.” Journal of Industrial Ecology 1(3):125-145.

Ausubel, Jesse H., Iddo K. Wernick2, Paul E. Waggoner. 2013. “Peak Farmland and the Prospect for Land Sparing.” Population and Development Review 38 (s1): 221-242.

Ausubel, Jesse H. 2000. “The Great Reversal: Nature’s Chance to Restore Land and Sea.” Technology in Society 22 (3): 289-301.

Blamford, Andrew, Rhys Green and Jörn Scharlemann. 2005. “Sparing Land for Nature: Exploring the Potential Impact of Changes in Agricultural Yield on the Area Needed for Crop Production.” Global Change Biology 11 (10): 1594 – 1605.

Franklin, Jerry and K. Norman Johnson. 2004. “Forests Face New Threat: Global Market Changes.” Issues in Science and Technology.

Grainger, Alan. 2008. “Difficulties in tracking the long-term global trend in tropical forest area.” PNAS Online, January 9.

Hosonuma, Noriko et al. 2012. “An Assessment of Deforestation and Forest Degradation Drivers in Developing Countries.” Environmental Research Letters 7 (4). 

Larson, Anna M and Fernanda Soto. 2008. “Decentralization of Natural Resource Governance Regimes.” Annual Review of Environment and Resources 33: 213-239.

Mather, A. S., and C. L. Needle. “The Relationships of Population and Forest Trends.” The Geographical Journal, Vol. 166, No. 1, March 2000, pp. 2-1 3.

Minnemeyer, Susan, Matthew Hansen, Peter Potapov, & Kyle Pittman. 2007. “Painting the Global Picture of Tree Cover Change: Tree Cover Loss in the Humid Tropics.” World Resources Institute, May.

Murray, Iain. 2008. “Treehuggers Against Trees.” Townhall.com, May 1.

Phillips, Tom. 2009. “Poor Brazilians rejoice as loggers return to pillage the rainforest.” The Observer, February 15.

Rudel, Thomas K., Oliver T. Coomes, Emilio Moran, Frederic Achard, Arild Angelsen, Jianchu Xu and Eric Lambin. 2005. “Forest Transitions: Towards a Global Understanding of Land Use Change.” Global Environmental Change 15 (1): 23-31.

Stolle, Fred. 2008. “Groundbreaking Study Finds the “Hotspots” Most Responsible For Deforestation.” World Resources Institute, July 16.

Sedjo, Roger A. “Changing Demands on the World’s Forests: Meeting Environmental and Institutional Challenges.” S. J. Hall Lectureship In Industrial Forestry, University of California, Berkeley Center for Forestry College of Natural Resources, September 28, 2001.

Forest Transition.” Wikipedia, June 4, 2007.

No convincing evidence for decline in tropical forests.” Eureka Alert!, January 7, 2008.

Idso, Craig. 2012. The State of Earth’s Terrestrial Biosphere: How is it Responding to Rising Atmospheric CO2 and Warmer Temperatures? Center for the Study of Carbon Dioxide and Global Change (December 5).

Meyfroidt, Patrick. and Eric F. Lambin. 2011. “Global Forest Transition: Prospects for an End to Deforestation.” Annual Review of Environment and Resources 36: 343-371. 

Gill, Peter. 2019. “In Nepal, Out-Migration Is Helping Fuel a Forest Resurgence.” Yale Environment 360 (August 20).

UN FAO and UNEP. 2020. The State of the World’s Forests.

UN FAO. 2020. Global Forest Resource Assessment.


Global Forest Watch (GFW)

Rockefeller University’s Program on the Human Environment (On Forests)

Tribute to Professor Sandy Mather, Department of Geography and Environment, University of Aberdeen

Geographer’s Michael Williams’s Website

Eco-Economy Indicators: DATA – FOREST COVER – World Forest Cover – Industrial and Fuel Wood Use

Harvard Forest. Dioramas

Force of Nature: Mapping Forest Regeneration Hotspots

World Resources Institute and Rights & Resources Institute. 2014. Securing Rights, Combating Climate Change. How Strengthening Community Forest Rights Mitigates Climate Change.


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Larsen, Bjorn et al. 2008. “Copenhagen Consensus 2008 Challenge Paper: Air Pollution.” Copenhagen Consensus Center.

Lowitz, Melissa (Lead Author); Cutler J. Cleveland (Contributing Author); Brian Black (Topic Editor). 2007. “Donora, Pennsylvania.” In: Encyclopedia of Earth. Eds. Cutler J. Cleveland (Washington, D. C.: Environmental Information Coalition, National Council for Science and the Environment). [First published in the Encyclopedia of Earth September 21, 2006; Last revised June 14, 2007].

Shah, Jitendru. 2008. “Perspective Paper.” Copenhagen Consensus Center.


• Historical Perspective

Douglas, I., R. Hodgson and N. Lawson. 2002. “Industry, Environment and Health Through 200 Years in Manchester,” Ecological Economics 41 (2): 235-255.

The Horse and the Urban Environment” on the Environmental Literacy Council’s Webpage.

Tarr, J. 2002. “Industrial Waste Disposal in the United States as a Historical Problem,” Ambix 49(1): 4-20.

Tarr, Joel. A. “The City and the Natural Environment.” Global Development Research Center (non dated).

Urbinato, D. 1994. “London’s Historic ‘Pea-Soupers’,” EPA Journal.

• Recent Trends

Button, K. 2002. “City Management and Urban Environmental Indicators.” Ecological Economics 40 (2): 217-233.

Fredericksen, L., L. Jones and T. Wates. 2002. Environmental Indicators, 5th edition. Fraser Institute. Chapter on Air quality / Index of Environmental Indicators

Schwartz, J. and S.F. Hayward. 2004. “Emissions Down, Smog Up. Say What?” Environmental Policy Outlook. American Enterprise Institute for Policy Research. January-February.

Bruce, Nigel, Rogelio Perez-Padilla & Rachel Albalak. 2000. “Indoor Air Pollution in Developing Countries: A Major Environmental and Public Health Challenge.” Bulletin of the World Health Organization, World Health Organization, 78 (9): 1078-1092.

Goklany, Indur. 1998. “The Environmental Transition to Air Quality.” Regulation 21:4 (Fall): 36-46.

Green, Kenneth and Joel Schwartz. 2004. “Do 1,700 Torontonians Really Die each Year from Air Pollution?” Fraser Forum, August, pp. 26-28.

E. Duflo, M. Greenstone, and R. Hanna. “Indoor Air Pollution, Health and Economic Well-Being.” Surv. Perspect. Integr. Environ. Soc., 1, 1–9, 2008.


Cleveland, C. et al. Article topic: Air Pollution and air qualityEncyclopedia of the Earth.

Indicators,” The National Round Table on the Environment and the Economy (Canada)

Heinz Center. 2002. The State of The Nation’s Ecosystems: Measuring the Lands, Waters, and Living Resources of the United StatesChapter 10: Indicators of the Conditions and Use of Urban and Suburban Areas.

WHO Health and Environment Linkages Initiative.


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Society for Industrial Ecology. A History of Industrial Ecology

Chertow, M. R. 2000. “Industrial Symbiosis: Literature and Taxonomy.” Annual Review of Energy and Environment 25: 313-337.

Playfair, L. 1892. “Waste Products Made Useful,” North American Review CLV (432): 560-568.

Desrochers, Pierre. 2004. “Industrial Symbiosis: The Case for Market Coordination.” Journal of Cleaner Production 12 (8-10): 1099-1110.


Boons, Frank. 2008. “History’s Lessons: A Critical Assessment of the Desrochers’ Papers.” Journal of Industrial Ecology 12 (2): 148-158.

Chertow, Marian, Weslynne Ashton and Randha Kuppalli. 2004. The Industrial Symbiosis Research Symposium at Yale Advancing the Study of Industry and Environment. Yale School of Forestry and Environmental Studies.

Ehrenfeld, J. 2004. “Industrial Ecology: A New Field or Only a Metaphor?” Journal of Cleaner Production 12 (8-10): 825-831.

Gibbs, David. 2008. “Industrial Symbiosis and Eco-Industrial Development: An Introduction.” Geography Compass 2/4 (2008): 1138-1154.

Koenigh, Andreas. 2005. “Quo Vadis EIP? How Eco-Industrial Parks are Evolving.” Journal of Industrial Ecology 9 (3): 12-14.

Roman, Alejandra. 2007. “Kalundborg, Denmark.” The Encyclopedia of Earth, June 14.


Freely available sub-section on “industrial symbiosis” in the Journal of Industrial Ecology 11 (1), Winter 2007.


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Danish Environmental Assessment Institute. 2005. Environmentally Harmful Subsidies. Linkages between subsidies, the environment and the economy. (Chapters 1-3)

Fossedal, Greg, and John Shanahan. 1998. “Virginia’s Free-Market Environmentalist.” Hoover Institution, Policy Review, no. 87, January 1st.

Meiners, Roger E. and Bruce Yandle. 1998. The Common Law: How it Protects the Environment. PERC Policy Series PS-13.

Swift, Byron. 2000. How Environmental Laws Can Discourage Pollution Prevention. Case Studies of Barriers to Innovation. Progressive Policy Institute.

Yandle, Bruce. 2004. “Environmental Turning Points, Institutions, and the Race to the Top.” Independent Review 9 (2): 211-226.


Brubaker, Elizabeth. 1995. Property Rights in the Defence of Nature. Toronto: Earthscan.

Mazurek, J. 2003. Back to the Future. How to Put Environmental Modernization Back on Track. Progressive Policy Institute, April.

van Beers, Cerrs and André de Moor. 2003. “Grand Deals for Global Subsidy Reforms.” Indicators 2 (2): 103-115.

OECD. 2006. Subsidy Reform and Sustainable Development: Economic, Environmental and Social Aspects. Paris: OECD.


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Brubaker, Elizabeth. 1995. Property Rights in the Defence of Nature. Earthscan Publications Limited, Ch 1, 2, 4 and 6.


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Desrochers, Pierre and Hiroko Shimizu. 2008. “Yes We Have No Bananas: A Critique of the Food Mile Perspective.” Mercatus Policy Series, Policy Primer No. 8, October.

Garnett, Tara. 2008. “Cooking Up a Storm: Summary.” Food Climate Research Network, September (Full study available here).

Halweil, Brian. 2002. “Home Grown: The Case for Local Food in a Global Market.” Washington: Worldwatch Institute (pdf version).

Kwok, Roberta. 2008. “Is local food really miles better?” Salon, June 24.

McWilliams, James E. 2009. “‘Just Food: Where Locavores Get It Wrong and How We Can Truly Eat Responsibly’.” The Wall Street Journal, August 22.

Sexton, Steven. 2009. “Does Local Production Improve Environmental and Health Outcomes?” ARE Update, 13(2): 5-8.

Stacey, Caroline. 2008. “Food miles.” Food Matters, BBC News.

Hellmann’s Eat Real Eat Local.


• Detailed studies and longer pieces

Phillips, Lynne. “Food and Globalization.” Annual Review of Anthropology 35: 37-57.

Saunders, Caroline, & Peter Hayes. 2007. “Air Freight Transport of Fresh Fruit and Vegetables.” Research Report No. 299, Lincoln University.

Saunders, Caroline, Andrew Barber and Greg Taylor. 2006. Food Miles – Comparative Energy/Emissions Performance of New Zealand’s Agriculture Industry, Lincoln University, Agribusiness and Economics Research Unit (AERU), Research Report 285. Chapters 1-6, 8.

The Validity of Food Miles as an Indicator of Sustainable Development.” Study by AEA Technology Environment commissioned by Defra.

Specter, Michael. 2008. “Big Foot – In Measuring Carbon Emissions, it’s Easy to Confuse Morality and Science.” New Yorker, February 25.

• Shorter pieces

Bailey, Ronald. 2008 “The Food Miles Mistake – Saving the Planet by Eating New Zealand Apples,” Reason, November 4.

Desrochers, P., & Hiroko Shimizu. 2008. “Buy Global – The ‘Food Mile’ Perspective Severely Distorts the Environmental Impacts of Agricultural Production.” National Post, November 7.

Foster, Peter. 2008. “Just Plain Bananas.” National Post, November 7.

Food Movement ‘Harms Environment’.” BBC News, July 15, 2005.

Voting with your Trolley.” The Economist, December 7, 2006.

Averill, Victoria. 2007. “African Trade Fears Carbon Footprint Backlash.” BBC News, February 21.

Engelhaupt, Erika. 2008. “Do Food Miles Matter?” ES&T Online News, April 16.

Gray, Richard. 2007. “Greener by Miles.” Telegraph, June 3.

Sanderson, Allen R. 2007. “De Minimis.” The Library of Economics and Liberty, September 3.

• Video

Hellmann’s Eat Real Eat Local


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Thanksgiving (and daily) Food Miles.” 365 Days Of Trash, November 17, 2008.


• Cities and Sustainability

Bailey, Ronald. 2006. “The Lingering Stench of Malthus – Debunking Jeremy Rifkin’s Beef With Cities.” ReasonOnline, December 22.

Cherry, Steven. 2013. “Want to Save the Environment? Build More Cities. A new book argues for the environmental advantages of urban density.” IEEE Spectrum (May 7).

Glaeser, Edward L. 2009. “Green Cities, Brown Suburbs.” City Journal, vol. 19, no 1.

Huber, Peter W. and Mark P. Mills. 2000. “How Cities Green the Planet.” City Journal (Winter).

Hyla, Adam. 2009. “Our destiny is density.” Real Change News, vol. 16, no. 43, September 30.

Kahn, Matthew E. 2006. “Chapter 1: Introduction.” Green Cities – Urban Growth and the Environment, Brookings Institution Press, 160pp.

Kunzig, Robert. 2011. “The City Solution – Why cities are the best cure for our planet’s growing pains.” National Geographic Magazine (December).

Rifkin, Jeremy. 2006. “The Risks of Too Much City.” The Washington Post, December 17.

Simon, David. 2008. “Urban Environments: Issues on the Peri-Urban Fringe.” Annual Review of Environment and Resources 33: 167-185.

• The Pollution Haven Hypothesis

Levinson, Arik. 2008. “Pollution Haven Hypothesis.” New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics, 2nd edition.


• History of Food Transportation

Can Manufacturers Institute

• Food Miles Controversy

Boudreaux, Don. 2007. “More on the Absurdity of ‘Localization.’” Café Hayek, November 24.

Ellis, Hattie. “Food Miles.” BBC Food.

Mangu-Ward, Katherine. 2007. “Walk on Green.” Reason Online, November 19.

Sustainable Trade – Food Miles.” Manaaki Whenua Landcare Research.

Reducing Food Miles.” National Sustainable Agriculture Information Service.

BBC – Food – Food matters – Food miles.


NOVA | Absolute Zero | The Conquest of Cold | PBS


Nothing for now


Wackernagel, Mathis, Niels B. Schulz, Diana Deumling, Alejandro Callejas Linares, Martin Jenkins, Valerie Kapos, Chad Monfreda, Jonathan Loh, Norman Myers, Richard Norgaard, & Jørgen Randers. 2002. “Tracking the Ecological Overshoot of the Human Economy.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS), June 27.

Eschenbach, Willis. 2010. “Ecological Footprints – a good idea gone bad.” Watts Up With That?, August 26.

Jørgensen, A. et al. 2002. “Assessing the Ecological Footprint: A Look at the WWF’s Living Planet 2002 Report.” Environmental Assessment Institute.

Goklany, Indur and Anthony Trewavas. 2003. “How Technology Can Reduce our Impact on the Earth,” Nature 423: 115.

Ecological Footprint: Overview.” Global Footprint Network, 2006.


Emmett, Ross B. 2006. Malthus Reconsidered: Population, Natural Resources and Markets. PERC Policy Series #38.

Gordon, Peter, and Harry W. Richardson. 1998. “Farmland Preservation and Ecological Footprints: A Critique.” Planning & Markets, Volume 1, Number 1.

Hails, Chris (Editor in chief), “Living Planet Report 2006.” World Wildlife Fund.

Lenzen, Manfred, and Shauna A Murray. “The Ecological Footprint – Issues and Trends.” ISA Research Paper January 2003.

Norton, Seth. W. 2004 “Population and Consumption Growth and Environmental Quality” in Anderson, Terry (ed.) You Have to Admit It’s Getting Better. Hoover Institution Press, pp. 143-172.

York, Richard, Eugene A. Rosa & Thomas Dietz. “The Ecological Footprint Intensity of National Economies.” Journal of Industrial Ecology, Fall 2004, Vol. 8, No. 4, Pages 139-154.


Global Footprint Network

Links to Ecological Footprint Work (Global Footprint Network)


We will watch the Intelligence2 debate on “Major reductions in carbon emissions are not worth the money.”


Executive summary of Yohe, Gary et al. 2008. Copenhagen Consensus 2008 Challenge Paper: Global Warming on the Copenhagen Consensus Center website.

Kratkraemer, Jeffrey A. 2005. “Economics of Natural Resource Scarcity: The State of the Debate.” Resources for the Future, Discussion Paper 05-14.

Goklany, Indur. 2008. “What to Do about Climate Change.” Policy Analysis, Cato Institute, No. 609, February 5.


Goklany, Indur. 2005. “Is a Richer-but-warmer World Better than Poorer-but-cooler Worlds?” 25th Annual North American Conference of the US Association for Energy Economics/International Association of Energy Economics, September 21-23, 2005.

Happer, William. “Climate Change.” Statement Before the U.S. Senate Environment and Public Works Committee, July 10, 2002.


Nothing for now