Lecture 1 (Sept. 6): Introduction
Lecture 2 (Sept. 13): Economic Concepts
Lecture 3 (Sept. 20): Foundations of Spatial Economic Analysis
Lecture 4 (Sept. 27): Cities, Clusters and Economic Development
Lecture 5 (Oct. 4): The Death of Distance?
No class (Oct. 11): No class – Reading Week
Lecture 6 (Oct. 18 ): The End of Work?
Lecture 7 (Oct. 25): Food Supply Chain and Food Security, Part 1
Lecture 8 (Nov. 1): Food Supply Chain and Food Security, Part 2
Lecture 9 (Nov. 8): Housing Market Crisis, Part 1: Guest lecture
Lecture 10 (Nov. 15): Housing Market Crisis, Part 2: Facts and Diagnostics
Lecture 11 (Nov. 22): Housing Market Crisis, Part 3: (Urban) Zoning
Lecture 12 (Nov. 29): Housing Market Crisis, Part 4: Urban Form, Containment Policies and Solutions
Final Exam (Dec. 7-20): TBA
“Will COVID-19 End Globalization?” The Agenda with Steve Paikin (April 1, 2020).
Geographer Thinking. 2018 (1) Economic Geography – what is economic geography.
Economic Geography (Broad introduction)
Rogers , Alisdair, Noel Castree , and Rob Kitchin. 2013. “A Short Definition for Economic Geography.” In A Dictionary of Human Geography. Oxford University Press.
Poon, Jessie P. H. 2015. “Economic Geography” Oxford Bibliographies.
Aoyama, Yuko, James T. Murphy and Susan Hanson. 2013. “Introduction” In Yuko Aoyama et al. Key Concepts in Economic Geography, Sage, pp. 1-12.
Urban Data and Maps
Swanson, Ana. 2016. “Six Maps that will make you Rethink the World.” Washington Post (April 29).
Arwen Armbrecht, Arwen, World Economic Forum. 2015. “This map shows the world’s fastest growing cities.” Business Insider (November 26)
Pandemics and Globalization
- Historical overview
Le Pan, Nicholas. 2020. “Visualizing the History of Pandemics.” Visual Capitalist (March 14).
Fiamengo, Janice. 2021. “Anne of Green Gables Meets the Coronavirus.” The Dorchester Review (Spring-Summer) 11 (1): 12-16.
- Pandemics and the Case for More Globalization
Corcoran, Terry. 2020. “COVID-19 pandemic the product of bungled national government policies on massive global scale.” Financial Post (April 8).
Book, Joakin. 2020. “No, Capitalism Did not Fail.” AIER (April 7).
Taylor, Peter Shawn. 2020. “Our Next Pandemic Policy Mistake: Self-Sufficiency In All Things.” C2C Journal (December 23).
Pethokoukis, James. 2020. “Don’t let more isolationism and autarky be the legacy of this pandemic.” AEIdeas (April 8).
Boudreaux, Don. 2020. “Free Trade and Globalization are Good for your Health.” AIER (March 23).
Tupy, Marian L. 2020. “Coronovirus and Human Progress. A Poorer World Would be a Sicker World. Let us hope that we have the wisdom to recognize that.” Human Progress (March 22).
Geloso, Vincent. 2020. “Globalization Does Not Increase Pandemic Risk.” AIER (March 22).
Lloyd, Colin. 2020. “Is this the End of Globalization?” AIER (March 29).
- Pandemics and the Case for Less Globalization
Shuman, Michael. H. 2020. “Comparative Resilience: 8 Principles for Post-COVID Reconstruction.” (Undated).
Martin, Roger. 2020. “The Virus Shows that Making our Companies Efficient also made our Country Weak.” Washington Post (March 27).
Gindin, Sam. 2020. “Inoculating Against Globalization: Coronavirus and the Search for Alternatives.” The Bullet (March 12).
Auerback, Marshall. 2020. “Coronavirus Exposes the Cracks in Globalization.” TruthDig (March 10).
Linton, Tom and Bindiya Vakil. 2020. “Coronavirus Is Proving We Need More Resilient Supply Chains.” Harvard Business Review (March 4).
Carden, Art. 2013. “Specialization and Trade: Because We Can’t Be Good At Everything.” Learn Liberty
MRU University. 2014. The Hockey Stick of Human Prosperity
MRU University. 2015 Price Ceilings: Shortages and Quality Reduction
MRU University. 2015 Price Ceilings: Lines and Search Costs
- Free trade debate
Carden, Art. 2023. “Four Ways to Get What You Want.” AIER (January 28)
Fletcher, Ian. 2011. “The Famous (and Almost Never Understood) Theory of Comparative Advantage.” Huffington Post (June 7)
Fletcher, Ian. 2011. “The Theory That’s Killing America’s Economy – and Why It’s Wrong.” Huffington Post (April 7).
Munger, Michael. 2015. “Comparative Advantage: An Idea Whose Time Has Passed.” Fee.org (December 28).
Cass, Oren. 2020. “Comparative Disadvantage.” Law and Liberty (January 15).
Boudreaux, Don. 2012. MR University Principles of Economics: Microeconomics – Division of labor.
Boudreaux, Don. 2012. MR University Principles of Economics: Microeconomics – Comparative Advantage.
The Conservative Online. 2017. “I Sandwich by Danial Hannan.”
Davies, Antony. 2012. “Why not Print More Money?” Learn Liberty
Whittle, Bill. 2017. “1. Money“
- Humanity’s uniqueness
Pooley, Gale. 2023. “Sorry Jane, Chimps Don’t Innovate.” Human Progress (February 8)
Hanley, James E. 2021. “Smithian Exchange Among Non-human Animals,” Adam Smith Works, The Liberty Fund. Feb. 2021.
Holly Root-Gutteridge. 2016. The Songs of the Wolves. Aeon (May 25)
- Comparative advantage controversy
Gregg, Samuel. 2023. “ Make Trade Free Again.” Law and Liberty (August 17)
Gregg, Samuel. 2020. “How Economic Nationalism Hurts Nations.” Law and Liberty (January 6)
Kling, Arnold. 2016. Specialization and Trade. A Re-Introduction to Economics. Cato Institute.
- Canada and free trade
Dictionary of Canadian Biography – National Policy
Routley, Samuel. 2023. “How Canada’s Conservatives Should Solve Their Free Trade Confusion.” C2C (July 10).
Econlib Guides – College Economics Topics
Spatial concepts and theories
Rodrigue, Jean-Paul. 2020. The Geography of Transport Systems, 5th edition. Routledge
- Traditions in location theory
- Von Thunen’s Regional Land Use Model
- Inference of Von Thunen’s Model to Continental United States
- Weber’s Location Triangle
- Market area analysis
- Central place theory (Market principles)
- Hotelling’s Principle of Market Competition
Box, Sarah. 2000. Economic Geography – Key Concepts, New Zealand Treasury Working Paper, No. 00/12, New Zealand Government, The Treasury, Wellington (Note: Read pp. 1-22)
Laskow, Sarah. 2016. “Here Are the Real Boundaries of American Metropolises, Decided by an Algorithm.” Atlas Obscura (November 30).
Gaspar, José M. 2021. “New economic geography: History and debate.” The European Journal of the History of Economic Thought, 28 (1): 46-82.
Thisse, Jacques- François. 2011. « Geographical Economics: A Historical Perspective. » Recherches économiques de Louvain 77 (2/3): 141-168.
Barnes, Trevor J. 2001. “In the beginning was economic geography’ – a science studies approach to disciplinary history.” Progress in Human Geography 25 (4): 521–544.
Scott, Allen J. 2000. “Economic geography: the great half-century.” Cambridge Journal of Economics 24 (4): 483-504.
Fischer, Kathrin. 2011. “Central Places: The Theories of von Thünen, Christaller, and Lösch.” In H. A. Eiselt and Vladimir Marianov. Foundations of Location Analysis, Springer, pp. 471-505.
– Cities and Economic Development
Vivid Maps. 2019. The most populous cities in the world (1500 – 2018)
Hantang Culture. 2018. “Cremona, the Italian City of Violins.”
Brill Building (New York City)
Music Theories. 2021. Mass Produced Pop Music? – The Brill Building Method
Silicon Valley (California)
Protin, Corey, Matthew Stuart and Matt Weinberger. 2020. “Animated timeline shows how Silicon Valley became a $2.8 trillion neighborhood.” Business Insider (December 18).
Cities and Economic Development
Tupy, Marian. 2018. “Cities are Central to Human Flourishing.” CapX (April 18)
UN Habitat. 2011. The Economic Role of Cities (Read the following:
- The Role of Cities (pp. 3-23)
- The Role of City Regions (pp. 33-40)
- Conclusions (p. 41)
OECD/European Commission (2020), Cities in the World: A New Perspective on Urbanisation, OECD Urban Studies, OECD Publishing (look up the following):
– Policy Highlights
– Web Tool (Cities in the World) (Browse)
École de Paris
- “School of Paris,” “La Ruche” and “Bateau-Lavoir.”
- Sotheby’s. 2020. “The Evolution of the School of Paris” (May 8) Impressionist & Modern Art.
- Arts and Architecture, Mainly. 2019, “The Most Famous Artists’ Colony in Paris – La Ruche.”
Warsh, David. 2006. “Secrets of Silicon Valley.” economicprincipals.com, March 26.
Sorman, Guy. 2010. “The Silicon Lining.” City Journal, Vol. 20, no 2.
Jacobs externalities and related variety
Knowledge spillover, Wikipedia
Dekker, Erwin. 2016. “How Viennese Culture Shaped Austrian Economics.” Fee.org (July 31).
McGuinness, Paul. 2022. “The Best of The Brill Building: 30 Timeless Pop Gems. An introduction to some of the best pop music of the 20th century, a style that was both innocent and sophisticated.” Udiscovermusic.com (March 15)
Noack, Rick. 2016. “Where Europe is most and least innovative, in 6 maps.” Washington Post (August 1)
Oki, Yuko. 2010. The Competitive Advantage of the Violin Industrial Cluster in Cremona. ESA Research Network Sociology of Culture Midterm Conference: Culture and the Making of Worlds.
Wu, JunJie. 2019. “Agglomeration: Economic and Environmental Impacts.” Annual Review of Resource Economics 11: 419-438.
Rifkin, Jeremy. 2006. “The Risks of Too Much City.” Washington Post (December 17).
Friedman, Matti. 2023. “When Did Humans Start Settling Down?” July-August, Smithsonian Magazine.
Eisen, Ben and Steve Lafleur. 2019. “Uneven Job Creation in Ontario’s Urban Centres from 2008 to 2019.” Fraser Institute (January 5).
Spencer, Gregory M. 2018. Economic clusters in the Greater Toronto and Hamilton Area and their relationship with the region’s transportation infrastructure. Metrolinx
Barber, John. 2019. “A Quiet Overthrow.” Literary Review of Canada (March).
Human Progress – Centers of Progress (Interesting historical vignettes of the most dynamic cities in history)
Fox Business. 2020. ‘NYC is Dead Forever’ author responds to Seinfeld, ‘Don’t know why he attacked me’ (August 25)
Good Morning America (ABC). 2013. “New Yahoo Rule Sparks Work-at-Home Debate.”
FORA TV (Wired). 2013. “Marissa Mayer Responds to Yahoo Work-from-Home Criticism.”
Glaeser, Edward and David Cutler. 2021. “Perspective: You may get more work done at home. but you’d have better ideas at the office.” The Washington Post (September 24).
Schwartz, Richard. 2021. “The Death of Density? To survive and thrive, cities will have to overcome a number of formidable trends.” City Journal (March 29).
Cox, Wendell. 2020. “Highest Salaries for Software Developer Remote Work (Metro Areas).” New Geography (June 12).
Henderson, David R. 2021. “Wisdom on Cities from Edward Glaeser.” Econlib (December 21)
DeAngelis, Stephen. 2021. “Does Geography Matter in the Digital Age?” Enterra Solutions (September 13)
Telecommuting: Pros and Cons
- Before COVID
Villanova University. 2019. “Telecommuting Benefits and Drawbacks for Employers.” (May 26).
Pickett, Patricia. 2019. “The Pros and Cons of Telecommuting.” Careers (May 14).
Goman, Carol Kinsey. 2017. “Why IBM Brought Remote Workers Back to the Office, and Why Your Company May Be Next.” Equities (October 25).
- During COVID
-COVID 2020: James Altchuler vs Jerry Seinfeld
Altucher, James. 2020. “NYC is Dead Forever, Here’s Why.” LinkedIn (August 13).
Seinfeld, Jerry. 2020. “So You Think New York Is ‘Dead.’ (It’s not.)” The New York Times (August 24).
Altucher, James. 2020. “Sorry, Seinfeld: Your love of NYC won’t change the facts about its crisis.” New York Post (August 24).
- After COVID
Josephson, Kimberlee. 2022. “‘Work From Home’ Is Much Easier Said Than Done.” Real Clear Markets (March 16)
- Pro Telecommuting
Kling, Arnold. 2023. “Productivity down as Remote Work up? It’s an easy story to tell–too easy.” In my Tribe (June 15)
Kotkin, Joel. 2023. “The death of the great American city. The flight of office workers to the hinterlands will have profound effects on society.” Spiked (August 20)
Chaker, Anne Marie. 2023. “The Biggest Holdouts on the Five-Day Office Week: Bosses.” Wall Street Journal (June 19)
- Pro Face-to-face communication
Thompson, Polly. 2023. “Billionaire CEOs said working from home made them happier. Some now want to fire workers who don’t show up to the office.” Business Insider (August 28)
Murphy, Jon. 2023. “Productivity and Work From Home: A Response to Arnold Kling.” Econlib (June 24)
Information Technologies and Geographical Space
– Historical perspective
Wenzlhuemera, Roland. “The dematerialization of telecommunication: communication centres and peripheries in Europe and the world, 1850-1920.” Journal of Global History (2007), 2:345-372.
Lahanas, Michael. Undated. Ancient Greek Communication Methods.
Feldman, Maryann. 2002. “The Internet Revolution and the Geography of Innovation.” International Social Science Journal 54 (2): 47-54.
Morgan 2004. “The Exaggerated Death of Geography: Learning, Proximity and Territorial Innovation Systems.” Journal of Economic Geography 4 (1): 3-21.
KASS. Kochi Arts and Science page:
- From Fire and Smoke Signals to the Telegraph and Telephone.
- Wireless Communication and Radio
- The Internet and the World Wide Web
Howes, Anton. 2022. “The Beacons are Lit!”
Marcum, Todd. Undated. “Telecommuting vs Face-to-Face Communication.” Access.
MacDonald, Glen M. 2016. “The End(s) of Geography?” AAG Newsletter.
Dixon, Nancy. 2015. “Combining Virtual and Face-to-Face Work.” Harvard Business Review (July 1).
Caramela, Sammi. 2018. “Communication Technology and Inclusion Will Shape the Future of Remote Work.” Business News Daily (Dec. 27).
Stevenson, Gary. 2017. “Working from Home: The Benefits and Drawbacks of Telecommuting.” OSG (May 25).
Economic Innovation Group. 2022. The Uneven Geography of Remote Work (September 20)
Dingel, Jonathan and Brent Neiman. 2020. “How Many Jobs can be done at Home?” NBER Working Paper 26948 HOW MANY JOBS CAN BE DONE AT HOME?
Tsipursky, Gleb. 2023. “Are You Favoring Your In-Person Students? That’s Called Proximity Bias. Here’s How to Fix It.” Harvard Business Publishing Education.
Neuroscience News. 2023 “Zoom Conversations vs In-Person: Brain Activity Tells a Different Tale.” (October 26).
Verner, Emma. 2023. “Americans Are Leaving These US Cities In Record Numbers.” Investing.com (July 18).
Amico, Laura. 2021. “The Realities of Remote Work.” Harvard Business Review (October 20).
Corzo, Cynthia. 2019. “Telecommuting Positively Impacts Job Performance, Study Finds.” Phys.org (February 27).
Bakken. Rebecca. Undated. “Challenges to Managing Virtual Teams and How to Overcome Them.” Harvard Extension School Blog.
Mautz, Scott. Undated. “A 2-Year Stanford Study Shows the Astonishing Productivity Boost of Working From Home.” Inc.
Snir, David. 2020. “All remote or all office. Hybrids are problematic.” Remotely Working (July 30).
Snir, David. 2020. “Recreating the office chance-meetings.” Remotely Working (July 17).
Snir, David. 2020. “The Long, Unhappy History of Working From Home? An article published this week at the New York Times claims working from home will never worked. Let’s talk about that.” Remotely Working (July 3).
Wood, Therese. 2020. “The Future of Remote Work, According to Startups.” Visual Capitalist (July 8).
Woolridge, Adrian. 2022. “Workers Are Winning the Return-to-Office War Because They’re Right.” Bloomberg (April 25).
-Pro Face-to-face Communication
Mokhtarian, Patricia L. 2009. “If Telecommunication is such a Good Substitute for Travel, Why does Congestion Continue to Get Worse?” Transportation Letters 1(1): 1-17.
Salyer, Kirsten. 2013. “Yahoo’s Risky Work-From-Home Memo.” Bloomberg News (February 26).
Swisher, Kara. 2013. ““Physically Together”: Here’s the Internal Yahoo No-Work-From-Home Memo for Remote Workers and Maybe More.” AllThingsD (February 22).
Grenny, Joseph and David Maxfield. 2017. “A Study of 1,100 Employees Found That Remote Workers Feel Shunned and Left Out.” Harvard Business Review (2017).
Useem, Jerry. 2017. “When Working From Home Doesn’t Work. IBM pioneered telecommuting. Now it wants people back in the office.” The Atlantic (November).
CommPRO Global Inc. 2017. “Why IBM Brought Remote Workers Back to the Office, and Why Your Company May Be Next.” Equities.com (October 25).
Irvine, James. 2019. “Why Big Companies are Turning their Back on Telecommuting in Favor of the Fastest, Most Reliable Communication Technology: Face-to-face Conversation.” TAG (February 27).
Sander, Libby. 2019. “It’s not just the Isolation. Working from home has surprising downsides.” The Conversation (January 14).
Greetly. 2018. “5 Benefits of Working in the Modern Office vs Telecommuting.” (February 27).
Orbi, Ryan. 2021. “Salesforce sticking with plans for 60-story Chicago tower, despite telling workers they can work remotely after COVID-19.” Chicago Tribune (February 10).
Streitfeld, David. 2020. “The Long, Unhappy History of Working from Home.” New York Times (June 29) [Denver Post, June 30].
Haider, Murtaza and Stephen Moranis. 2020. “Why Office Real Estate Landlords aren’t Panicking Just Yet.” Financial Post (June 4).
Fonseca, Ryan. 2023. “Inland Empire residents are fighting warehouse sprawl.” February 7, Los Angeles Times.
Riccardi, Gabriela. 2023. It’s not just conversation—Gen Z is missing some essential nonverbal skills, too Yahoo! News (May 10)
Taplin, Steve, 2023. “Is Remote Work Dying A Fast Death?” Forbes (January 2).
Tsipursky, Gleb. 2022. “Workers Are Less Productive Working Remotely (At Least That’s What Their Bosses Think).” Forbes (November 3).
San Diego State University. (2018, July 18). “Despite Digital Revolution, Distance still Matters.” ScienceDaily (July 18).
Economic Innovation Group. 2022. Rise of Remote Series: Exploring Trends in Remote Work Post-COVID (July).
Kurzgesagt – In a Nutshell. 2017. “The Rise of the Machines – Why Automation is Different this Time.” (June 8)
Free Think Wrong. 2017. Will Robots Take Our Jobs? (December 7)
Technology and (Un)Employment
- Overview and historical perspective
United Nations. 2017. “Will robots and AI cause mass unemployment? Not necessarily, but they do bring other threats.” UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs (October 2)
Stubbings, Carol. 2017. “Is the future about robots or humans?” PWC Blog (August 21)
Cowen, Tyler. 2017. “Industrial Revolution Comparisons Aren’t Comforting. More automation may be good in the long run, but history tells us there’ll be turmoil along the way.” Bloomberg News (February 16)
Akst, Daniel. 2014. “What can we learn from past anxiety over automation?” The Wilson Quarterly (Summer)
- Pessimists (Unemployment)
Wolf, Zachary. 2019. “The Robots are Coming for your Job, Too.” CNN (September 3).
West, Darrell M. 2018. “Will Robots and AI Take your Job? The economic and political consequences of automation.” Brooking Techtank (April 18).
Galeon, Dom. 2017. “Experts: Because of AI, Millions of People Are at Risk of Unemployment. This looming labor disruption shouldn’t be taken lightly.” Futurism (March 10)
Thompson, Derek. 2015. “A World Without Work. For centuries, experts have predicted that machines would make workers obsolete. That moment may finally be arriving. Could that be a good thing?” The Atlantic (July-August).
- Optimists (Employment)
Hazlitt, Henry. 2011 (1948). Economics in One Lesson. Ludwig von Mises Institute (Chapter 7: The Curse of Machinery, p. 33).
DiMatteo, Livio. 2019. “New Technology Creates More, Better Jobs than it Costs. If anything, automation may lead to labor shortages.” The Quarterly (Fall 2019) 14-15.
Globerman, Steven. 2019. “Artificial Intelligence Will Kill Jobs-and Create Them.” The Quarterly (Fall): 2-3.
Vallée, Luc and Gaël Campan. 2019. “Artificial Intelligence will Create more Jobs than it Displaces – and Better Ones.” The Globe & Mail (November 4).
Khurana, Ryan. 2018. “Job Automation Should Be Celebrated, Not Feared. Transitioning to a world in which different skills are valued might be difficult, but in the long run, everybody benefits.” Fee.org (March 25)
Nowak, Peter. 2017. “Are machines coming for our jobs? Probably not.” Globe & Mail (October 17)
Desjardins, Jeff. 2019. “Visualizing 150 Years of U.S. Employment History.” Visual Capitalist (February 22).
Bordot, Florent. 2022. “Artificial Intelligence, Robots and Unemployment: Evidence from OECD Countries.” Journal of Innovation Economics & Management 37 (1) : 117-138.
Campa, Riccardo. 2018. “Technological Unemployment. A Brief History of An Idea.” Orbis Idearum 6 (2): 57-80.
United Nations. 2017. Frontier Issues: The impact of the technological revolution on labour markets and income distribution. UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs – Economic Analysis.
McKinsey Global Institute. 2017. Jobs Lost, Jobs Gained: What the future of work will mean for jobs, skills, and wages.
Ford, Martin. 2015. “The Rise of the Robots: Is this Time Different?” LinkedIn (December 5).
Smith, Aaron and Janna Anderson. 2014. “AI, Robotics, and the Future of Jobs.” PEW Research Center (August 6).
Hayek podcast. 2019. Glen Weyl on the Myths and Benefits of Automation.
Bix, Amy Sue. 2002. Inventing Ourselves Out of Jobs? America’s Debate over Technological Unemployment, 1929–1981. Johns Hopkins Press.
Gallacher, Guillermo and Iqbal Hossain. 2020. “Remote work and employment dynamics under covid-19: Evidence from Canada.” Canadian Public Policy 46 (s1) (July 1).
Dizikes, Peter. 2023. “An AI challenge only humans can solve.” MIT News (May 17).
Dizikes, Peter. 2020. “How many jobs do robots really replace?” MIT News (May 4).
Arntz, Melanie, Terry Gregory and Ulrich Zierah. 2016. The Risk of Automation for Jobs in OECD Countries : A Comparative Analysis | OECD Social, Employment and Migration Working Papers | OECD iLibrary (oecd-ilibrary.org) (May 14).
Globerman, Steven. 2019 (ed). Technology, Automation and and Employment. Will this Time be Different? Fraser Institute.
Metten, Nico. 2018. “Answering Jordan Peterson on Low IQ Productivity.” Libertarian Home (May 23).
Hunter, Brittany. 2017. “The “Curse” of Labor-Saving Machinery Is Nothing New.” Mises Wire (January 10)
Mabry, R. H. and A. D. Sharplin. 1986. “Does More Technology Create Unemployment?” Policy Analysis No. 68 (Cato Institute).
Bartlett, Bruce. 1984. “Is Industrial Innovation Destroying Jobs?” Cato Journal 4 (2): 625-650 (See also Yeager, Leland B. 1984. “Is Industrial Innovation Destroying Jobs?: A Comment.” Cato Journal 4 (2) : 645- 650).
Wikipedia – Technocracy Movement.
Reception of the New Deal – The Technocrats’ Magazine (1933).
Frey, Carl Benedikt and Osborne, Michael A. 2017. “The future of employment: How susceptible are jobs to computerisation?” Technological Forecasting and Social Change. 114: 254-280. doi:10.1016/j.techfore.2016.08.019.
Kim, Young Joon, Kim, Kyungsoo and Lee, SuKyoung. 2017. “The Rise of Technological Unemployment and its Implications on the Future Macroeconomic Landscape.” Futures 87: 1-9.
Piva, Mariacristina, Vivarelli, Marco. 2017. “Technological Change and Employment: Were Ricardo and Marx Right?” Institute of Labor Economics.
Miailhe, Nicolas. 2017. “The Policy Challenges of Automation.” FACTS Reports.
Dreyfuss, Emily. 2017. “Hate to Break It to Steve Mnuchin, But AI’s Already Taking Jobs.” Wired (March 24).
PWC Group. 2017. Workforce of the future. The competing forces shaping 2030
Illing, Sean. 2016. “Why we need to plan for a future without jobs.” Vox (November 24).
Ford, Martin. 2015. Rise of the Robots: Technology and the Threat of a Jobless Future. Basic Books.
Leonard, Andrew. 2014. “Robots are Stealing your Job: How technology threatens to wipe out the middle class.” Salon (January 17).
Rotman, David. 2013. “How Technology is Destroying Jobs.” MIT Technology Review (June 12).
Rifkin, Jeremy. 1995. The End of Work: The Decline of the Global Labor Force and the Dawn of the Post-Market Era. Tarcher-G.P. Putnam’s Sons.
Other factors: Offshore Outsourcing
Trefler, Daniel and Elhanan Helpman. 2010. “Canadian Policy Responses to Offshore Outsourcing” in Daniel Trefler (ed.) Offshore Outsourcing: Capitalizing on Lessons Learned. Toronto: Rotman School of Management and Industry Canada, pp. 1.1-1.30.
Trefler, Daniel and Elhanan Helpman. 2010. “The New World Division of Labor.” In Offshore Outsourcing: Capitalizing on Lessons Learned in Daniel Trefler (ed.) Offshore Outsourcing: Capitalizing on Lessons Learned. Toronto: Rotman School of Management and Industry Canada, pp. 2.1-2.25.
Trefler, Daniel. 2006. “Service Offshoring: Threats and Opportunities.” In Susan M. Collins and Lael Brainard. Brookings Trade Forum 2005: Offshoring White-Collar Work, Brookings Institution Press, pp. 35-60.
Trefler, Daniel 2005. “Think Globally, Invest Locally: Responding to the Rise of Offshoring.” Rotman Magazine (Fall): 42-45. (Full-length version at Industry Canada Working Paper Series #2006-01 click here. Powerpoint slide show click here.
-On Job Destruction
That Which is Seen, and That Which is Not Seen by Frederic Bastiat, 1850.
Amiti, Mary, and Wei, Shang-Jin. 2004. “Fear of Service Outsourcing: Is it Justified?” NBER Working Paper 10808.
Balaker, Ted and Adrian Moore. 2005. “Offshoring and Public Fear: Assessing the Real Threat to Jobs.” Reason Foundation, Policy Study 333.
Bartel, Ann, Saul Lach and Nachum Sicherman. 2005. “Outsourcing and Technological Change.” NBER Working Paper 11158.
Blinder, Alan S. 2006. “Fear of Offshoring.” Princeton University.
Lindsey, Brink. 2004. “Job Losses and Trade: A Reality Check.” Center for Trade Policy Studies, Briefing Paper No. 19.
Mankiw, N. Gregory and Phillip Swagel. 2006. “The Politics and Economics of Offshore Outsourcing.” NBER WP 12398.
Overby, Stephanie. 2003. “The Hidden Costs of Offshore Outsourcing.” CIO.com, Sept. 1.
Paul Craig Roberts Vs Jagdish Bhagwati on Outsourcing (originally published in The Wall Street Journal, May 10, 2004).
Anderson, William L. 2003. “The Myth of ‘Exporting Jobs.’” Mises Institute Website, June 27.
Boland, Brian, and Block, Walter. “The Benefits of Outsourcing.” The Freeman: Ideas on Libety, January 1997.
Bartlett, Bruce. “India May Have Solved the Outsourcing Issue for Us,” Townhall, May 18, 2004.
Cowen, Tyler, and Irons, John. 2004. “The Rise of Outsourcing.” The Wall Street Journal, November 9.
Holodnak, Stas. 2008. “Downward Dollar Delivers Blow to Outsourcing.” Ludwig von Mises Institute, February 13.
Irwin, Douglas A. 2004. “‘Outsourcing’ is Good for America.” The Wall Street Journal, January 28, p. A16.
Irwin, Douglas A. 2004. “Free-Trade Worriers.” The Wall Street Journal, August 9, p. A12.
Landsburg, Steven E. 2008. “What to Expect When You’re Free Trading.” The New York Times, January 16.
Mankiw, N. Gregory, and Phillip Swagel. “The Politics and Economics of Offshore Outsourcing.” March 2006.
McKay, John. 2004. “Outsourcing: Separating Fact from Hysteria.” TCS Daily, December 23.
Mihlar, Fazil. 2008. “Saint Wal-Mart? Well, Let’s Look at the Record.” Vancouver Sun, February 9.
Reh, F. John. “Offshoring – Outsourcing to Extreme.” About.com.
Roberts, Russell. 2004. “The Great Outsourcing Scare of 2004.” Hoover Digest no 2, Spring Issue.
Rockwell, Lew. 2003. “Job Overseas? Another Attempt to Explain.” Mises.org, November 27.
Williams, Walter. 2006. “Foreign Trade Angst.” Jewish World Review, October 18.
Ikenson, Daniel. 2007. “Thriving in a Global Economy. The Truth about U.S. Manufacturing and Trade.” Trade Policy Analysis no. 35, Cato Institute.
Elder, Larry. 2005. “Lou Dobbs to outsourcing: Drop dead.” World Net Daily, March 10.
Balaker, Ted, & Adrian T. Moore. 2005. “Offshoring and Public Fear: Assessing the Real Threat to Jobs.” Policy Summary of Study 333, Reason Foundation. (Policy Summary | Executive Summary)
Bartlett, Bruce. 2004. “The debate over outsourcing needs some facts,” www.townhall.com, October 12.
Drezner, Daniel. 2004. “The Outsourcing Bogeyman.” Foreign Affairs, May/June.
Gumpert, David E. 2004. “An Atlas of Offshore Outsourcing.” Business Week, February 18.
Hazlitt, Henry. 1948. “The Curse of Machinery” in Economics in One Lesson.
Mankiw, Gregory. 2006. “Outsourcing Redux.” Greg Mankiw’s Blog. May 7.
Roberts, Russell. 2007. “Remember When They Were Going to Take All Our Jobs?” Café Hayek, April 08.
Stossel, John. 2005. “Truth trumps outsourcing hysteria – Clueless claims about job losses from Lou Dobbs, unions don’t stand up.” The Orange County Register, February 27.
Strong, Michael. 2006. “Forget the World Bank, Try Wal-Mart.” TCS Daily – TCS Daily, August 22.
Barriers to Development
“Bureaucratic Barriers to Entrepreneurship,” part of an interview with Peruvian economist and social thinker Hernando de Soto.
Harford, Tim. 2005. “Yes, We Have Bananas. We Just Can’t Ship Them.” The New York Times (December 16).
Reason Public Policy Institute’s Offshore Outsourcing Resource Center.
Bringing the Jobs Home: How the Left Created the Outsourcing Crisis, and How We Can Fix It. Heritage Foundation. March 9, 2005.
Lincoln Network (2017) – Innovation, Automation, and the Future of Work w/ Charles Murray.
C-SPAN 2017. Automation and the Workforce.
Capstone Logistics. 2012. What is Logistics?
W.P. Carey School of Business (Arizona State University). 2010. “What is Supply Chain Management.”
Logistics and supply chains
Westland, Jason. 2022. “An Introduction to Supply Chain Management (SCM).” Project Manager (February 18)
Plumer, Brad. 2016. “This is an Incredible Visualization of the World’s Shipping Routes (Updated).” Vox (August 6).
Wholesale and retail trade
- Savitt, Ronald and Dennis Johnson. 2015/2006. “Retail Trade.”
- Pearce, Michael. R. and Ken Jones. “Wholesale Trade.”
- Bradburn, Jamie. 2019. “Loblaw Companies Limited.” Canadian Encyclopedia
- Demont, John. 2003 / 1998. “Sobeys’ Empire.” Canadian Encyclopedia
Gill, Vijay. 2013. Fast and Fresh: A Recipe for Canada’s Food Supply Chains. The Conference Board of Canada.
Lau, Matthew. 2022. “Parliament’s economic blockheads weigh in on food prices.” Financial Post (December 14)
Charlebois, Sylvain. 2022. “Food price study must cast wide net.” Western Producer (October 20)
Charlebois, Sylvain. 2022. “Food inflation tightens grip in Canada. Western Producer (October 6)
Charlebois, Sylvain. 2022. “Food inflation turns into major issue.” Western Producer (July 7)
Supply chains (overview of key issues)
KPMG International. 2013. The agricultural and food value chain: Entering a new era of cooperation.
Supply chains (Canada)
Ontario Food Terminal
Golden Horseshoe Food and Farming Alliance (GHFFA). 2019. The Ontario Food Terminal (OFT): A Priceless Hub in Ontario’s Food Value Chain.
Wholesale and retail (Canada)
Boothman, Barry E. C. 2011. “Mammoth market: the transformation of food retailing in Canada, 1946-1965.” Journal of Historical Research in Marketing 3 (3): 279-301.
Boothman, Barry E. C. 2007. ““A More Definite System”: The Emergence of Retail Food Chains in Canada, 1919—1945.” Journal of Macromarketing 29 (1): 13-23.
Global News. 2023 India rice export ban prompts panic buying: “We are expecting many, many countries to run out” (August).
Self-sufficiency vs greater trade
Hintze, Michael. 2020. “How the COVID-19 Crisis Could Spark an Era of Economic Self-Sufficiency.” Milken Institute (April 14).
Schneider-Petsinger, Marianne. 2020. “Globalization is Not a Binary Choice.” Chatham House (June 29).
Lacalle, Daniel. 2022. “And Now for a Really Bad Response to Political Calamity: Autarky” Mises Wire (June 4).
Food: Autarky / Protectionism vs International Trade
Wiener-Bronner, Danielle. 2023. “India’s recent rice ban sent people into a panic. Here’s what’s going on now.” CNN Business (August 3)
FAO. 2021. International trade and the resilience of national agrifood systems. FAO Agricultural Development Economics Policy Briefs, No. 41. Rome.
Clapp, Jennifer. 2015. Food Security and International Trade: Unpacking Disputed Narratives. FAO.
- For greater self-sufficiency
Hopewell, Kristen and Matias Ezequiel Margulis. 2023. “World Trade Organization rules hamper public food stockholding.” Nature Food 4: 196–198
Autakic Thought and Practice (General)
- Historical overview (Autarkic thought and practice)
Helleiner, Eric. 2021. “The Return of National Self-Sufficiency? Excavating Autarkic Thought in a De-Globalizing Era.” International Studies Review 23 (3): 933–95.
Farsund, Arild Aurvåg, Carsten Daugbjerg and Oluf Langhelle. 2015. “Food security and trade: Reconciling discourses in the Food and Agriculture Organization and the World Trade Organization.” Food Security 7: 383–391.
Mulligan, Robert. 2022. “Lessons from the Tokugawa Shogunate 1603 – 1868.” AIER (February 5).
Torkanovskiy, Evgeny. 2020. “AUTARKY 2.0: Global Ecological Agenda, COVID-19 Pandemic and New Normality.”
- Pro trade thought
Online Library of Liberty. Undated. “Did Bastiat say “when goods don’t cross borders, soldiers will”?
Congressional Research Service. 2021. Export Restrictions in Response to the COVID-19 Pandemic (April 23)
Lund , Susan. 2020. “Risk, Resilience, and Rebalancing in Global Value Chains.” McKinsey Global Institute (August 6).
Guenet, April. 2022. “How to Use Supply Chain Collaboration to Minimize Disruption.” APriori (May 19).
- Pro-trade (recent debates)
Alden, Edward. 2020. “The World Needs to Reopen Borders Before It’s Too Late.” Foreign Policy (August 25).
Boudreaux, Donald J. 2020. “The Top Economic Takeaway of the Coronavirus Panic.” AIER (March 18).
Ikenson, Daniel J. and Simon Lester. 2020. The Pandemic does not Justify Protectionism or Deglobalization. Cato Institute.
- Pro-self-sufficiency (recent debates)
Black, Conrad. 2023. “Canada must return to being a grown-up nation, now and post-COVID-19. We must jettison this government’s insane energy policy and ensure national self-sufficiency.” Financial Post (April 13).
CSIS. 2018. Economic Security as National Security: A Discussion with Dr. Peter Navarro (November 13).
- Historical overview
Chang, Ha-Joon. 2009. “Rethinking Public Policy in Agriculture: Lessons from History, Distant and Recent.” Journal of Peasant Studies 36 (3): 477-515.
- Recent development
Margulis, Matias E., Kristen Hopewell and Edi Qereshniku. 2023. “Food, famine and the free trade fallacy: the dangers of market fundamentalism in an era of climate emergency.” The Journal of Peasant Studies 50 (1): 215-239.
Erokhin, Vasilii and Tainming Gao. 2020. “Impacts of COVID-19 on Trade and Economic Aspects of Food Security: Evidence from 45 Developing Countries.” International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 17 (16): 5775.
UN OHCHR (Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights). Toolkit on the Right to Food.
Toronto City Planning. 2019. Inclusionary Zoning Toronto
Long, Ryan. 2023. Boomer Real Estate Tutorial (August)
- Global Overview
Kotkin, Joel and Wendell Cox. 2022. “Serfing the Future?” Quillette (April 21)
Alexandris, Matthew. 2023. “How the ‘housing theory of everything’ explains Canada’s many converging crises.” The Hub (August 18)
Czitron, Tom. 2023. “Canada’s Housing Crisis: Inevitable Crash and Economic Turmoil Predicted.” Epoch Times (June 18)
Whitzman, Carolyn. 2023. “Canada’s progressive parties have lost the plot on the housing crisis.” Globe and Mail (August 18)
CBC Radio. 2022. ‘If I lived in Toronto, I would be broke’: How owning a home feels increasingly unaffordable for many.” (May 8)
- The free market is the problem
Pomeroy, Steve. 2021. “Want to solve the housing crisis? Address super-charged demand.” The Conversation (November 25)
Rozworski, Michal. 2019. “The roots of our housing crisis: Austerity, debt and extreme speculation.” Policy Note (June 14)
Canada Housing Crisis. Undated. Housing for all. Not just speculators. It’s time to fight back against speculators
- Government is the problem
Cox, Wendell. 2022. “Policy restrictions have caused the housing crisis.” Financial Post (April 28) (also available as Cox, Wendell. 2022. “Policy Restrictions have Caused the Housing Crisis. The choice we face is clear: a modest expansion of greenfield development or greater housing poverty.” Frontier Centre for Public Policy (May 2)
- Catch-22 and trade-offs!
Russ, Geoff. 2023 “Can the housing crisis be fixed without lowering current property values? Analysts are skeptical.” The Hub (August 23)
Lack of supply
Lafleur, Steve. 2023. “Canada has two housing crises. One requires more government, the other less.” The Hub (September 13)
CBC News: The National. 2023. Rent Rage: You need to earn how much to live in Toronto?
CTV News. 2023 Rentals now unaffordable for those in the middle class | HOUSING CRISIS IN CANADA (August)
Filipowicz, Josef and Steve Lafleur. 2023. “Housing policy across Canada failing existing Canadians and newcomers alike.” Globe & Mail (July 1)
Tombe, Trevor. 2023. “We could be undergoing the sharpest housing contraction ever—and homes are still historically unaffordable.” The Hub (February 23)
Haider, Murtaza and Stephen Moranis. 2022. “Canada’s housing market isn’t melting down as you’ve been led to think. More nuanced statistics show the magnitude of sale and price movements is in the expected range.” Financial Post (September 2)
CHMC. 2022. Canada’s Housing Supply Shortages: Estimating what is needed to solve Canada’s housing affordability crisis by 2030 (June) (Read the Executive Summary)
Hristova, Bobby. 2021. “Vancouver, Toronto and Hamilton are the least affordable cities in North America: Report.” CBC News (May 20)
Carmichael, Kevin. 2017. “For many young Canadians, home won’t be a house. Canada is building fewer single-family homes and pricing young people out of their communities—the sort of housing inequality could take us down a dangerous path.” MacLean’s (August 14).
Toronto and the GTA
Lafleur, Steve. 2023. “The Conservatives talk tough on housing—But even their plans are far too timid.” The Hub (August 29)
Filipowicz Josef, Steve Lafleur.2023. “Ontario set to fall far short of homebuilding goal.” Fraser Institute Blog (April 13)
Moffatt, Mike, Alison Dudu, Alison and Maryam Hosseini. 2022. Ontario’s Need for 1.5 Million More Homes. Smart Prosperity Institute (August) (Read the Ten Key Points)
Moffat, Mike. 2022. One Million new Ontarians. Where are they living and how they got here. Smart Prosperity Institute. (February) (read the Executive Summary and the Ten Key Points)
Cox, Wendell. 2022. “The GTA’s Housing Affordability Crisis: Inequality is the Issue.” Frontier Centre for Public Policy (June 1)
Leon, Scott and James Iveniuk. 2021. Widening inequities: Long-term housing affordability in the Toronto Census Metropolitan Area 1991-2016. Wellesley Institute (December) (read the Executive Summary and the Key Findings)
The Financialization of Housing Debate
Taylor, Peter Shawn. 2022. “Marxism Won’t Solve Canada’s Rental Housing Crisis – Despite What Ottawa Thinks.” C2C (October 31)
Luck, Shaina et al. 2022. “Why Canada is losing affordable rental housing faster than it’s being built.” CBC News (March 10).
Perks, Gord. 2019. “The risks of the financialization of housing.” Spacing Toronto (July 9)
Spoke, Chris. 2021. “Don’t overthink it. The solution to our housing problem is to build more.” The Hub (June 7)
Demographia International. 2023. International Housing Affordability – 2023 Edition Urban Reform Institute and FCPP (pdf version available at http://www.demographia.com/dhi.pdf)
Kotkin, Joel. 2022. “America is quietly reinventing itself. Millennials and minorities, priced out of Democratic metropolises, are now thriving in Florida and Texas.” Spiked (May 3).
Mondragon, John A. and Johannes Wieland. 2022. “Housing Demand and Remote Work.” NBER Working Paper 20041 (May)
Oxford Economics 2021 – Research Briefing – North America (Housing)
Wendell Cox on housing affordability in Canada (2023)
Cox, Wendell. 2023. 2023 Edition of Demographia Housing Affordability in Canada. Frontier Centre for Public Policy (October 11)
Cox, Wendell. 2023. “New Report Highlights Housing Affordability Challenges Across Canada.” Frontier Centre for Public Policy (October 11)
Cox, Wendell. 2023. “Canadian Dream alive in smaller communities.” Troy Media (Feb 17)
Bay Street Group. Undated. The Worst Kept Secret Is Out: Canada’s Housing Market Is the Most Undersupplied in the G7
Cyca, Michelle. 2023. “The End of Homeownership.” Macleans.ca (June 15)
Lafleur, Steve and Josef Filipowicz. 2023. “Government can’t do it alone.” MLI Commentary (August 22)
Wells, Victoria. 2022. “Posthaste: Canada’s housing affordability crisis is worse than ever. 62.7% of household income needed to cover home ownership costs — the worst level on record, RBC says.” Financial Post (December 21)
Cathcart, Shaun. 2022. “Canadian Housing Markets Starting to Cool as Mortgage Rates Rise.” Crea Café (May 26)
Wendoll Cox on housing affordability in Canada (2022)
- Cox, Wendell. 2022. “2022 Edition of Demographia International Housing Affordability (Canada).” Frontier Center for Public Policy (March 7)
- Full report available at Cox, Wendell. 2022. “Demographia Housing Affordability in Canada (2022 Edition: Data from 3rd Quarter 2021) Supplement to Demographia International Housing Affordability: 2022.” Frontier Centre for Public Policy (June).
- Cox, Wendell. 2022. “Deteriorating Housing Affordability in Canada.” New Geography (July 8)
Moffatt, Mike and Mohsina Atiq.2022. “Forecast for Failure. How a broken forecasting system is at the root of the GTAH’s housing shortage and how it can be fixed.” (January) (Read the summary)
Oxford Economics 2021 – Research Briefing – North America (Housing)
Pomeroy, Steve. CHEC
- Exploring causes of escalating home prices: Part 1, supply issues | chec_ccrl.ca (chec-ccrl.ca)
- Exploring causes of escalating home prices: Part 2, demand issues | chec_ccrl.ca (chec-ccrl.ca)
- Exploring causes of escalating home prices: Part 3, potential policy solutions | chec_ccrl.ca (chec-ccrl.ca)
Neptis Foundation. 2014. Rethinking Sprawl
Steed, Nicholas. 1967. “The Car Downtown.” Maclean’s (September 1).
Steed, Nicholas. 1967. “The lingering death of the family house.” Maclean’s (May 1).
Toronto and GTA
Toronto Verse. 2022. How and where has the Greater Toronto and Hamilton Area grown since 2016?
Cox, Wendell. 2022. “Toronto Solidifies Highest Density Ranking in North America.” New Geography (March 2)
Pasalis, John. 2022. What’s Really Pushing Up Toronto’s ‘Irrational’ Home Prices? Move Smartly (February 22)
Filipowicz Josef, Steve Lafleur. 2023. Tall and Sprawl: The distribution of housing stock growth in the Greater Toronto Area, 2016 – 2021. Ontario 360.
The Financialization of Housing
August, Martine. 2022. The Financialization of Housing in Canada. A Summary Report for the Office of the Federal Housing Advocate. Canadian Human Rights Commission. (June)
Housing Lab Report. 2021. Financialization and Housing. A Social Innovation Approach to a Better Housing System.
TVO – The Agenda with Steve Paikin (Housing)
Canadian Housing Evidence Collaborative (McMaster U)
Wellesley Institute – Housing
Fraser Institute – Housing
The Hub – Housing Crisis
Oh the Urbanity! 2023. When The Housing Crisis Breaks the Political Spectrum – YouTube
CBC News – The National. 2023. Landlords vs tenants: Both sides of the housing crisis
TVO – The Agenda with Steve Paikin. 2021. “Which Way Should Hamilton Grow?” (October 13) (Watch Beginning-4:20; 8:00-18:49; 24:20-32:23)
(Recommended, but not required, videos)
Oh The Urbanity! 2023. Five Dense “Missing Middle” Neighbourhoods in Montreal
Mercatus Center. 2021. Land Use without Zoning: Putting Ideas into Practice (May 18)
Life Where I’m From. 2021. “Why Japan Looks the Way it Does: Zoning.” (October 21)
Zoning, Supply, and Housing Affordability
- Zoning’s appeal
Sorens, Jason. 2023. “Politics as Self-Interest: Housing Is the Exception That Proves the Rule.” AIER (June 9)
- Zoning is the problem
Geloso, Vincent. 2023. “Blaming foreigners will not resolve the housing shortage. Instead of blaming on foreign buyers for unaffordable housing, we should be talking about the source of the problem: the many obstacles put in place.” Toronto Star (January 12)
Taylor, Peter Shawn. 2022. “Let a thousand four-plexes bloom: How private property rights can fix Canada’s housing crisis.” Financial Post (March 30)
Housing Matters. 2019. Housing in Toronto is expensive because there’s not enough of it. (Or else see Housing Matters. 2019. Re-thinking the Yellow Belt (pp. 4-10))
Jeffords, Shawn. 2023. “Could converting empty office space help curb Toronto’s housing crisis? One councillor thinks so.” CBC News (October 21)
Durning, Alan. 2021. “Yes, Other Countries do Housing Better: Case 1 Japan.” Sightline Institute (March 25).
Beyer, Scott. 2018. “Tokyo’s Affordable Housing Strategy: Build, Build, Build. To accommodate more people, the city builds more housing.” Market Urbanism Report (August 7)
- Zoning has benefits
Noble, Lilly. 2021. “Change in zoning could be a way forward on our housing crisis. We need transit-oriented development to ensure people can get around without a car.” Hamilton Spectator (November 8)
Pomeroy, Steven. 2021. Rebutting the Debunkers CHEC
Gordon, Josh. 2020. “The ‘supply crisis’ in Canada’s housing market isn’t backed up by the evidence.” Globe and Mail (September 13)
Florida, Richard. 2016. “The Flip Side of NIMBY Zoning. Yes, land-use restrictions make cities unaffordable. But they also keep inequality between regions from becoming even worse.” Bloomberg – City Lab (October 26).
Upzoning, Filtering and Housing Affordability
Beyer, Scott. 2022. “Do Upzonings Increase Home Prices? What really keeps getting in the way of building more housing?.” Catalyst (May 2)
Lee-Young, Joanne. 2022. “Vancouver is the third least-affordable city in the world: Survey.” Vancouver Sun (April 19)
Anonymous. 2021. “Patrick Condon: Density, Affordability, & The ‘Hungry Dogs’ of Land Price Speculation.” Planning Report (February 18)
Livable California. 2021. “Vancouver’s Smartest Planner, Prof. Patrick Condon, Says Upzoning is a Costly Mistake.” (February 7)
Beyer, Scott. 2016. “What Liberals Don’t Get About Affordable Housing: Filtering.” Forbes (February 19)
Zoning, NIMBYSM and the housing supply
- “Gentle Density” and the Missing Middle
Herriges, Daniel. 2020. “Where the Missing Middle Isn’t Missing.” Strong Towns (August 5)
Baca, Alex, Patrick McAnaney and Jenny Schuetz. 2019. “Gentle” density can save our neighborhoods Brookings Institute
Dingman, Shane. 2021. “The hard reality of increased density in Toronto.” Globe and Mail (October 21)
City of Toronto. 2023. Planning Studies Multiplex Housing (May)
City of Toronto. Undated. Inclusionary Zoning Policy: Overview
R2HTO. 2021. “Toronto City Council Finally Votes for Inclusionary Zoning.” (November 10)
Gladman, Randy. 2022. “Inclusionary Zoning Hidden Costs.” Financial Post (February 22)
Spoke, Chris. 2021. “Inclusionary zoning might not be the free lunch we’ve been promised.” The Hub (July 22)
Fischel, William A. 2016. The Rise of the Homevoters: How the Growth Machine Was Subverted by OPEC and Earth Day Presented at the Kreisman Initiative conference “Bringing It All Back Home: Evidence and Innovation in Housing Law & Policy,” University of Chicago, June 2016.
School of Cities (UofT)
Crea Café. 2022 « What is Missing Middle Housing?” (December 9)
Munger, Michael. 2022. “All Housing is Affordable Housing.” AIER.org (March 9)
Zoning is the problem, more supply is the solution
- Overview of the argument
Galles, Gary M. 2023. ”Using and Abusing America’s Zoning Laws.” Law and Liberty (May 16)
Gray, M. Nolan. 2022. “Cancel Zoning. If we want to fix the housing-affordability crisis, segregation, and sprawl, zoning must go.” The Atlantic (June 21) (See also Gray, M. Nolan. 2022. Arbitrary Lines: How Zoning Broke the American City and How to Fix It. Island Press)
Lens, Michael C. 2022. “Zoning, Land Use, and the Reproduction of Urban Inequality.” Annual Review of Sociology 48: 421-439
Galles, Gary M. 2022. “Fear of Hobgoblins Doesn’t Justify Zoning.” AIER.org (April 1)
Bryan Caplan on zoning and the “zoning tax”
- Caplan, Bryan. 2022. “Build, Baby, Build: My Favorite Chapter 1 Pages.” Bet on It (September 2)
- Caplan, Bryan. 2022. “The Zoning Tax: A Mere Illusion?” Bet on It (May 26)
- Caplan, Bryan. 2022. “Murray: The “Zoning Tax” is an Illusion.” Bet on It(May 31)
- Caplan, Bryan. 2022. “Tulip on the Zoning Tax.” Bet on It (June 2)
Schumacher, Patrick. 2018. Only Capitalism can Solve the Housing Crisis. Adam Smith Institute (April 25)
Herriges, Daniel. 2018. “Why are developers only building luxury condos?” Strong Towns (July 25)
Glaeser, Edward. 2017. “Reforming land use regulations.” Brookings Institution (April 24)
C2C Journal. 2022. Zoning and Markets
- Firby, Doug. “How Taxes and Regulations are Worsening Vancouver’s Housing Crisis. Part Two of a Special Series.” (March 22)
- Taylor, Peter Shawn. “How Private Property Rights Can Fix the Housing Crisis. Part One of a Special Series.” (March 18)
- Case Studies
Henderson, David. R. 2021. “Review of Golden Gates: Fighting for Housing in America by Conor Dougherty (Penguin Press, 2020).” Regulation (Spring): 42-44.
One Final Effort. Undated. Auckland (NZ)
- Houston and Dallas
Beyer, Scott. 2019. “How Houston Is Becoming America’s Next Dense City. More Than “Just Sprawl,” Houston’s Lighter Land-Use Regulations Are Helping it Grow Up.” Independent Institute (December 18)
Beyer, Scott. 2017. “Houston, Dallas & New York City: America’s Great 3-Way Housing Supply Race.” Forbes (March 20)
Desmet, Klaus and Cullum Clark. 2016. “The Dallas Way of Urban Growth.” New Geography (November 30).
Postrel, Virginia. 2007. “A Tale of Two Town Houses. Real estate may be as important as religion in explaining the infamous gap between red and blue states.” The Atlantic (November 1)
Dachis, Benjamin and Vincent Thivierge. 2018. Through the Roof: The High Cost of Barriers to Building New Housing in Canadian Municipalities C. D. Howe Institute Commentary No. 513 (May 18).
Macdonald-Laurier Institute. 2017. New National Housing Strategy should prioritize affordable and responsible homeownership: MLI report by Speer and Londerville (November 15)
Osborne, Dan. 2014. “Housing: The back door wealth transfer.” C2C (March 16).
Cooper, Sean. Undated. “Everything You Wanted To Know About The New Ontario Housing Strategy.” Debt.ca.
Ontario Housing Affordability Task Force. 2022. Report of the Ontario Housing Affordability Task Force.
Wudrick, Aaron. 2022. “Ford must steamroll NIMBY opposition to housing.” Financial Post (October 20)
OREA. 2021. “To Fix the Housing Affordability Crisis, Ontario Should End Exclusionary Single-Family Zoning in High-Demand Areas.” (September 29)
- Federalism, subsidiarity and Canadian housing policy
Speer, Sean. 2022. “The conservative case for federal intervention in housing.” NIMBYism isn’t merely a local or neighbourhood issue.” The Hub (April 27)
Boessenkool, Ken. 2022. “Looking to fix housing? Run for mayor, not prime minister.” The Hub (April 27)
Critics of market solutions
Simon Fraser University’s Josh Gordon critique of market and supply-side explanations and policy proposals, along with suggested alternatives
- “Solving Wozny’s puzzle: Foreign ownership and Vancouver’s ‘de-coupled’ housing market.” Released through the Center for Public Policy Research, School of Public Policy, Simon Fraser University. June 18, Reply to a critic
- “The Speculation and Vacancy Tax: An Explainer.” Released through the Center for Public Policy Research, School of Public Policy, Simon Fraser University. March 4,
- “Vancouver’s Housing Affordability Crisis: Causes, Consequences, and Solutions.” Released through the Center for Public Policy Research, School of Public Policy, Simon Fraser University. May 2,
Fuller, Roslyn. 2021. “The dismal future of housing.” Spiked (December 19)
YIMBY movement (Yes in my backyard)
Brown, Patrick T. 2023. “Yes in My Backyard—and in My Frontyard.” Public Discourse (July 16)
Russ, Geoff. 2023”Meet the Liberal YIMBY group that will meet with anyone ready to build.” The Hub (March 18)
Holleran, Max. 2022. Yes to the City: Millenials and the Fight for Affordable Housing. Princeton University Press
Heaney, James J. 2022. “Inside the Housing Hot Zone (Review of Yes to the City: Millennials and the Fight for Affordable Housing by Max Holleran) (Princeton University Press, 2022).” Law and Liberty (May 5).
Pearson, Cassidy, Jenny Schuetz. 2022. “Where pro-housing groups are emerging.” Brookings (March 31)
McCormick, Erin. 2017. “Rise of the yimbys: the angry millennials with a radical housing solution.” The Guardian (October 2)
City of Toronto. Zoning By-law 569-2013
Make Housing Affordable! (Ottawa)
TVO – The Agenda with Steve Paikin. 2023. What is the Greenbelt?
TVO – The Agenda with Steve Paikin. 2022. Is Politics the Enemy of Housing? (February 28) (Watch 8:20-11:45; 14:00-22:00)
Cox, Wendell. 2022. “Canada: Suburbs Dominate Growth – 2021 Census Commentary.” Frontier Centre for Public Policy (February 16)
- Against suburbia
Siemiatycki, Matti and Myer Siemiatycki. 2023. “Housing crisis should not require trading bad policies for worse ones.” Toronto Star (September 5)
Gurney, Matt. 2022. “Ontario’s housing crisis isn’t about land. If we had certain things in place, we could double or even triple the population of the GTA without paving over a single acre of the Greenbelt.” TVO (July 11)
- In defense of suburbia
Cox, Wendell. 2023. “Housing Affordability: Putting People First.” Public Discourse (July 18)
Cox, Wendell. 2022. “Cities have to expand for house prices to fall. The cost of actually building a house does not vary that much across Canada.” Financial Post (December 14)
Glock, Judge. 2021. “Sprawl Is Good. The Environmental Case for Suburbia.” Breakthrough Journal (November 30)
Filipowicz, Josef and Steve Lafleur. 2023. “Canada’s Housing Mismatch: Many Canadians prefer ground-oriented homes, but not enough are being built.” Fraser Institute (April 13)
- Containment policies (Greenbelt)
Filipowicz, Josef. 2023. “Ontario government can accelerate housing supply—without eroding public trust.” Toronto Star (August 14)
- Pro Greenbelt
Sushant, Christine Desrochers and Mike Moffatt. 2023. Greenbelt Under Threat: Why the Removal of Protected Lands is a Bad Idea. Smart Prosperity Institute
Syed, Fatima. 2022. “Southern Ontario’s Challenge: Increase housing without losing farmland?” The Narwhal (June 28).
- Critical of Greenbelt
Beyer, Scott. 2020. “The Folly of ‘Growth Management’ Policies. The policies raise home prices, hinder urbanization, and may even worsen the “sprawl” they aim to prevent.” Catalyst (September 10)
Cox, Wendell. 2010. “The Declining Human Footprint.” New Geography (June 11).
Fox, Glenn and Yi Wang. 2016. An Economic Analysis of Rural Land Use Policies in Ontario. Fraser Institute (January 27) (read the Executive Summary)
- Rent control
Kalinowski, Tell, 2019 (update). “Removing rent control on new units won’t ease Toronto’s housing crisis, tenant and housing experts say. The provincial government announced the move Thursday, saying it’s meant to encourage the building of new supply.” Toronto Star (March 11)
Navabi, Ash. 2018. “Why low-income earners should actually welcome Ontario’s reversal on rent control. Focusing on policies that increase supply — such as loosening zoning measures — is the way forward.” CBC News (December 6)
- Public and affordable housing
MacDonald, Alex. 2023. “What the government gets wrong on housing: Canada needs housing affordability, not just more affordable housing.” The Hub (August 17)
Wickham, Eric. 2022. “The Myth of Affordable Housing in Toronto.” The Hoser (November 23)
McCulloch, Craig. 2023. “Canada Bans Foreigners from Purchasing Most Real Estate.” VOA (January 5)
Rolfe, Kelsey. 2023. “Could land trusts help solve Ontario housing-affordability crisis?” TVO Today (February 15)
Griffiths, Rudyard. 2022. “Want cheaper housing? Boost supply—but reduce demand too.” The Hub (August 22)
Lafleur, Steve. 2023. “A reason to be optimistic on housing — no, really. I’m serious.” The Line (October 3).
Freethink Team. 2022. “Frozen out of homeownership, millennials explore co-buying.” Freethink.com (January 1)
Stone, Syd. 2022. “Is it time to rethink the traditional model for buying a home?” Market Watch (May 6)
Forberg, Sigrid. 2022. “Can tiny homes be a solution to Canada’s housing shortage? Tiny houses have become more popular, but there are plenty of challenges to building them.” Financial Post (March 19)
Britschgi, Christian. 2021. “Vacant Homes Aren’t Making Cities Expensive and vacancy taxes won’t make them affordable.” Reason (September 21).
SOC Staff. “Ontario’s Housing Crisis: Causes and Solutions” (July 25).
Spurr, Ben. 2012. “A Walk through Toronto Housing History. Jane’s Walk tells story of social housing system still in flux.” Now Toronto (May 7).
OMHM. Undated. “History: The OMHM: Housing Families since 1969.”
Lafleur, Steve and Josef Filipowicz. 2023. “Government can’t do it alone.” MLI Commentary (August 22)
Moffat, Mike. 2023. “Canada’s housing crisis demands a war-time effort.” The Hub (August 21)
Kotkin, Joel. 2023. “Solving the Global Housing Crisis.” The American Mind (June 20)
Durning, Alan. 2021. “Yes, Other Countries do Housing Better: Case 2 Germany” Sightline Institute (May 27).
Filipowicz, Josef and Steve Lafleur. 2023. “Getting our houses in order: How a lack of intergovernmental policy coordination undermines housing affordability in Canada.” Macdonald-Laurier Institute (March 30)
Bild GTA. 2022. Public’s Attitudes Towards Housing, Growth and the Environment
Malanga, Steven. 2023. “Anti-Gentrifiers Gone Wild.” City Journal (August 16)
Spoke, Matt. 2023. “A National Housing Policy does not need to be environmentally friendly.” The Hub (August 24)
Gray, Jeff. 2016. “Is the greenbelt squeezing Toronto’s housing market?” The Globe and Mail (October 14)
- Pro Greenbelt
Harris, Lois. 2015. Save Ontario farmers, save farmland in the process Country Guide
Cheshire, Paul. 2009. Urban containment, housing affordability and price stability – irreconcilable goals. SERC Policy Papers (SERCPP004).
- Rent control
Bourne, Ryan. 2023. “Left-wing Economists Misrepresent Rent Control Literature.” The War on Prices (August 9)
Lemieux, Pierre. 2022. « The Scourge of Rent Control.” Econlib (September 5).
Niles, Raymond C. 2022. “The Perpetual Tragedy of New York’s Rent Control.” AIER (June 30).
Diamond, Rebecca, Tim McQuade, and Franklin Qian. 2019. ” The Effects of Rent Control Expansion on Tenants, Landlords, and Inequality: Evidence from San Francisco – American Economic Association (aeaweb.org).” American Economic Review 109 (9): 3365-3394.
Wellesley Institute. 2019. Building Health: Canada’s opportunity to improve housing affordability.
Diamond, Rebecca. 2018. What does economic evidence tell us about the effects of rent control? Brookings Institution (October 18).
Tenants Together. 2018. “Making the Case for Rent Control.” (January 22).
Block, Walter and Edgar Olsen. 1981. Rent Control: Myths and Realities. Fraser Institute.
- Public Housing
- Land Trusts
Malanga, Steven. 2023. “Anti-Gentrifiers Gone Wild.” City Journal (August 16)
Canadian and Ontario Politics
Fournier, Philippe. 2022. “To Fix Housing For Good, We Must Stop Treating It Like A Piggy Bank.” Max Policy (May 3)
- Federal Government
- Home | The Office of the Federal Housing Advocate (housingchrc.ca)
- Canada Federal Budget 2022
Maddeaux, Sabrina. 2022. “Chrystia Freeland’s budget crushes millennial home-buyer dreams. Federal budget 2022: The Liberals’ plan for housing affordability rests on little more than a hope and a prayer.” National Post (April 7)
Lafleur, Steve. 2022. “The federal government’s new tax-free home savings account won’t increase housing affordability.” The Hub (April 29)
- Ontario politics and policies
Ontario Legislative Assembly. Bill 23, More Homes Built Faster Act, 2022 – Legislative Assembly of Ontario (ola.org)
Barnett, Chris et al. 2023. “Forget everything you thought you knew about planning approvals in Ontario.” Osler (October 26)
Hanrahan, Laura. 2022. “Ontario Moves to Override Municipal Zoning, Limit Affordable Housing to 25-Year Terms New legislation from the Ontario government would bring about sweeping housing-related reforms to rapidly increasing housing supply.” Storeys (October 25)
Government of Ontario. 2022. Housing Affordability Task Force report | ontario.ca (February 8)
Spoke, Chris. 2022. “It’s no wonder housing is so expensive. We don’t build anything.” The Hub (April 5)
Lafleur, Steve. 2022. “Premier Ford, here’s how to end Toronto’s housing crisis—legalize it.” Globe and Mail (February 10)
Spoke, Chris. 2022. “Five excellent recommendations from Ontario’s Housing Affordability Task Force report. The report recommends 1.5 million homes be built over the next decade.” The Hub (February 10)
Wellesley Institute. 2022. Election 2022: How do party promises stack up on housing? (May 30)
- Toronto politics
Owen, Adam. 2023. “Progressives can’t take the youth vote for granted if they keep ignoring the housing crisis.” The Hub (April 12)