Pierre Desrochers

GGR 489 – Special Topics in Human Geography: (Re)Localization of Food System

Period: SPRING 2013
Instructor: Pierre DesrochersOffice: Davis Building, room 3273
Lectures: Monday 7-9 PMLecture room: CC 2150
Phone: (905) 828-5206E-mail: pierre.desrochers@utoronto.ca

In-person or video contact hours:

  • Office hours are Monday 5:30-7:00PM in DV 3273.
  • If this time is not convenient, please e-mail me to schedule an alternative time.
  • E-mail is the primary mode of contact outside of office hours. I do not recommend phoning me at my office.

General information and rules about e-mailing me:

  • Please read the course syllabus carefully. Answers about course-specific rules, content and procedures (e.g., how to submit documentation regarding a missed assignment, policies about missed quizzes and tests) are already there.
  • Always use your University of Toronto e-mail address (@utoronto.ca) for all course-related communications. E-mails from other domains (e.g., hotmail, Rogers, gmail, yahoo, etc.) may be filtered as spam and will at any rate be ignored.
  • You can contact me anytime at pierre.desrochers@utoronto.ca. I will do my best to answer you promptly during office hours (Monday-Friday 9AM-5PM).
  • Always include the course code (e.g., GGR489) as part of your subject line, along with your full name and student number in the body of the e-mail.
  • I do not open attachments and will not answer during weekends.
  • E-mail should NOT be viewed as an alternative to meeting with the TA or professor during office hours. Nor should e-mail be used as a mechanism to receive private tutorials (especially prior to tests) or to explain material that was covered in missed lectures. Not receiving replies to e-mails from the TA or professor, or not receiving them in time, will not be an acceptable excuse for pleas for extensions to assignment or exam deadlines.
  • Students are advised to consult http://www.enough.utoronto.ca/ for information on university policy concerning the appropriate use of information and communication technology.

Questions about departmental and program-related policies and procedures:

  • Questions and queries about departmental or program-related rules and procedures should be directed at the Academic Counsellor for Geography/Environment, Darcy McKenzie (darcy.mckenzie@utoronto.ca).

The course will take an in-depth and critical look at current proposals to “re-localize” our food system through the (re)development of urban agriculture and shorter supply chains. It will survey recent policy reports and proposals and take a broader historical perspective on the rationale behind the development of the long distance trade in food products and inputs.

The course format will alternate between formal classes and open discussions. Students are expected to have read the assigned texts in advance.

The course has five (5) main objectives:

  1. To introduce you to the current controversies surrounding proposal to re-localize our food supply chain;
  2. To introduce you to a range of economic and technical factors that have shaped our globalized food supply chain;
  3. To improve your ability to critically analyse and write clearly on a number of issues;
  4. To familiarize yourself with the basic terminology with which professionals in relevant disciplines communicate their work and their research findings;
  5. To apply a wide range of academic skills in writing a critical piece of policy analysis.
1) Written Assignment 110%September 30
2) Term Test20%October 21
3) Written Assignment 220%December 2
4) Written Assignment 315%December 2
5) Final Exam35%TBA

As per the University Grading Practices Policy, please note that “after the methods of evaluation have been made known, the instructor may not change them or their relative weight without the consent of at least a simple majority of the students enrolled in the course. Any changes shall be reported to the division or the department.”

How to Query or Challenge a Mark

Please note that you have two weeks from the date an item is discussed in class to ask for the item to be remarked. Contact the Course Instructor for all queries about course marks, or if you wish to challenge a mark. Absolutely no item will be remarked after the two-week period has passed. Material submitted for remarking must be accompanied by a brief written explanation detailing your reasons for dissatisfaction with the original mark (such as an addition error or something you think the marker may have missed). A request for a remark without a written explanation will not be acted upon.

Please note that you are allowed two questions where you and the instructor can agree to disagree (meaning you believe that you are entitled to a higher mark, but your instructor disagrees) without penalty. Beginning with the third question where you and your instructor disagree, one point will be taken off your final mark by question for which a revised mark was requested by you and denied by the instructor.

Discussions of the test/exam and written assignments can be found below.

All readings for this course are freely available to U of T’s students through the course Website.

Most of the suggested readings are freely accessible from anywhere. Some of them, however, may require you to use a UofT terminal or user code.

A set of questions will be given in advance. Students will be asked to answer a number of these during the test along with one or two open-ended questions. PowerPoint slides presented during the lectures WILL NOT be posted online. Note that everything discussed in class can the subject of the open-ended questions. No documentation is allowed during the tests.

You will be asked 6-8 questions from the following list (more questions will be added each week). Your answers should rely on both the mandatory readings and your class notes. You are strongly encouraged to use bullet point form. The questions will be weighted differently (in other words, some questions require very brief answers, while others will require more detailed treatments). Please write legibly and leave enough space between each answer in your exam booklet (in other words, try to make the life of your TA easier…)



What is the point of these assignments?

  • To acquire more in-depth learning about a topic discussed in this course and its relevance to broader policy discussions
  • To develop your writing skills
  • To learn to think critically
  • To learn the basics of scholarly and policy work

Useful links to help you write your assignments
The University of Toronto Library staff has compiled several links on researching and writing term papers and other types of work. Please look them up, along with the various university resources available to you:

Citation styles
Please look up the University of Toronto Library webpage devoted to citing sources and creating your bibliography.

For written assignments 1 and 2 your are free to follow any of the Standard Documentation Formats, but I insist you use endnotes in assignment #2 (try to mimick the Ottawa documents as closely as possible).

For assignment 3 you will use embedded hyperlinks instead of traditional citations. Here is how to create or edit a hyperlink. Please note that a hyperlink is only a link to the original document. You are not expected to provide a page or any further information.

Students unfamiliar with Turnitin are directed to the Turnitin guide from the University of Toronto’s Centre for Teaching Support and Innovation.

Normally, students will be required to submit written assignments to Turnitin.com for a review of textual similarity and detection of possible plagiarism. In doing so, students will allow their assignments to be included as source documents in the Turnitin.com reference database, where they will be used solely for the purpose of detecting plagiarism. The terms that apply to the University’s use of the Turnitin.com service are described on the Turnitin.com web site (www.Turnitin.com). If you have an objection to the use of Turnitin for the submission of your work, please make an appointment to speak personally with the Course Instructor to discuss alternative arrangements.

Please note that submitting your paper through Turnitin.com or making alternative arrangements with your professor before the relevant deadlines is not optional. Failure to do so will result in a grade of 0 for your assignment. The late penalties describe in this syllabus will apply.

Turnitin.com course ID: XXXXX.
The Turnitin key (password) will be given in class and through Quercus.


Written assignment #1 (10% of your final mark)
Please choose your topic for this assignment carefully as it will apply to all your written assignments this semester. [Hint: I strongly encourage you to look at the relevant required readings for each potential subject so that you select the one that is of greatest interest to you.]

Write a 2-3 page reflection on ONE of the following questions. The choice is yours. Please use the relevant required readings of the lectures listed in parenthesis as a basis for your reflection. Cite these relevant readings in your paper. You may cite additional sources if you want to, but this is not required for this assignment.


  • Can the lack of economic development in most parts of the tropical world today be attributed to some unique environmental characteristics (e.g., soils, diseases) of tropical regions? (Lectures 1 and 12)
  • Was agriculture humanity’s worst mistake and would we and the planet have been better off if our ancestors had remained hunter-gatherers? (Lectures 4-5)
  • Can the fact that some tropical forested regions such as the Amazon basin are not as pristine as was once thought justify their large-scale economic development? (Lectures 7-8)
  • What is environmental colonialism and can we use this concept to justify greater human activities / encroachments in wildlife preserves in Africa and other parts of the world where employment opportunities are limited? (Lectures 7-8)

In short, what your professor wants to know is 1) what is the topic about (i.e., define the concept and summarize the relevant controversy if applicable)? 2) What do you think of the debate/controversy on this topic based on your preliminary readings?


  • Text should be written in full sentences and paragraphs organized in a clear and coherent fashion.
  • The reflection should be written from a first-person perspective (i.e., you can use “I”, “me”, and “my” in this assignment).
  • Text should be 11-12 point font and 1.5-2.0 line spacing on all pages. If applicable, block quotes and bibliography should use 1.0 line spacing.
  • Pages should have regular 1 inch (2.54 cm) margins.

Due: Monday, September 30th @ 23:59 (week 4) via Turnitin

Written assignment #2 (20% of your final mark)
The goal of this assignment is to write a document similar to the “In Brief” notes produced by the Library of Parliament’s Information and Research Service (Ottawa).

Here are links to a few “In Brief” notes:

As specified on the Library of Parliament’s website, their publications aim to “provide analysis to parliamentarians, parliamentary committees and parliamentary associations on current and emerging key issues, legislation and major public policy topics. The publications provide non-partisan, reliable and timely information on subjects that are relevant to parliamentary and constituency work (my emphasis).”

Your goal is to follow the spirit of these “In Brief” notes and produce a short document for busy people that presents all aspects of a particular problem in a non-partisan way. You must present and define the issue or problem, provide some background or context, explain why it is important and list all arguments for and against the problem or issue discussed. You can use bullet points, graphs or maps, but each claim or piece of evidence must be supported through an endnote.


  • Cover page. Must include subject title, first and last name, student number, course number, year and the exact wording of the question you are answering in your assignment;
  • Table of contents, including page number for each section;
  • Between 6 and 9 pages of text, excluding cover page, table of contents and endnotes;
  • Text should be 11-12 point font; 1.0 line spacing on all pages, including cover page, block quotes, and endnotes;
  • Pages should have regular 1.0 inch margins and be numbered;
  • Reference/Citation style: ENDNOTES. Format of your choice, but you must be consistent.

Due: Monday, December 2nd @ 23:59 via Turnitin

Written assignment #3 (15% of your final mark)
An op-ed (originally short for “opposite the editorial page”) is a written prose piece which presents a specific opinion as opposed to a balanced perspective.

Your task in assignment #3 is to your write your own commentary on the question you have researched in assignments 1 and 2. Present and support your one-sided position with ideas and facts learned while researching your previous assignments and in other lectures and readings during the semester. In the old days of printed newspapers citations and references were not expected in an op-ed. Nowadays, editors typically ask for hyperlinks. Please use them to provide links to the original documents your are quoting or using numbers from. Limit your use of hyperlink to one word or number. For instance, use the link for an author’s name rather than a full quote.

Your op-ed should be between 650-750 words, excluding your name, course number and student number. This assignment does not require a cover page, but it requires you to write the word count of your piece at the end of your assignments (e.g., word count: 673 words.)

Keep in mind that your audience is the general reading public, meaning people who are likely not familiar with your topic and who may not have had a post-secondary education. You must therefore draw their interest by using a catchy title and, ideally, a “hook” at the beginning of your story (e.g., “poachers have killed government officials in a nature preserve”; “ruins of a gigantic city have been discovered in the Amazon”). Explain your position using simple language, do your best to persuade and do not simply make assertions (e.g., “every expert agrees with me”).

Keep in mind that your word count is low and that you might have to use only your BEST arguments, not all the arguments that support your position.

The University of Toronto offers the following guidelines to write an effective op-ed piece:

  • Focus on one main idea or a single theme in your op-ed.
  • Have a clear editorial viewpoint. State that point in your first paragraph, and then proceed to back up your opinion or prove your thesis.
  • Look for opportunities to wed your specific area of expertise or interest with news developments.
  • If you can, be controversial in your opinion.
  • Always write for the lay reader. Be clear and straightforward. Use simple words, short declarative sentences. Even the brainiest of readers will lose interest if your submission is replete with long, complex sentences and paragraphs.
  • Make your submission as argumentative as possible. It should not appear driven by anger and it should follow methodological reasoning.
  • Express a strong call to action. Write with passion and “fire in your gut.”
  • Take pains to educate the reader with your insight, but don’t condescend or preach.

See also the op-ed guidelines of Carleton College.

Op-ed links: New York Times op-ed page

Due: Monday, December 2nd @ 23:59 via Turnitin

Required Policy Statements:
Use of ChatGPT / Generative AI
Students may choose to use generative artificial intelligence tools as they work through the assignments in this course; this use must be documented in an appendix for each assignment. The documentation should include what tool(s) were used, how they were used, and how the results from the AI were incorporated into the submitted work. Failure to provide an appendix in this case will be penalized.
Student Technology Requirements and Connection Tools
Students are expected to review and be in compliance with the University’s requirements for online learning (https://www.viceprovoststudents.utoronto.ca/tech-requirements-online-learning/). More resources are available on the UTM Library’s Learn Anywhere website (https://utm.library.utoronto.ca/students/quercus/learn-anywhere). Zoom may be used in the delivery of components of this course. Students are required to register for a UTM Zoom account (https://utoronto.zoom.us) prior to the first lecture. Only authenticated users can join the zoom meetings; please follow the instructions to ensure that your account is authenticated.
Privacy and Use of Course Materials Notifications
(Please note that this policy statement does not apply for this course) This course, including your participation, will be recorded on video and will be available to students in the course for viewing remotely and after each session. Course videos and materials belong to your instructor, the University, and/or other sources depending on the specific facts of each situation, and are protected by copyright. Do not download, copy, or share any course or student materials or videos without the explicit permission of the instructor. For questions about recording and use of videos in which you appear please contact your instructor.
Communications Policy
Students are encouraged to be available during posted office hour(s). Correspondence by email or requesting a meeting outside of the scheduled office hour(s) is also acceptable. In all email correspondence regarding this course, please note the following:
  1. Always use your University of Toronto email address (…@mail.utoronto.ca) for all course-related communications.
  2. Include the course code as part of your subject line, and include your full name and student number in the body of the email
  3. Check the course Quercus site before emailing a question, to make sure that it has not already been answered
Please contact the department’s Academic Advisor Darcy McKenzie (advisor.gge.utm@utoronto.ca) for any department- or program-related queries or to submit documentation regarding a missed quiz or test.
Snow days
If a snow day is declared, all classes are cancelled, whether online or in-person. Campus closures are posted on the Campus Status page. Instructors may not schedule additional “make-up” class meetings beyond the class hours already in the UTM Timetable.
Missed Term Work
Late assignments will be subject to a late penalty of 10% per day (including weekends) of the total marks for the assignment. Assignments submitted five calendar days beyond the due date will be assigned a grade of zero. Term Work – Accommodations
  1. Accommodations due to late registration into the course will NOT be approved.
  2. In courses with final exams, there will be no re-writes or make-ups for term tests/quizzes missed for University-accepted, verifiable reasons. Instead, the final exam will be re-weighted by the value of the term test/quiz.
  3. For in-class or online quiz/test, students CANNOT petition to re-write a quiz/test once it has begun. If you are feeling ill, please do not start the online or in-class test and seek medical attention immediately.
  4. Extension requests are not permitted for open-book, take home tests. Extensions are built into the time provided for the test.
  5. Assignments cannot be re-weighted to the final exam.
  6. For extension requests, maximum extension (where/when possible) is ONE week.
  7. Extension requests must be made IN ADVANCE of the assignment due date.
  8. Assignments handed in AFTER the work has been returned to the class cannot be marked for credit.
  9. Students are responsible in ensuring strong reliable internet connection. Special consideration requests due to poor internet connection (ie. unable to complete online quiz / unable to submit assignment before deadline) will not be accepted.
  10. Students are expected to back up their work at all times. As such, extension requests due to computer issues (stolen, crashed, damaged etc.) will not be considered.
  11. Extension requests will NOT be approved for Group Assignments
  12. It is every student’s responsibility to ensure that their online submission is submitted successfully by the due date. Accommodations will not be made for unsuccessful submissions due to, but not limited to: i) the system timing out ii) submitting the incorrect document(s) iii) poor internet connection / no internet connection etc.
  13. Holidays and pre-purchased plane tickets, family plans, your friend’s wedding, lack of preparation, or too many other tests/assignments are not acceptable excuses for missing a quiz, a test, an item of term work, or requesting an extension of time. Such requests will be denied.
  14. For extensions of time beyond the examination period you must submit a petition through the Office of the Registrar. https://www.utm.utoronto.ca/registrar/forms
How to Request an Accommodation In the Geography, Geomatics and Environment department, professors cannot grant extensions on term work or allow makeups for missed items. Instead, you must follow the following steps:
  1. You must submit an online Special Consideration Request using the following link: https://utmapp.utm.utoronto.ca/SpecialRequest within 24 hours. Note: The system only supports Microsoft Internet Explorer and Firefox for the time being.
  2. Students registered with Accessibility Services are also required to submit an online Special Consideration Request using the following link: https://utmapp.utm.utoronto.ca/SpecialRequest
  3. Email your course instructor.
  4. ACORN Absence Declaration Tool: Use of this new online declaration does not require supporting documentation and should be used in addition to the missed term work policy outlined in the course syllabus. Students can use this absence declaration tool only once per term. When using this tool, students should expect to receive reasonable academic consideration from their instructor without the need to present additional supporting documentation. In addition, Instructors may exclude one test or quiz from the one-time absence declaration, in which case the student would be required to provide supporting documentation. To submit a request: https://www.utm.utoronto.ca/registrar/utm-absence
Please note that students are required to submit their assignment/lab as soon as they are able and they should NOT wait for the decision of the committee. Number of days approved for an extension will be calculated from the original assignment due date. It is your responsibility to follow the appropriate procedures and submit requests for special consideration on time. Failure to do so may result in the committee denying your request. Should you require further information regarding Special Considerations, please contact the GGE Academic Advisor Darcy McKenzie (advisor.gge.utm@utoronto.ca). Please note that the written explanation and documentation that you submit represents an appeal from you, requesting the opportunity to account for that portion of your grade in some other manner. If a special consideration request is not received, or if the special consideration request is denied, you will receive a grade of zero for the item you missed. If the special consideration request is granted – that is, your reason for missing the item is considered acceptable by the committee – your grade will be accommodated accordingly. A Departmental committee evaluates each request. Decisions will be communicated by email within two weeks of receipt of all completed documents. Note: It is your responsibility to ensure your email account is working and able to receive emails. Claims that a Departmental decision was not received will NOT be considered as a reason for further consideration. Contact the GGE Academic Advisor Darcy Mckenzie (advisor.gge.utm@utoronto.ca), should you NOT receive notification of your decision within 2 weeks of submission.
Equity Statement and Academic Rights
The University of Toronto is committed to equity and respect for diversity. All members of the learning environment in this course should strive to create an atmosphere of mutual respect. As a course instructor, I will neither condone nor tolerate behaviour that undermines the dignity or self-esteem of any individual in this course and wish to be alerted to any attempt to create an intimidating or hostile environment. It is our collective responsibility to create a space that is inclusive and welcomes discussion. Discrimination, harassment and hate speech will not be tolerated. If you have any questions, comments, or concerns you may contact the UTM Equity and Diversity officer at edo.utm@utoronto.ca or the University of Toronto Mississauga Students’ Union Vice President Equity at vpequity@utmsu.ca. The Department of Geography, Geomatics, and Environment at the University of Toronto Mississauga strives to uphold a commitment to equity, diversity, and inclusiveness which requires that we:
  • address the complexity of our disciplines’ histories, and
  • hold ourselves and others to account in order to challenge how we, as individuals and as part of larger institutions, continue to perpetuate inequity and injustice as we seek to create a more equitable and inclusive future.
Geographical and environmental disciplines – both in science and social science – have complicated histories. As academic pursuits and as practical tools for research and teaching, our disciplines have played core roles in settler colonialism and the institutionalization of racism and white supremacy – in the displacement and dispossession of Indigenous peoples, racist immigration policies, and environmental injustices perpetrated against Indigenous and Black populations, among many other forms of oppression. As a department, as a collective, and as a group of colleagues, we recognize our shortcomings—but we also acknowledge our fundamental commitment to diversity and inclusion. We seek to cultivate a departmental culture that welcomes and supports our students, staff, and faculty with diverse education and experiential backgrounds into our community, especially those who belong to groups that are currently underrepresented in academia. We are committed to providing a fair, equitable, and mutually supportive learning and working environment for all students, staff, and faculty.
Academic Rights
You, as a student at UTM, have the right to:
  • Receive a syllabus by the first day of class.
  • Rely upon a syllabus once a course is started. An instructor may only change marks’ assignments by following the University Assessment and Grading Practices Policy provision 1.3.
  • Refuse to use plagiarism detection tool (you must be offered an alternative form of submission).
  • Have access to your instructor for consultation during a course or follow up with the department chair if the instructor is unavailable.
  • Ask the person who marked your term work for a re-evaluation if you feel it was not fairly graded. You have up to one month from the date of return of the item to inquire about the mark. If you are not satisfied with a re-evaluation, you may appeal to the instructor in charge of the course if the instructor did not mark the work. If your work is remarked, you must accept the resulting mark. You may only appeal a mark beyond the instructor if the term work was worth at least 20% of the course mark.
  • Receive at least one significant mark (15% for H courses, 25% for Y courses) before the last day you can drop a course for H courses, and the last day of classes in the first week of January for Y courses taught in the Fall/Winter terms.
  • Submit handwritten essays so long as they are neatly written.
  • Have no assignment worth 100% of your final grade.
  • Not have a term test worth 25% or more in the last two weeks of class.
  • Retain intellectual property rights to your research.
  • Receive all your assignments once graded.
  • View your final exams. To see a final exam, you must submit an online Exam Reproduction Request within 6 months of the exam. There is a small non-refundable fee.
  • Privacy of your final grades.
  • Arrange for representation from Downtown Legal Services (DLS), a representative from the UTM Students’ Union (UTMSU), and/or other forms of support if you are charged with an academic offence.
Academic Integrity/Honesty or Academic Offenses
It is your responsibility as a student at the University of Toronto to familiarize yourself with, and adhere to, both the Code of Student Conduct and the Code of Behaviour on Academic Matters. This means, first and foremost, that you should read them carefully.
  • The Code of Student Conduct is available from the U of T Mississauga website (Registrar > Academic Calendar > Codes and Policies) or in your print version of the Academic Calendar.
  • The Code of Behaviour on Academic Matters is available from the U of T Mississauga website (Registrar > Academic Calendar > Codes and Policies) or in your print version of the Academic Calendar.
Another helpful document that you should read is How Not to Plagiarize, by M. Proctor. With regard to remote learning and online courses, UTM wishes to remind students that they are expected to adhere to the Code of Behaviour on Academic Matters regardless of the course delivery method. By offering students the opportunity to learn remotely, UTM expects that students will maintain the same academic honesty and integrity that they would in a classroom setting. Potential academic offences in a digital context include, but are not limited to:
  • Accessing unauthorized resources (search engines, chat rooms, Reddit, etc.) for assessments.
  • Using technological aids (e.g. software) beyond what is listed as permitted in an assessment.
  • Posting test, essay, or exam questions to message boards or social media.
  • Creating, accessing, and sharing assessment questions and answers in virtual “course groups.”
  • Working collaboratively, in-person or online, with others on assessments that are expected to be completed individually.
All suspected cases of academic dishonesty will be investigated following procedures outlined in the Code of Behaviour on Academic Matters. If you have questions or concerns about what constitutes appropriate academic behaviour or appropriate research and citation methods, you are expected to seek out additional information on academic integrity from your instructor or from other institutional resources.
University Plagiarism Detection Tool Conditions of Use Statement
“Normally, students will be required to submit their course essays to the University’s plagiarism detection tool for a review of textual similarity and detection of possible plagiarism. In doing so, students will allow their essays to be included as source documents in the tool’s reference database, where they will be used solely for the purpose of detecting plagiarism. The terms that apply to the University’s use of this tool are described on the Centre for Teaching Support & Innovation web site (https://uoft.me/pdt-faq).”
How to Query or Challenge a Mark
Please note that, according to UTM policy, you have one month from the date an item is returned to you, during which time you may query the mark or submit the item for remarking. Contact the Course Instructor in person or by email (@utoronto.ca) for all queries about course marks, or if you wish to challenge a mark. Absolutely no item will be remarked after the one-month period has passed. Material submitted for remarking must be accompanied by a brief written explanation detailing your reasons for dissatisfaction with the original mark (such as an addition error, or something you think the marker may have missed). The item may be returned first to the TA who originally marked it. If you are still dissatisfied, it may be passed on to the Course Instructor for reconsideration. If a remarking is granted by an instructor, the student must accept the resulting mark as the new mark, whether it goes up or down or remains the same.
Students with diverse learning styles and needs are welcome in our courses. In particular, if you have a disability/health consideration that may require accommodations, please approach UTM’s Accessibility Services as soon as possible. Accessibility staff (located in room 2037B, Davis Building) are available by appointment to assess specific needs, provide referrals, and arrange appropriate accommodations. Please call 905-569-4699 or email access.utm@utoronto.ca. The sooner you let UTM’s Accessibility Services know your needs, the quicker they can assist you in achieving your learning goals.
Policy on Religious Observances
As noted in the Policy on Scheduling of Classes and Examinations and Other Accommodations for Religious Observances, the following provisions are included:
  • “It is the policy of the University of Toronto to arrange reasonable accommodation of the needs of students who observe religious holy days other than those already accommodated by ordinary scheduling and statutory holidays.
  • Students have a responsibility to alert members of the teaching staff in a timely fashion to upcoming religious observances and anticipated absences. Instructors will make every reasonable effort to avoid scheduling tests, examinations or other compulsory activities at these times. If compulsory activities are unavoidable, every reasonable opportunity should be given to these students to make up work that they miss, particularly in courses involving laboratory work. When the scheduling of tests or examinations cannot be avoided, students should be informed of the procedure to be followed to arrange to write at an alternate time.
  • It is most important that no student be seriously disadvantaged because of her or his religious observances. However, in the scheduling of academic and other activities, it is also important to ensure that the accommodation of one group does not seriously disadvantage other groups within the University community.”
  • With respect to minimum advance notice, the Policy provides that “Students have a responsibility to alert members of the teaching staff in a timely fashion to upcoming religious observances and anticipated absences.” Since students would normally be aware of upcoming religious observances as well as examination schedules in advance, a minimum of three weeks advance notice will be considered sufficient.
  • More information and some dates of potential relevance for the U of T community are available at viceprovoststudents.utoronto.ca/publicationsandpolicies/guidelines/religiousobservances.htm.
  • As with any academic accommodation request, students must submit an on-line Special Consideration Request @ https://utmapp.utm.utoronto.ca/SpecialRequest
RGASC Statement
The Robert Gillespie Academic Skills Centre (RGASC) is located in Room 3251 on the third floor of the Maanjiwe nendamowinan Building. The RGASC offers individual consultations, workshops (many CCR-accredited), and a wide range of programs to help students identify and develop the academic skills they need for success in their studies. Visit the RGASC website to explore their online resources, book an in-person or online appointment, or learn about other programming such as Writing Retreats, the Program for Accessing Research Training (PART), Mathematics and Numeracy Support, and dedicated resources for English Language Learners.
UTM Library’s Statement
The University of Toronto Libraries connect students with the world-class collections needed to successfully conduct research and complete assignments. At the UTM Library, located within the Hazel McCallion Academic Learning Centre, students will find dedicated support for their courses:

Week 1 (January 8): Introduction
Week 2 (January 15): The Call of the Local I: Popular Debates
Week 3 (January 22): Urban Agriculture
Week 4 (January 29): From Subsistence to Exchange I DEADLINE ASSIGNMENT #1
Week 5 (February 5): From Subsistence to Exchange II
Week 6 (February 12): The Call of the Local II: Historical Perspective
Week 7 (February 19): Reading Week
Week 8 (February 26): The Call of the Local III: Locavorism
Week 9 (March 5): The Call of the Local IV: Methods
Week 10 (March 12): The Call of the Local V: Ontario
Week 11 (March 19): Locavorism and Food Security
Week 12 (March 26): The Case against Locavorism I
Week 13 (April 2): The Case against Locavorism II DEADLINE ASSIGNMENTS #2 & 3


Nothing for now


 Historical Evolution

Gardner. Bruce. 2003. “U.S. Agriculture in the Twentieth Century.” Eh.Net Encyclopedia of Economic and Business History.

 Global Issues

Tupy, Marian L. 2012. “Embracing Progress.” Washington Times (May 4).

Godfray, H. Charles J. 2010. “The Future of the Global Food System.” Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 365 (1554): 2769-2777.

Global Food Markets Group. 2009. “The 2007/08 Agricultural Price Spikes: Causes and Policy Implications.” HM Government (“Executive Summary”).

 Current Debates

– “Voting with your Trolley.” The Economist, December 7, 2006.

McFedries, Paul. 2011. “The Locavore’s Dilemma.” IEEE Spectrum (April): 27.

–. 2011.”US Farmers & Ranchers Alliance Surveys Show Disconnect between American Consumers and their Food.” University of California Cooperative Extension (September 22).

Marris, Emma. 2014. “Beyond Food and Evil. Nature and Haute Cuisine After the Chez Panisse Revolution.” The Breakthrough (Spring).


Gilbert, C. L. and C. W. Morgan. 2010. “Food Price Volatility.” Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 365 (1554): 3023-3034.


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 Locavores and Critics of Agri-Business

BBC News Channel. 2007
– “What’s in your Basket?” December 21.
– “Quick Guide: Sustainable Food.” December 17.

How Far Has your Food Traveled? (Miles and Miles and Miles)” Special Report, The Guardian (click on a few items).

Sharpe, Rosalind. 2008. “Feast and Famine.” The Guardian, July 5.

Pollan, Michael. 2008. “Farmer in Chief.” New York Times Magazine, October 9.

Walsh, Bryan. 2009. “Getting Real about the High Price of Cheap Food.” Time, August 21

Gottlieb, Robert and Anupama Joshi. 2010. “Food Justice.” Dissent Magazine, October 25

Koehn, Nancy F. 2011. “Off the Shelf – Fresh Tomatoes for Inner Cities.” The New York Times, June 4

Despommier, Dickson on “The Vertical Farm

Rifkin, Jeremy. 2006. “The Risks of Too Much City.” The Washington Post, December 17.

 Globavores and Supporters of Agri-Business

DeGregori, Thomas R. 2004. “Julia Child’s Legacy for the Future.” HealthFactsAndFears.com, August 16.

Bailey, Ronald. 2007. “Barbara Kingsolver’s Latest Fiction – Life on the Farm ain’t Always a Picnic.” Reason Online, June 1.

Hurst, Blake. 2009. “The Omnivore’s Delusion: Against the Agri-Intellectuals.” The American, July 30.

Paarlberg, Robert. 2010 “Attention Whole Food Shoppers.” Foreign Policy, May-June

Kummer, Corby. 2010. “The Great Grocery Smackdown.” The Atlantic, March

Avery, Dennis T. 2010. “City Farming – Pigs in the Sky?” CGFI , October 19th.

Fresco, Louise O. 2011. “Michael Pollan’s Misguided Food Nostalgia.” Zester Daily, February 21.

Nelson, Douglas and Alexander Rinkus. 2011. “The Hi-Tech Agriculture Imperative.” The American, August 10.

Avery, Dennis T. 2012. “The Future of Farming.” Frontier Centre for Public Policy (September 3).

Bailey, Ronald. 2006. “The Lingering Stench of Malthus – Debunking Jeremy Rifkin’s Beef with Cities.” ReasonOnline, December 22.

• Reality Check

Reiley, Laura. 2016. “Farm to Fable: At Tampa Bay farm-to-table restaurants, you’re being fed fiction.” Tampa Bay Times (April 13). 

Reiley, Laura. 2016. “Tampa Bay Farmers Markets are Lacking in Just One Thing: Local Farmers.” Tampa Bay Times (April 13).



Martin, Glen. 2009. “The Locavore’s Dilemma.” California Magazine (Winter).

 Locavores and Critics of Agri-Business

Roosevelt, M. 2006. “The Lure of the 100-Mile Diet.” Time, June 11.

 Globavores and Supporters of Agri-Business

Ronald G. McCormick. 2010. “An Insider’s Account of Walmart’s Local Foods Program.” The Atlantic (November 17).


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Satthertwaite, David, Gordon McGranahan and Cecilia Tacoli. 2010. “Urbanization and its Implications for Food and Farming.” Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 365 (1554): 2809-2820.

RUAF Foundation (Resource Centres on Urban Agriculture and Food Security)
– What is urban agriculture?
– Why is urban agriculture important?
– Further reading

van Veenhuizen, René. 2007. Profitability and Sustainability of Urban and Peri-Urban Agriculture, Agricultural Management, Marketing and Finance Occasional Paper #19, UN FAO.

Kavanaugh, Kelli B. 2010. “John Hantz: The man has a plan, but does Detroit have a farming future?” Model D (August 24).


Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO).
– 2010. Fighting Poverty and Hunger: What Role for Urban Agriculture? Policy Briefs, August.
– 2005. “Farming in Urban Areas can Boost Food Security.” FAO Newsroom, June 3.
– 2002. “Feeding the Cities.”
– 1999. “Issues in Urban Agriculture” FAO Spotlight.

van Veenhuizen, René. 2006. Cities Farming for the Future – Urban Agriculture for Green and Productive Cities. RUAF Foundation, IDRC-IIRR.

Hoffer, Melissa. 2011. “Agriculture in cities is already common.” The Boston Globe, June 22.

Smith, Jac. 2001. Urban Agriculture: Food, Jobs, and Sustainable Cities – 2001 Edition (unpublished revised edition of 1996 UNDP publication).

Zuckerman, Jocelyn C. 2011. “The Constant Gardeners.” OnEarth Magazine (November 28).


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Steel, Carolyn. 2009. “How Food Shapes our Cities.” Ted Talks (October).


–. 2002. “Heritage Agricultural Systems.” FAO Spotlight.

–. 2009. “The Globalization of Food and Plants.” Yale Global Online.

Beauman, Fran. 2006. “The King of Fruits” Cabinet (Fall).

Stanhill, G. 1976. “An Urban Agro-Ecosystem. The Example of Nineteenth Century Paris.” Agro-Ecosystems 3: 269-284.

Pitman, Teresa. 2011. “Pre-Confederation Farmers weren’t Really Self-Sufficient. Historian Challenges Myths about Simpler Times of the Past.” @Guelph (February 15).

George Dodd. 1856. The Food of London: A sketch of the chief varieties, sources of supply, probable quantities, modes of arrival, processes of manufacture, suspected adulteration, and machinery of distribution, of the food for a community of two millions and a half. Longman, Brown, Green and Longmans, pp. 101-123.


Smith, Bruce D. 2001. “Low-Level Food Production.” Journal of Archaeological Research 9 (1).

Mayhew, Henry. 1851 London Labour and the London Poor, Volume 1.

Steel, Carolyn. 2008. Hungry City. Random House.


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Rodrigue, Jean-Paul, Claude Comtois and Brian Slack. 2009. The Geography of Transport Systems. Routledge, Chapter 2: Historical Geography of Transportation:
– The Emergence of Mechanized Systems
– The Setting of Global Systems

Adams, Edward Francis and Louis Adelbert Clinton. 1899. The Modern Farmer in his Business Relations: A Study of Some of the Principles underlying the Art of Profitable Farming and Marketing, and of the Interests of Farmers as Affected by Modern Social and Economic Conditions and Forces. San Francisco: N.J. Stone Company, pp. 11-21.

Page, John. 1880. “The Sources of Supply of the Manchester Fruit and Vegetable Markets.” Journal of the Royal Agricultural Society of England 16 (2nd series), pp. 475-485.

Atkins, Peter J. and Derek J. Oddy. 2007. “Food and the City.” In Peter J. Atkins, Peter Lummel and Derek J. Oddy (eds) Food and the City in Europe since 1800 (Ashgate) pp. 1-10.

USDA Economics Research Service.
– Agricultural Resource Management Survey (ARMS): Resource Regions.
– Food expenditure – Overview.

New Zealand’s Agricultural Exports
– New Zealand Trade and Enterprise. New Zealand exports 1910-2010
– New Zealand Ministry for Primary Industries. 2012. Fruits
– Fonterra – About (Browse)

Groceries ‘cheaper’ now than in 1862, Grocer magazine finds.” BBC News, January 6, 2012.


Ausubel, Jesse H. and Cesare Marchetti . 2001 “The Evolution of Transportation.” The Industrial Physicist (April/May): 20-24.

Bauer, Peter. (2004/1992) “From Subsistence to Exchange.” In Peter Bauer, From Subsistence to Exchange and Other Essays. Princeton University Press.

Steel, Carolyn. (2008) Hungry City: How Food Shapes Our Lives (London: Vintage Books).

Atkins, Peter J. Peter Lummel, and Derek J. Oddy (eds) (2007). Food and the City in Europe since 1800 (Farnham: Ashgate).


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REQUIRED Poster Exhibits (browse)

Bernat, Cory. 2010. “Beans are Bullets” and “Of Course I Can!” War-Era Food Posters, USDA.

Manchester Art Gallery. 2009. Posters for the Empire Marketing Board. (Browse).

The Telegraph. “Vintage Ministry of Food Posters.”


Petronius. [Late 1st Century AD]. Satyricon, Vol. 2: The Dinner of Trimalchio, chapters 35, 36 and 38.

Fruitlands.” In Amos Bronson Alcott Network.

History of Urban Agriculture. Sprouts in the Sidewalk.

Howard, Ebenezer. 1902. Garden Cities of To-morrow (being the second edition of “To-morrow: a peaceful path to real reform”). S. Sonnenschein & co., ltd, p. 32.

Lathrop Pack, Charles. 1917. “Urban and Suburban Food Production.” Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 74 (The World’s Food), pp. 203-206.

Morriss Llewellyn Cooke. 1918. Our Cities Awake. Notes on Municipal Activities and Administration. Doubleday, Page & Company, pp. 269-272.

Smith, Joseph Russell. 1919. The World’s Food Resources. H. Holt & Company, pp. 566- 573, 579-580.

The Glasgow Story. “Allotments for the unemployed on the Garscube Estate, 10 Jan 1933.”

Maloney, C. J. 2007. “The Peculiar History of Arthurdale.” Mises Daily (August 8).


• New England Transcendentalists

Cooke, George Willis. 1897. “Brook Farm.” The New England Magazine 23 (4): 391-408.

Preucel, Robert W. and Steven R. Pendery 2006. “Envisioning Utopia: Transcendentalist and Fourierist Landscapes at Brook Farm, West Roxbury, Massachusetts.” Historical Archaeology 40 (1):25-38.

Alcott, Louisa Mae. 1873. “Transcendental Wild Oats. A Chapter from an Unwritten Romance.” The Independent.

Francis, Richard. 2010. Fruitlands: The Alcott Family and Their Search for Utopia. Yale University Press.

Sandborn, F. B. 1908. Bronson Alcott at Alcott house, England, and Fruitlands, New England (1842-1844). The Torch Press.

• Pennsylvania and Other Early 20th Century Local Food Studies

Ross, A. B. “The Point of Origin Plan for Marketing.1917.” Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 74 (November) The World’s Food, pp. 206-210.

Dunlap, R. Bruce, M. V. Carroll and Burke Horace Critchfield. 1924. Adjusting Production to Meet Home Market Demands in Blair County, Pennsylvania. Pennsylvania Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin no. 184

McKee, John M. 1925. “The Relation of Local Farm Output to the Local Product.” Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 117 (January), pp. 278-284.

Jefferson, Lorian P. 1926. “The Balance of Trade in Farm Products.” Journal of Farm Economics 8 (4): 451-461.

Taylor, Henry C. and Ann Dewees Taylor. 1952. The Story of Agricultural Economics in the United States, 1840-1932. Iowa State College Press.

• Social Reformers and Government Initiatives

Greene, Maria Louise. 1910. Among School Gardens. Charities Publication Committee.

Mills, Herbert V. 1889. Poverty and the State, or Work for the Unemployed (New Edition). Kegan, Paul, Trench & Co., Chapter 7: Co-Operative Estates: The Remedy, pp. 94-112.

Moore, Harold Edward. 1893. Back to the Land. Methuen.

Hall, Bolton, 1908. A little land and a living, Arcadia Press.

Hoover, Herbert C. 1920. “Some Notes on Agricultural Readjustment and the High Cost of Living.” Saturday Evening Post 192 (April 10): pp. 3-4, 45, 46, 49, 50.

Miller, Louise Klein. 1904. Children’s Gardens for School and Home: A Manual of Cooperative Gardening. Appleton.

Moore, Sarah. 2006. “Forgotten Roots of the Green City: Subsistence Gardening in Columbus, Ohio, 1900-1940.” Urban Geography 27 (2): 174-192.

Lawson, Laura J. 2005. City Bountiful. A Century of Community Gardening in America. University of California Press.

O’Connor, Kaori. 2009. “The King’s Christmas Pudding: Globalization, Recipes, and the Commodities of Empire.” Journal of Global History, 4 (1): 127-155 (Summary).

Maloney, C. J.. 2011. Back to the Land: Arthurdale, FDR’s New Deal, and the Costs of Economic Planning. Wiley.

Brown, Dona. 2011. Back to the Land. The Enduring Dream of Self-Sufficiency in America. University of Wisconsin Press.

• Wartime Measures

Lathrop Pack, Charles. 1919. The War Garden Victorious. Its Wartime Need and its Value in Peace. J.P. Lippincott Company.

Twigs Way and Mike Brown. 2010. Digging for Victory: Gardens and Gardening in Wartime Britain. Sabrestorm Publishing.


Fruitlands Museum.

USDA (World War II). Victory Gardens (Video).

• United Kingdom
Ministry of Information and Ministry of Agriculture. 1942. “Dig for Victory” (Video).

Scotland History – Dig for Victory (Several videos).

BBC Radio 4 “Audio slideshow: The Ministry of Food” (World War II)

• Canada
Les Brûlés – NFB Film (English synopsis: The Promised Land).


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Infographic: Locavorism vs. globavorism.” MNN – Mother Nature Network, August 10, 2011.

Halweil, Brian. 2002. “Home Grown: The Case for Local Food in a Global Market.” WorldWatch Paper #163, Worldwatch Institute, pp. 5-8.

Low, Sarah A. and Stephen Vogel. 2011. “Local Foods Marketing Channels Encompass a Wide Range of Producers.” Amber Waves (December).

Martinez, Stephen, Michael S. Hand, Michelle Da Pra, Susan Pollack, Katherine Ralston, Travis A. Smith, Stephen Vogel, Shellye Clark, Luanne Lohr, Sarah A. Low, and Constance Newman. 2010. Local Food Systems: Concepts, Impacts, and Issues. Economic Research Report No. (ERR-97), USDA.

Hergesheimer, Chris and Emily Huddart Kennedy. 2010. Farmers Markets, Local Food Systems and the Social Economy: A Thematic Literature Review. Balta.

Zezima, Katie. 2010. “Push to Eat Local is Hampered by Shortage.” The New York Times, March 27.

– Supplemental reading for graduate students
Feagan, Robert. 2007. “The Place of Food: Mapping out the ‘Local’ in Local Food Systems.” Progress in Human Geography 31 (1): 23-42.


—. 2010. “Locavores (Definition of Locavore).” Lopez Locavores.

American Planning Association. 2007. Policy Guide on Community and Regional Food Planning. American Planning Association.

Bailey, Robert. 2011. Growing a Better Future. Oxfam International.

Blouin, Chantal et al. 2009. Local Food System and Public Policy: A Review of the Literature. Equiterre.

Eames-Sheavly, Marcia. Discovering the Food System: A Primer on Community Food Systems (Linking Food, Nutrition and Agriculture), Cornell University.

Johnson, Renée, Randy Alison Aussenberg and Tadlock Cowan. 2012. The Role of Local Food Systems in U.S. Farm Policy. Congressional Research Services 7-5700.

Phil Mount. 2012. “Growing Local Food: Scale and Local Food Systems Governance.” Agriculture and Human Values 29 (1): 107-121.

USDA. Know your Farmer, Know your Food
– Support Local Farmers
– Strengthen Rural Communities
– Promote Healthy Eating
– Protect Natural Resources

Union of Concerned Scientists. 2012. Cooler Smarter: Practical Steps for Low-Carbon Living. Island Press.


Cambridge Journal of Regions, Economy and Society, vol. 3, issue 2 (July 2010), Special Issue: “Re-regionalizing the Food System?

ATTRA. “Reducing Food Miles.”

RUAF Foundation
– Themes
– Information Resources

– Food for the Cities. Publications
– Newsroom: Videos

Rand Corporation
– Neighborhood influences on health
– Special Feature: How Does Food Environment Contribute to Childhood Obesity


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Perez Vazquez, Arturo and Simon Anderson. 2005. “A Methodological Review of Research into Urban Agriculture.” RUAF.

Local Food Case Studies, Food Industry Centre, University of Minnesota
– Background Documents for the Study
– Extended Case Study Reports

Hand, Michael S. 2010. “Local Food Supply Chains Use Diverse Business Models to Satisfy Demand.” Amber Waves (December).


American Planning Association. 2013. Planning for Food Access: A National Scan and Evaluation of Local Comprehensive and Sustainability Plans.

King, Robert P., Michael S. Hand, Gigi DiGiacomo, Kate Clancy, Miguel I. Gomez, Sherman D. Hardesty, Larry Lev, and Edward W McLaughlin. 2010. Comparing the Structure, Size, and Performance of Local and Mainstream Food Supply. USDA Economic Research Report ERR-99 (June).

McIntyre, Lynn and Kristen Rondeau. 2011. “Individual consumer food localism: A review anchored in Canadian farmwomen’s reflections.” Journal of Rural Studies 27 (2): 116-124.


USDA. Annotated Bibliography of Food Hub Research


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Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs (OMAFRA). 2012. Setting the Table for Local Food in Ontario
– Bringing Home More Local Food: McGuinty Government Consulting on the Good Things that Grow in Ontario (June 9)
– McGuinty Government Planning to Introduce Local Food Act (September 12)

Food Secure Canada http://foodsecurecanada.org/ 2011. Resetting the Table: A People’s Food Policy for Canada. Creative Commons.

Metcalf Foundation
– Baker, Lauren, Philippa Campsie and Katie Rabinowicz (for Sustain Ontario). 2010. Menu 2020: Ten Good Food Ideas for Ontario.

Toronto Food Policy Council
– GrowTO Action Plan

Ontario Local Food Report 2014-2015 (pdf version).
OMAFRA. 2015. “Ontario’s Local Food Strategy.” (August 17). 


–. 2011. Growing the Local Bounty: Reports from Farmlands in Flux in Ontario and BC. A Tyee Solutions Series. Published by The Tyee, The Waterloo Region Record, and Small Farmer Magazine.

Beshiri, Roland. 2010. “Regions Feeding the City – Can Local Farms Feed Toronto?” In Kenneth B. Beesley. The Rural-Urban Fringe in
Canada: Conflict and Controversy
. Rural Development Institute (Brandon University).

Metcalf Food Solutions (Press release)
– In Every Community a Place for Food: The Role of the Community Food Centre in Building a Local, Sustainable, and Just Food System
– New Farmers and Alternative Markets Within the Supply-Managed System
– Nurturing Fruit and Vegetable Processing in Ontario
– Scaling Up Urban Agriculture in Toronto: Building the Infrastructure

Region of Waterloo – Public Health (various reports on local food systems).


Sarah Elton’s blog

Southwestern Ontario Locavore


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• Historical perspective

Bailey, Ronald. 2006. “Is Modern Civilization Fragile? The Radically Enhanced Security of the Modern World.” Reason Online, June 9.

Persson, Karl Gunnar. 1999. “Bread and Enlightenment: The Quest for Price Stability and Free Trade in Eighteenth-Century Europe.” In Grain Markets in Europe, 1500-1900: Integration and Deregulation. Cambridge University Press, pp. 1-10.

Bastiat, Frédéric. 1845. Economic Sophism, First Series, Chapter 18: There Are No Absolute Principles.

Smith, Joseph Russell. 1919. The World’s Food Resources. H. Holt & Company, pp. 3-13.

• Contemporary perspective

Fielding, Matthew and Tom Gill. 2012. “What do We Really Mean by Rural Food Security?” CGIAR Blog (September 30).

Boin, Caroline. 2009. “The Mystery of Famine.” Spiked, November 19.

Serecon Management Consulting Inc. in partnership with Zbeetnoff Agro-Environmental Consulting Inc. 2009. Food Secure Vancouver Baseline Report. Vancouver Food Policy Council (Executive Summary).

Nelson, Gerald, Amanda Palazzo, Claudia Ringler, Timothy Sulser and MiroslavBatka. 2009. The Role of International Trade in Climate Change Adaptation. Issue Brief #4. ICTSD (International Center for Trade and Sustainable Development) and IF&ATPC (International Food and Agricultural Policy Trade Council).

• Alternatives to trade

von Braun, Joachim and Maximo Torero. 2008. Physical and Virtual Global Food Reserves to Protect the Poor and Prevent Market Failure. International Food Policy Research Institute.

Hurst, Blake. 2010. “The 21st Century Land Rush.” The American (September 22).

Sidhu, Rishi. 2011. “Five Questions for … William Schanbacher.” Foreign Policy Blogs (April 7).

Heynen, Nik, Hilda E. Kurtz and Amy Trauger. 2012. “Food Justice, Hunger and the City.” Geography Compass 6 (6): 304-311.


• Historical Perspective
O’Grada, Cormac. 2009. Famine, A Short History. Princeton University Press.

“Mort, Thomas Sutcliffe (1816-1878)” in David Blair. 1881. Cyclopaedia of Australasia. Fergusson and Moore, Printers and Publishers, pp. 245-247, p. 247.

Trentmann, Frank and Flemming Just. 2006. Food and Conflict in Europe in the Age of the Two World Wars. Palgrave MacMillan.

Collingham, Lizzie. 2012. The Taste of War. World War II and the Battle for Food. Penguin Press.

• Contemporary Debates
– 2012. The State of Food Insecurity in the World 2012
– 2009. How to Feed the World in 2050
– 2003. Trade Reforms and Food Security

Caldwell, Wayne, Anneliza Collett, Therese Ludlow, Ian Sinclair and Jenny Whitehead. 2011. Planning and Food Security within the Commonwealth. Commonwealth Association of Planners.

Cowen, Tyler. 2008. “Freer Trade Could Fill the World’s Rice Bowl.” The New York Times (April 27).

Johnson, Robbin. 2009. Food Security: The Role of Agricultural Trade. International Food and Agricultural Policy Council.

Zezza, Alberto and Luca Tasciotti. 2010. “Urban Agriculture, Poverty, and Food Security: Empirical Evidence from a Sample of Developing Countries.” Food Policy 35 (4): 265-273.

Naylor, Rosamond L. and Walter P. Falcon. 2010. “Food Security in an Era of Economic Volatility.” Population and Development Review 36 (4): 693-723.

Wedding, Kristin and Charlotte Hebebrand. 2010. The Role of Markets and Trade in Food Security. CSIS

Ziervogel, Gina and Polly J. Ericksen. 2010. “Adapting to Climate Change to Sustain Food Security.” Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Climate Change 1 (4): 525-540.


– Hunger Portal
– Committee on Food Security

Ryerson University’s Centre for Studies in Food Security

Stanford’s Center on Food Security and the Environment

The Ripple that Drowns: Twentieth Century Famines as Economic History. The Tawney Memorial Lecture (Economic History Society), 2007 by Professor Cormac O’Grada.


Nothing for now


An Ex Farmer. 1937. “To Hell with Farming.” American Mercury.

Edwards-Jones, Gareth. 2010. “Does Eating Local Food Reduce the Environmental Impact of Food Production and Enhance Consumer Health?” Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 69 (4): 582-591.

Sexton, Steven, 2009. “Does Local Production Improve Environment and Health Outcomes?” ARE Updates 13 (2): 5-8.

Desrochers, Pierre and Hiroko Shimizu. 2008. “Yes We Have No Bananas: A Critique of the Food Mile Perspective.” Mercatus Policy Series, Policy Primer No. 8.

Desrochers, Pierre and Hiroko Shimizu. 2012. “Locavores or Loco-vores?” The American Magazine (September 18)

Desrochers, Pierre and Hiroko Shimizu. 2012. “Liberated from gruel and mush.” Spiked (August 23)

Lusk, Jayson L. and F. Bailey Norwood. 2011. “The Locavore’s Dilemma: Why Pineapples Shouldn’t Be Grown in North Dakota.” Library of Economics and Liberty (January 3).

Gray, Nathan. 2013. “Frozen Fruit and Vegetable might be more Nutritious than Fresh: Research.” Food Navigator (October 11).

Kinney, Allison. 2014. “Lessons from a ‘Local’ Food Scam Artist.” Narratively (September 22).

Boisvert, Will. 2013. “An Environmentalist on the Lie of Locavorism.” Observer (April 16). 

• Zoonotic Diseases and Food Safety
Centers for Disease Controls and Prevention
– Animals (Zoonotic)
– Transmission of Avian Influenza A Viruses Between Animals and People

Dewey, Jennifer. 2013. “The Challenges of Local Meat.” Chico Locker & Sausage Co. Inc. (April 9).

MacMillan, Susan. 2015. “Despite Contamination Concerns, Africa must Embrace ‘Wet Markets’ as Key to Food Security.” ILRI News (January 27).

Shute, Nancy. 2013. “Backyard Chickens: Cute, Trendy Spreaders Of Salmonella.” NPR (March 24).

Smith, Tara C. 2012. “What Is the World’s Most Dangerous Animal?” Slate (December 4).

World Organisation for Animal Health. 2007. “OIE/FAO/WHO Urge More Determined Action against H5N1.” (February 2).

Lee, Timothy B. 2015. “Was Chipotle too Busy Avoiding the Fake Dangers of GMOs to Focus on Actual Food Safety?” Vox (December 21). 

—. 2015. “A Chipotle Education. The all-natural evangelists get an E. coli reality check.” Wall Street Journal (December 22). 


Desrochers, Pierre and Hiroko Shimizu. 2012. The Locavore’s Dilemma. In Praise of the 10,000 Mile Diet. PublicAffairs.

Kemp, Katherine, Andrea Insch, David K. Holdswort and John G. Knight. 2010. “Food Miles: Do UK Consumers Actually Care?” Food Policy 35 (6): 504-513.

Raj Chi, Kelly, James MacGregor and Richard King. 2009. Fair Miles: Recharting the Food Miles Map. IIED.

Coley, David, Mark Howard and Michael Winter. 2009. “Local Food, Food Miles and Carbon Emissions: A Comparison of Farm Shop and Mass Distribution Approaches.” Food Policy 34 (2): 150-155.

Weber, Christopher L. and H. Scott Matthews. 2008. “Food-Miles and the Relative Climate Impacts of Food Choices in the United States.” Environmental Science & Technology 42 (10): 3508-13.

Saunders, Caroline.2008. Carbon Footprints, Life Cycle Analysis, Food Miles – Global Trade Trends and Market Issues, SIDE.

Saunders, Caroline and Peter Hayes. 2007. Air Freight Transport of Fresh Fruit and Vegetables. Lincoln University AERU, Research Report 299.

Saunder, Caroline, Andrew Barber and Greg Taylor. 2006. Food Miles – Comparative Energy / Emissions Performance of New Zealand’s Agriculture Industry. Lincoln University AERU, Research Report 285.

Garnett, Tara. 2006. Fruit and Vegetables & UK Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Exploring the Relationship. Food Climate Research Network.

Smith, Alison, Paul Watkiss, Geoff Tweddle, Alan McKinnon, Mike Browne, Alistair Hunt, Colin Treleven, Chris Nash and Sam Cross. 2005. Validity of Food Miles as an Indicator of Sustainable Development, ED50254 Issue 7.


Nothing for now


Joel Salatin on local food distribution (from out-of-town software and early morning deliveries to problems with farmers markets). [We will watch from the beginning to about 9:00]


Tregear, Angela. 2011. “Progressing knowledge in alternative and local food networks: Critical reflections and a research agenda.” Journal of Rural Studies 27 (4): 419-430.

DeLind, Laura B. 2011. “Are Local Food and the Local Food Movement Taking Us Where We Want to Go? Or are We Hitching our Wagons to the Wrong Star?” Agriculture and Human Values 28 (2): 273-283.

Born, Braden and Mark Purcell. 2006. “Avoiding the Local Trap: Scale and Food System in Planning Research.” Journal of Planning Education and Research 26 (2): 195-207.

Stoll, Steven. 2006. “The Smallholder’s Dilemma.” Technology and Culture 47 (4): 808-813.

Locavores’ Answer to their Critics

Scharber, Helen and Anita Dancs. Forthcoming. “Do Locavores have a Dilemma? Economic Discourse and the Local Food Critique.” Agriculture & Human Values


Sharzer, Greg. 2012. No Local. Why Small Scale Alternatives won’t Change the World. Zero Books.

Stanescu, Vasile. 2010. “‘Green’ Eggs and Ham? The Myth of Sustainable Meat and the Danger of the Local.” Paper presented at the Poultry’s Concerns’ Ninth Annual Conference “Expert Discourse and the Problem of the Chicken.”


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